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of their respective princes; and if they fought well for their tyrants and oppressors, would they refuse to unite with us in defence of their newly acquired and most precious liberty and properly? Were this union formed, were we once united, thoroughly armed and disciplined, was every thing in our power done for our security, as far as human means and foresight could provide, we might then, with more propriety, humbly ask the assistance of Heaven, and a blessing on our lawful endeavours. The very fame of our strength and readiness would be a means of discouraging our enemies; for it is a wise and true saying, that one sreord often keeps another in the scabbard. The way to secure peace is to be prepared for war. They, that are on their guard, and appear ready to receive their adversaries, are in much less danger of being attacked, than the supine, secure and negligent. We have yet a winter before us, which may afford a good and alınost sufficient opportunity for this, if we seize and improve it with a becoming vigour,And if the hints contained in this paper are so happy as to meet with a suitable disposition of mind in his countrymen and fellow-citizens, the writer of it will, in a few days, lay before them a form of an ASSOCIATION for the purposes herein mentioned, together with a practicable scheme for raising the money necessary for the defence of our trade, city, and country, without laying a burthen on any man.

May the God of wisdom, strength, and power, the Lord of the armies of Israel, inspire us with prudence in this time of danger, take away from us all the seeds of contention and division, and unite the hearts and councils of all of us, of whatever sect or nation, in one bond of peace, brotherly love, and generous public spirit; may he give us strength

and

and resolution to amend our lives, and remove from among us every thing that is displeusing to him; afford us his most gracious protection, confound the designs of our enemies

, and give peace in all our borders, is the sincere prayer of

A TRADESMAN of Philadelphia.

Four

Four Letters * to George Whatley, Esq. Treasurer of the

Foundling Hospital, London.

1

Letter I.

Passy, near Paris, Aug. 21, 1784.

MY DEAR OLD FRIEND,

I RECEIVED your kind letter of May 3, 1783, I am ashamed that it has been so long unanswered. The indolence of old age, frequent indisposition, and too much business, are my only excuses. I had great pleasure in reading it, as it informed me of your welfare.

Your excellent little work, “ The Principles of Trade,"is too little known. I wish you would send me a copy of it by the bearer, my grandson and secretary, whom I beg leave to recommend to your civilities. I would get it translated and printed here, and if your bookseller has any quantity of them left, I should be glad he would send them to Ainerica. The ideas of

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These letters did not come into our possession till the preceding sheets and even the subsequent appendix were printed. We are indebted for them to Mr. I. T. Rutt, the originals of which were put into his hands about twelve years ago by a relation of his, the nephew of the gentleman to whom they were addressed. Mr. Whatley, the friend of Dr. Franklin," Mr. Rutt informs us, had engaged in mercantile puro suits, and was for some time a British consul in the Mediterranean. During the latter years of his life, he devoted his time to various objects of public utility, for which he was well qualified, and particularly attach, ed himself to the interests of the Foundling Hospital, of which he was the

He died in 1791, aged 82, having survived his correspondent not quite a year.” Editor.

+

treasurer.

our

our people there, though rather better than those taat prevail in Europe, are not so good as they should be: and that piece might be of service among them.

Since and soon after the date of your letter, we lost, unaccountably as well as unfortunately, that worthy, valuble young man you mention, your namesake Maddeson. He was infinitely regretted by all that knew him.

I am sorry your favourite charity does not go on as you could wish it. It is shrunk indeed by your admitting only 60 children in a year. What you have told your brethren respecting America is true. If you. find it difficult to dispose of your children in England, it looks as if you had too many people. And yet you are afraid of emigration. A subscription is lately set on foot here to encourage and assist mothers in nursing their infants themselves at home; the practice of sending them to the Enfuns Trouvés having risen here to a monstrous excess, as by the annual bills it appears they amount to near one third of the children born in Paris. This subscription is likely to succeed, and may do a great deal of good, though it cannot answer all the purposes of a foundling hospital.

Your eyes must continue very good, since you are able to write so small a hand without spectacles. I cannot distinguish a letter even of large print, but am happy in the invention of double spectacles, which, serving for distant objects as well as near ones, make my eyes as useful to me as ever they were. If all the other defects and infirmities of old age could be as easily and cheaply remedied, it would be worth while, my friend, to live a good deal longer. But I look upon

death

death to be as necessary to our constitutions as sleep. We shall rise refreshed in the morning.--Adieu, and believe me ever, Your's most affectionately,

B. FRANKLIN.

Letter 11.

Passy, May 19, 1785. DEAR OLD FRIEND, I RECEIVED the very good Jetter you sent me by my grandson, together with your resemblance, which is placed in my chamber and gives me great pleasure : there is no trade, they say, without returns, and therefore I am punctual in making those you have ordered. I intended this should have been a long epistle, but I am interrupted, and can only add, that I am ever, Yours, most affectionately,

B. FRANKLIN.

My grandson presents his most affectionate respects.

Letter 11I.

Passy, May 23, 1785.. DEAR OLD FRIEND, I SENT you a few lines the other day with the me dallion, when I should have written more, but was prevented by the coming in of a bavard, who worried me VOL. III. 2 N

till

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