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were raised ? Like them, our au- tory discourse, contains eight efthor's works will remain for ever says, or dissertations on Dramatic the greatest monuments of the Poetry ;-on the Historical Drama; amazing force of nature, which
-on the first part of Henry IV.we ought to view as we do other on the second part of Henry IV. prodigies, with an intention to, on the Preternatural Beings ;-on and admiration of their stupendnous the Tragedy of Macbeth ;-upon parts, and proud irregularity of the Cinna of Corneille:—and upgreatness."
on the Death of Julius Cæsar. Our author observes, « That ri- The propriety, beauty, and elediculously has our poet, and ridicu- gance, of the following observalously has our taste been represented, tions, in our author's essay on by a writer of universal fame; and Dramatic Poetry, are peculiarly through the medium of an almost striking. universal language. Superficial “ According to Ariftotle, there criticisms hit the level of shallow can be no tragedy without action. minds, to whom a bon mot will Mr. Voltaire confesses, that some appear reason, and an epigramma- of the most admired tragedies in tic turn, argument; so that many France, are rather conversations, of our countrymen have hastily than representations of an action. adopted this lively writer's opinion It will hardly be allowed to those of the extravagance, and total want who fail in the most essential part of design in Shakespear's dramas. ' of an art, to set up their performWith the most learned, deep, and ances as models. Can they who fober critics, he lies under one have robbed the Tragic Muse of considerable disadvantage. For all her virtue, and divested her of copying nature, as he found it, in whatsoever gave her a real interest the busy walks of human life, he in the human heart, require, we drew from an original with which should adore her for the glitter of the literari are feldom well ac- a few false brilliants, or the nice quainted. They perceive his por- arrangement of frippery ornaments ? traits are not of the Grecian or of If she wears any thing of intrinsic the Roman school; after finding value, it has been borrowed from them nnlike to the dignified cha- the ancients ; but by these artists racters preserved in learned mu- it is so fantastically' fashioned to seums, they do not deign to en- modern modes, as to lose all its. quire, whether they resemble the original graces, and even that neliving persons they were intended ceffary qualification of all ornato represent. Among these con- ments, fitness and propriety. A noiffeurs, whose acquaintance with French tragedy is a tissue of demankind is formed in the library, clamations, and laboured recitals not in the street, the camp, or of the catastrophe, by which the village, whatever is unpolished and spirit of the drama is greatly uncouth passes for fantastic and weakened and enervated, and the absurd, though, in fact, it is a theatrical piece is deprived of that faithful representation of a really peculiar influence over the mind, existing character.”
which it derives from the vivid This work, befides the introduc- force of representation. 4
Segnius irritant animos demiffa his misfortunes. From defcription, per aurem,
from the report of a spectator, we Quam que sunt oculis subjecta may make some conjecture of his fidelibus, et quæ
internal state of mind, and so far, Ipfe fibi tradit spectator.
we shall be moved ; but the direct
and immediate way to the heartis The business of the Drama is to by the sufferer's expression of his excite sympathy; and its effect on passion. As there may be some obthe spectator depends on such a fcurity in what I have said on this juftness of imitation, as shall cause, subject, I will endeavour to illusto a certain degree, the same pas- trate the doctrine by examples. sions and affections, as if what was Sophocles, in his admirabletrageexhibited was real. We have ob- dy of Cdipus Coloneus, makes diserved narrative imitation to be too pus expoftulate with his undutiful faint and feeble a means to excite fon. The injured parent exposes the passion; declamation, still worse, enormity of filial disobedience; fets plays idly on the surface of the forth the duties of this relation in a Tubject, and makes the poet, who very strong and lively manner; but should be concealed in the action, it is only by the vehemence with visible to the spectator. In many which he speaks of them, and the imworks of art, our pleasure arises precations he utters against the defrom a reflection on the art itself; linquent son, that we can guess at and in a comparison, drawn by the the violence of his emotions; theremind, betweeen the original and fore he excites more indignation at the copy before us. But here the the conduct of Polynices, than fymart and the artist must not appear; pathy with his own sorrow; of for, as often as we recur to the which we can judge only as spectapoet, so often oursympathy with the tors: for he has explained to us action on the stage is suspended. merely the external duties and reThe pompous declamations of the lations of parent and child. The French theatre, are mere rhetorical pangs of parental tenderness, thus Aourishes, such as an uninterested wounded, are more pathetically experson might make on the state of preiled by King Lear, who leaves the persons in the drama. They out whatever of this enormity is afiuine the office of the spectator equally sensible to the spectator, by expreiling his feelings, instead and immediately exposes to us his of conveying to us the strong emo- own internal feelings, when in the tions and sensations of the persons bitterness of his soul, cursing his under the pressure of distress. Ex- daughter's offspring, he adds, perience informs us, that even the inarticulate groans, andinvoluntary
That she may feel, convulsions of a creature in agonies, How sharper than a serpent's affect us much more, than any elo
tooth it is, quent and elaborate description To have a thankless child. of its situation, delivered in the properest words, and most fingnifi- By this we perceive, how deeply pacant gestures. Our pity is attend- ternal affection is wounded by filial ant an the passion of the unhappy ingratitude. person, and on his own sense of In the play of King John, the
legate offers many arguments of made him more acquainted with consolation to Constance, on the the movements of the heart, and loss of Arthur: they appear, to less knowing or observant of outthe fpectator, reasonable, till fhe ward forms: against the one he fo ftrongly expresses the peculiar often offends, he very rarely miltenderness of maternal love, by represents the other. The French answering,
tragedians, on the contrary attend
not to the nature of the man He speaks to me that never had
whom they represent, but to the
decorums of his rank: fo that One might be made to conceive, their beft tragedies are made ridiin fome degree, the horrors of a culous, by changing the condition murderer, under whose knife the of the persons of the drama; bleeding victim iş. expiring in which could not be so easily efagonies, by a description of the fected, if they spoke the language unhappy object ; but how fully, of passion, which in all ranks of and how forcibly is the conscious men is much alike." ness of guilt expressed by Macbeth, In the essay on the historical dra. when, fpeaking of the groomsma, our author observes, “ That who lay near Duncan, he says, those dramas of Shakespear, which One cry'd, God bless us, and his histories, being of an original
he distinguishes by the name of Amen ! the other;
kind and peculiar construction, As they had seen me with these
cannot come within any rules, hangman's hands, Liftening their fear. I could not The office of the critic, in regard
which are prior to their exiitence. say Amen, When they did say, God bless us!
to poetry, is like that of the gram
mạrian and rhetorician in respect These expressions open to us the to language: it is their business internal state of the persons inte- to shew why such and such modes refted, and never fail to command of speech are proper and graceful, our fympathy. Shakespear seems others improper and ungraceful ; to have had the art of the Dervise, but they pronounce on such words in the Arabian tales, who could and expressions only, as are acthrow his soul into the body of tually extant.” another man, and be at once posseffed of his sentiments, adopt his If we were to give our readers passion, and rise to all the func-' every part of this essay which aftions and feelings of his situation. fords us pleasure, we should nearly
Shakespear was born in-a rank of transcribe the whole; the extracts life, in which men indulge them- we have given, will, we make no felyes in a free expreffion of their doubt, fufficiently excite the cupassions, with little regard to ex- riosity of all those who have not terior appearance. This perhaps seen the original.
CO N T E N T S.
II ISTORY OF EUROPE.
CHAP. I. State of the belligerent poreers. Expedition to the Mediterranean. Tutky.
Critical fate of that empire. State of Poland. Conduct of the neighbouring powers in regard to the war. Auffria. Pruffia. Denmark. Disputes between the king and the fenate in Sweden. Diet degrades and punishes the fenate. Treaty of subsidy concluded with France France. Bankruptcy and suspension of the French East India company. Spain. Portugal. Mazagan taken by the Moors.
P. [1 CH A P. II. State of the hostile armies on the borders of Poland. Irruptions of the
Tartars. Ruffians pass the Niester; forft battle, and fiege of Choczim. General Romanzoio iš repulsed åt Oczacow. Battle between the Galmuck and Cuban Tartars. Grand Signior declares. war against the king of Poland. Second battle near Choczim; prince Gallilzin lays fiege again to that fortress. Turks and Tartars attack the Russians in their camp; but are repulsed. General Proforowki defeated. Prince Gallitzin raises the Siege of Choczim, and repases the Niester.
CH A P. III. Prudent conduct of the late grand vizir, produces his disgracé ; , Moldovani
Ali Pacha, is appointed his fucceffor. Great loffes sustained by the Turks in their rash attempts to cross the Niefter. Turkish army break up their camp, abandon Choczim, and retire tumultuously to the Danube. Ruffians over-run the provinces of Moldavia and Walachia ; Greek inhabitants of those provinces acknowledge the emprefs of Rillia as their sovereign, and take oaths of fidelity to her. Unfuccessful attempt on the ciradel of Brailow. Count Panin fails in his design upon the city of Bender. Disposition of the Ruffian troops for the winter. Preparations made by the Grand Signior for. carrying on the war.
[22 C Η Α Ρ. IV. New confederacies formed in Poland upon the departure of the Ruffian troops
to the frontiers Spirited manifesto by the nobility of the grand durchy of Vol. XII.
Lithuania. Great number of engagements between the Ruffians and confederates; dreadful excelles committed on both sides. King of Poland sends ministers to the guarantees of the treaties of Carlowits and Oliva, Harmony at present subsisting between the great powers of the empire. Emperor's journey to Italy; makes a confiderable ftay at Milan; on his return reforms many abuses in the government of that duchy; vifts the king of Pruffia at Neiss. Aix la Chapelle taken and quitted by the ele&tor Palatine's forces.Marriage concluded upon between the dauphin and the archduchess Maria Antonia
[30 CH A P. v. Italy. Death of the pope procures a respite to the troubles of the court of
Rome. The emperor, and great duke of -Tuscany, come to Rome. Cardio nal Ganz anelli declared pope. The new pontif refujes to comply with the solicitations of the Bourbon princes, for the extinction of the order of Jefuits. Is obliged to cede Avignon and the Vanaisin to France. King of Naples keeps posesion of the duchy of Benevento. Precarious ftate of the monks. Conduet observed by the Italian ftates, in regard to the Rusian fleet in the Mediterranean. Claims made by the courts of Vienna and Turin, upon part of the Genoese territories.
C H A P. VI. Hopeless fiate of Corsica. French negociate with the chiefs during the winter.
Unsuccessful attempts upon the French Pofts. Ecclefiaftics take up arms in defence of their country, Count de Vaux arrives with fifteen battalions from France, and takes the principal command.. Corsicans defeated near Roftinu. Corte taken without opposition. The whole island subdued. Paoli flies to Leghern. Afjembly held at Corte; French government established. Sovereign council of the island abolished ; a new one created under the direction of the parliament of Provence. Corsica annexed to the French king's dominions, and brought within the jurisdiction of the Gallican church. Unsuccessful attempts to conciliate the minds of the people to the new government. Lofs sustained by íbe French in this conqueft. French domestic affairs; East India Company. Interest on the public funds reduced. Parliament of Britany restored. Disturbances in St. Domingo.
[40 CH A P. VII. War in India. Hyder Aly ravages the Carnatic. Battle near Mulwaggle.
Hyder Aly advances within a few miles of Madrass. Peace concluded with Hyder Aly. New treaty with Sujah Doulah. Supervisors appointed to go to India." Great debates upon the powers to be granted to the supervijors. A naval force applied for to go to India. Extraordinary powers demanded for the commanding naval officer ; the demands are rejested by a general court. Sir John Lindsey jails with a small squadron to the gulph of Perfia.
[48 CH A P. VIII. Retrospective view of fome matters previous to the General Election. Mr. Wilkes elected for the county of Middlesex. Great licentiousness prevails, which is not 5