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this liberty exist, when the avowed foes of the National religion, and its constituted guardian—the state ; have a more efficient machinery, a more powerful organ, a more vigorous exercise of power, at work, than the present, sicklied Administration of the country can possibly meet, or counteract? The illustrious President, has again remarked, in his chapter " of the Constitution of England :"-"in such a state there

racter of Deacon--in the capacity of Nuncio or minister of the Apostolic See; and there enjoyed, in the strictest intimacy with Mauritius, so great a degree of reputation, as mainly contributed to his subsequent elevation to the Pontificate. (See “ De triplici vità St. Greg.” Preface to the ivth vol. of the Edit. Benedict. of Gregory's Works, p. 1–188). Nor has Bossuet passed over this fact without notice; the bishop tells us, that “the emperor Mauritius, having experienced the fidelity (!) of the holy Pontiff, was reclaimed by his admonitions, and received from him the commendation so worthy of a Christian prince, that the Heretics never dared to open their mouths in his time ! ! !(l'Hist. Univ. Prem. Part. l'epoq. xi.). Bos. suet, unquestionably forgot, that, there was to be any other history, in the world, besides his own. But let any impartial Romanist decide, and, for once, seasonably make use of his common sense, on Gregory's claims to Saintship, Fidelity, and Friendship,—when he understands, that the Demon of such monstrous inhumanity—the savage assassin of his Imperial convert,-became the marked object of his Holiness' unqualified flattery; and by this means covertly promoting, the clandestine projects of ambition, tyranny, and despotism. And as if flattery were not sufficient, the language of the grossest impiety is used, to greet the success of Phocas. Gregory hails the hateful miscreant's accession,-as a gracious act of Providence (!)-to the Imperial crown, in strains suited only to the blessed advent of the Messiah !!! His Sainted Infallibility, and eulogized Holiness, celebrates the piety and benignity of the assassin; and welcomes the successful rebellion of the usurper, as no less than the joy of Heaven and earth. He salutes the prosperous fortune of the inhuman wretch, in terms, which conveyed the most rapturous applause. He, pompously, in highly-wrought, energetic strains, lauds the deliverance of the people, and the fall of the oppressor. He prays that the blood-drenched hands of the murderous usurper, may be strengthened against all his enemies; and gives utterance to a sort of prophetic wish, that, after a lengthened and triumphant reign, he may be transferred from a temporal, to an everlasting kingdom ! And to complete the disgusting narration, the finishing stroke, was given to this basely prostituted eulogy, adulation, and blasphemy of Gregory,-by permitting the images of the usurper, and his wife Leontia, to be exposed in the Lateran, to the veneration of the clergy and Senate of Rome; and afterwards to be deposited in the palace of

are always persons distinguished by their birth, riches, or honours : but were they to be confounded with the common people, and to have only the weight of a single vote like the rest, the common liberty would be their Slavery, and they would have no interest in supporting it, as most of the popular resolutions would be against them. The share they have therefore in the legislature ought to be proportioned to their other advantages

the Cæsars between those of Constantine and Theodosius!!! (See Gregor. Lib. xi. Epist. 38. Indict. vi. The Epistles of Gregory are methodised by Du Pin in his “ Bibliothèque Eccles.” tom. v. p. 103126. And Du Pin,-a Romish ecclesiastical historian used as a text book at Maynooth,—says, “ the Pope extolled with many encomiums Phocas, whose character was one of the utmost cruelty "_" Pontifex Phocam crudelissimum multis laudibus extulit."-"Dissertationes," p. 279, Edit. of Paris, 1686. Bayle's “ Dictionaire Critique"—this very celebrated, erudite, and philosophic critic, has a most excellent article under Gregoire I. :-where the general reader may find a truly fit occasion for indulging his propensities, in the enjoyment of a characteristic smile or sneer, at the ridiculous display of Gregory's pious indignation, and implacable persecution, of the venerable remains of ancient architecture and statuary; and the precious monuments of classic genius. He exulted in a base triumph over the mouldering edifices of ancient Rome-entered into a glorious crusade against the temples and statues of the city-commanded the Palatine Library to be reduced to ashes--specially directed the weapons of his holy fanaticism against the immortal History of Livyand pointed his bitterest sarcasm against the profane learning of a bishop, who taught the art of grammar, and studied the Latin Poets.-Greg. Lib. ix. Epist. 4. But our holy Gregory practically exemplifies the importance of classic imagery, in his congratulatory addresses to Phocas; where he evidently appears, to have for once burst the shackles of his pious scrupulosity, and to have ventured to soar on high, upon a more elevated wing !). As I have now laid before my readers the conduct of St. Gregory, in regard to the assassination of his Imperial Master, and the usurpation of the bloody and incarnate fiend; I may be fairly excused even by Romanists themselves, if I lift up my testimony against the revolting blasphemy, the inexcusable absurdity, the execrable presumption of the Papacy, in setting apart a day, to consecrate the memory of Gregory,--to teach their ignorant flocks to pray that they “ may follow his example(Missal),-making him a vehicle, to waft the prayers of the faithful, to the throne of the Great Eternal ; and that by his Intercession, the Sacrifice of the Sinless, and Divine Saviour “may be beneficial(Missal)! Methinks, it had been much more like Religion, and not so diametrically, and absolutely, contradictory to the indisputable testimonies of so many, and so authentic testimonies of the primitive,

in the state ; which happens only when they form a body that has a right to check the licentiousness of the people.And in the same chapter "the fundamental constitutionof the British government is stated, “the Legislative body being composed of two parts, they check one another by the mutual privilege of rejecting.” From this statement we need not be surprized, at the remarkable prophecy of Montesquieu,

catholic Church,-if the Roman pastors had been instructed to blot out with an indelible stain, the name of Gregory from their Calendar, and the services for him, out of their Public Devotions. It had been better, if, in place of having their Breviaries and Altars polluted with lying fables, and most impudent falsehoods; they had appointed a day to preach a sermon to their misguided auditories, and hold up to their just contempt, and perfect execration, the memory and example of a misnamed Saint; who brings contempt upon religion, and furnishes, in his life, to society, such precedents, as tend, in their consequences, to banish out of the world, the very names, and remembrance, of morality, faith, friendship, honour, and decency. Papists, it is true, may as a palliative, urge with Bossuet, that Gregory “converted England.But here again, Popery shows itself in its detestable machinations, and unprincipled policy. At present, we will waive the consideration of this shameless falsehood, -that Gregory first planted Christianity in Englaud; and reserve for a future treatise, a sketch of the intrigues of this Roman Pontiff, in tampering with the ancient British church ; and his abortive endeavours to palm the fetters of the Popedom, on the independent simplicity, of the long-established clergy of Britain. Nor will we now allude to the kind and degree of Romanism, as contrasted with its present doctrines; which Gregory, by his Missionaries, partially introduced into England. We will simply advert to one of his infamous stratagems; to which he had recourse, to accomplish his purposes of Papal aggrandizement, and ecclesiastical ambition. And, no doubt, the inquiring Romanist will be terribly shocked at the stratagem of the Pope; who gave orders to the Anglo-Saxons, to sacrifice to the saints, on their respective holidays, the victims, which they had formerly offered to their Gods !!! (Greg. Lib. xi. Epist. lxxvi. Wilkin's "Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ,” tom. i. p. 18.). And again, the anxious Romanist, may likewise urge the authority of Bossuet, in behalf of Gregory, by pleading, that he “ converted from Arianism Recarede the Catholic" (See CHAMPION, p. 35, Notes). We have no objection to give credit to the orthodox zeal of Gregory; though it cannot be altogether passed over, in perfect silence, the zealous efforts, with which even many of the Irish and Belfast Episcopal worshippers of Gregory, espouse the cause and interests of heretical, and blaspheming Arians ;---mutually embracing in the bonds of christian fellowship, and making a common cause, for the promowhen he declared, that, the BRITISH CONSTITUTION would perish, with its POLITICAL LIBERTY, “when the LEGISLATIVE power shall be more corrupt than the EXECUTIVE.” (Montesquieu, de l'Esprit des Lois, liv. xi. chap. ii. iii. iv. vi.)

In the above maxims we have it clearly laid down, that the freedom of the English Government will become extinct, when the Democracy, and their repre

tion, of their favourite project,—the downfall of that only barrier, -to the usurpations, and idolatry of the one, and to the blasphemies and enmity of the other—the Apostolic Church of England. But here also we must, in our way, slightly touch upon the Papal engine, employed to convert, from Arianism, the Visigoths of Spain, and Recarede, the first Catholic king of that country (A. D. 586.). And this was an engine, which, as it has happened in innumerable other cases, drove the ignorant barbarians, into the pale of the Romish Communion. The reader, who is at all conversant, in the history of the conversions, effected by the agents of the Roman See, may quickly guess, that Miracle-Working, was the instrument, by which the papal emissaries, plied a superstitious and barbarous people. The ingenious priests, assiduously, urged as a divine attestation of their cause, the preternatural cures, that they performed ;-the spontaneous replenishing, on the vigil of every Easter, of the baptismal fonts of Osset, which was opposite to Seville ;--and the miraculous shrine of St. Martin of Tours (Ferreras, Don John de, Hist. d'Espagne, tom. ii.). As soon as Recarede, and his subjects had become, by such means, proselytes; the Royal convert dispatched to Gregory, his ambassadors, with splendid presents of gold and precious gems : whilst they were blessed, in return, with the holy gifts, of nothing less, than, the hairs of St. John the Baptist ;-a cross, which inclosed a small piece of the true wood; and a key, that contained some particles of iron, which had been scraped from the chains of St. Peter! (See Greg. Lib. vii. Epist. 126, apud Baronium, Annal. Eccles. A. D. 599. No. 25, 26.). And another engine, which Gregory, cunningly and perseveringly exercised, was, the propagation, of every species of mysticism, and superstition. “The western churches were loaded with rites by Gregory the Great (says Mosheim), who had a marvellous fecundity of genius in inventing, and an irresistible force of eloquence, in recommending superstitious observances. Nor will this appear surprising to those, who know, that in the opinion of this pontiff, the words of the sacred writings were images of mysterious and invisible things; for such as embrace this chimerical system, will easily be led to express all the doctrines and precepts of religion, by external rites, and symbols" (Eccles. Hist. Cent. vi. Part ii. chap. iv. §. 1.). And at another place, Mosheim, informs his readers, -"to be convinced of the truth of the dismal representation we have here given of the state of religion at this time, nothing more

sentatives, obtain an undue accumulation of power, to the prejudice of the Aristocracy; who, being no longer able to bridle the unshackled licentiousness of the people, would be reduced to abject “slavery,if not to a total extermination. It would be only necessary to review the various revolutions of states and empires, to establish the fact, that an assumption of exorbitant power, and tyrannical insolence, in the

is necessary, than to cast an eye upon the doctrines now taught, concerning the worship of images and saints, the fire of purgatory, the efficacy of good works, i. e. the observance of human rites and institutions, towards the attainment of salvation, the power of relics to heal the diseases of body and mind; and such like sordid and miserable fancies, which are inculcated in many of the superstitious productions of this century, and particularly in the Epistles, and other writings of Gregory the great. Nothing more ridiculous on the one hand than the solemnity and liberality with which this good, but silly pontiff, distributed the wonder-working relics ; and nothing more lamentable on the other, than the stupid eagerness and devotion, with which, the deluded multitude received them, and suffered themselves to be persuaded, that a portion of stinking oil (!) taken from the lamps, which burned at the tombs of martyrs, had a supernatural efficacy to sanctify its possessors, and to defend them from all dan. gers, both of a temporal and spiritual nature” (Ibid. chap. iii. §. 2.). We will dismiss this topic, perhaps, for ever, by merely offering to the reader, two examples, in confirmation of Mosheim's assertions, and the shamefully ignorant, and superstitious predilections, of the Sainted Gregory. The investigating inquirer will find a curious list of sacred oils, which Gregory sent to Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards (A. D. 600.); in the work of Ruinart,-a celebrated French ecclesiastic, and a Benedictine,-entitled, “ Acta Martyrum sincera et selecta," p. 619.). And we are happily supplied with the motives, that induced, the pious Pontiff, to send so very, appropriate a gift, to the royal lady; which, though, in our days of modern fashion, would have been far otherwise, and perhaps, not less profitably applied ; yet, in these primitive ages, was, still no inconsiderable a matter, to have a portion of the essence of the machinery, of the wondrous power, of miracle-mongering! The historian, Gibbon, without appearing, to know, any thing of these sacred oils, tells us, “the spiritual conqueror of Britain, Gregory, encouraged the pious Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, to propagate the Nicene faith among the victorious savages, whose recent Christianity was polluted by the Arian heresy !” (Decline and Fall, chap. xxxvii.). And the next example, is the review, of the famous, and well-known, excathedrà answers, formally, and authoritatively, transmitted to England by Gregory, in reply to the fourteen queries, so humbly, and reverentially propounded, for unchanging interpretation, to his VOL. I.

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