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On the occasion of Miss Flynn's death the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union sent to the CPUSA a long message of condolence which appears in the Worker of September 13, 1964, pages 3 and 11.

High Soviet leaders in the honor guard included G. Voronov and D. Polyansky, members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party; and Efremov and M. Mzhavanadze, alternate members. * * The secretaries of the Soviet Communist Party included L. Ilyichev, V. Polyakov, A. Shelepin, 21 a J. Andropov and P. Pospelov. * * * 22

The New York Times of September 9, 1964, printed a photograph of Mrs. Nikita Khrushchev, wife of the then Soviet Premier, as a pallbearer at Elizabeth Gurley Flynn's funeral, along with a number of other U.S.S.R. VIP's.

JAMES E. JACKSON, JR.

23

Let us next explore some of the pilgrimages James E. Jackson, Jr., made to Moscow.

Jackson has held a number of important posts in the Communist Party, U.S.A. In 1946, he was appointed to the post of chairman of the Commnist Party in Louisiana. In 1952, he became educational director of the Communist Party of Detroit. In 1953, he was awarded the post of southern regional director of the CPUSA. Since 1951 he has been a member of the national committee of the CPUSA and later was chosen as a member of its ruling secretariat.?

Jackson was indicted on June 20, 1951, under the Smith Act, convicted, and sentenced to 2 years' imprisonment. His indictment was dismissed by the U.S. court of appeals on August 4, 1958, in line with a Supreme Court decision in the Oleta O'Connor Yates case. He served the Communist Party as editor of the Worker from early 1960 to February 1966.

The Pravda, official organ of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, has described the procedure followed in arranging for the appearance of Mr. Jackson at the XXI Congress of the CPSU. We quote in part:

At the invitation of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the following have arrived in Moscow as guests of the 21st Congress of the CPSU * * * A delegation of the Communist Party of the United States consisting of James Jackson, member of the executive committee of the national committee of the party and Morris Childs. 24 25

On January 26, 1959, page 5, of the Pravda carried an article by James Jackson, who was identified by the paper as a “member of the executive committee and secretary of the national committee of the Communist Party of the United States of America." The article was entitled: "In the Interests of Peace.”

21a Former head of the Soviet secret police.
23 The Worker, Sept. 13, 1964, p. 10.
23 "Communist Use and Abuse of U.S. ports," pt. 2, SISS, p. 91.

24 Morris Childs, also known as Maurice Childs, also known as Morris Chilofsky and Morris Summers. He was identified by William O'Dell Nowell, former member of the CPUSA and former Lenin School student, of Detroit, Mich., as a student at the Lenin University in Moscow, as having relations with the OGPU (Soviet Secret Service), and a former district secretary of ihe Communist Party of Chicago. (Hearings before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, vol. 11, pp. 7015, 7023-7025, House of Representatives, Nov. 30, 1939.)

35 Pravda, Jan. 25, 1959, p. 1.

The head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, N. S. Khrushchev, personally made the following laudatory introduction in Jackson's honor at the 21st Congress of the CPSU:

We cordially welcome the fighting Marxist-Leninist parties which have arrived at our congress from capitalist countries. The following delegations are at the Congress * * * Communist Party of the United States of America, headed by the Secretary of

the

National Committee, Comrade James Jackson. [Applause.) 26

During his stay in the Soviet Union, Mr. Jackson was greeted with enthusiasm at celebrations obviously officially approved by the CPSU. The Pravda of February 3, 1959, raved as follows:

Receptions for the representatives of the foreign parties were held *** At the “1905 Revolution" railroad car repair works a speech was given by James Jackson, member of the executive committee of the United States Communist Party.

In the same issue of the Pravda, Jackson assured his Moscow superiors of his allegiance to the Moscow line and his opposition to American policy. He wrote:

It is necessary to substitute Mr. Dulles’ dangerous policy of “cold war” and of the balancing on the “brink of war” by a sound and wise policy of peaceful negotiations and peaceful settlement of all controversial issues, by a policy aiming at the establishment of cordial and friendly relations with the Soviet Union in all areas of life. This was but a few short weeks after the Soviet ultimatum to the Western powers in November 1958 which provoked the Berlin crisis.

Mr. Jackson went on to contrast "the gloomy picture of present-day economic life in the United States" with the unusual development now in progress in the U.S.S.R."

The servility of the CPUSA toward its Moscow overlords is graphically demonstrated by the fact that Jackson, official CPUSA representative, delivered part of his speech before the 21st Congress in Russian.27

The record of the 21st Congress indicates that Mr. Jackson acquiesced in the sharply anti-American threat made by Soviet Defense Marshal Malinovsky at the session on February 3, 1959, from which we quote in part:

People beyond the Atlantic often say in speaking and writing that the U.S. Navy is able to deliver a blow and to make a landing on any point of our coast. * * *

It seems to me that some people on the other side of the Atlantic ought to ponder the fate of their own shores and very long communication lines, which are now enormously exposed and vulnerable, and consider that America's traditional in vulnerability has been eliminated forever.

Jackson, in effect, justified the Malinovsky threat when he declared at the congress:

Certain imperialist circles within our country have brought great shame upon our country in Latin America, the Middle East, and Hungary, and elsewhere. Millions of our people, however, are increasingly struggling to remove these stains from our national honor, to establish a new course in foreign affairs, to replace brinkmanship with peace, economic blackmail with fair trade practices.28

In the manner of the Stalin days Mr. Jackson made verbal obeisance before Communist Boss Khrushchev, declaring that "Communists the world over will welcome the ideological contributions and profound * Pravda, Jan. 28, 1959, p. 1. 77 Moscow broadcast, Feb. 2, 1959.

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21 Ibid.

insight from Comrade Khrushcher's report, for the solution of a number of problems of the struggle for peace, democracy, national freedom, and socialism.” (But no word of protest emanated from Mr. Jackson on October 15, 1964, when Khrushchev was summarily removed by the ruling clique of the CPSU.]

In his speech before the Soviet Party's 21st Congress on February 2, 1959, Jackson extended the Communist Party, U.S.A.'s "warmest fraternal greetings to the great Communist Party of the Soviet Union which boldly applying and developing the principles of Marxism-Leninism (applause) is leading the Soviet people to ever new social advances and onward to communism." 29

Upon his return to the United States, Mr. Jackson toured this country to give eyewitness reports on the 21st Congress.30

"Our party takes great pride in the fact that it was able to be represented on the guest list of the 21st Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union,” declared Mr. Jackson before the 17th Convention of the Communist Party of the United States. He castigated those who "misrepresent and abuse us when we hold forth the banner of solidarity and internationalism.” He charged them with trying "to represent this as some kind of an 'agency' relationship to Moscow and with representing this was some kind of puppet status of American Communists." He insisted that "there is no organizational or operational identity or tieup between Communist Parties-neither between our party and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, nor between any of the parties of the world." 31

James E. Jackson's articles from the Communist press have been published in a volume under the title of “The View From Here.” 31s We cite passages supporting the line of the Soviet Union:

The Premier of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev, gave his word that the missiles are being promptly withdrawn. *** What then is the purpose to be served by Washington's insistence on inspections in Cuba but to provoke a new crisis and challenge to combat? (p. 65.)

What did the socialist government of the Soviet Union do? It answered the appeal of the people of Cuba for arms to defend their liberty and lives from the murderous invasion forces poised for the attack in the ports of their huge neighbor and her allied countries. The shipping of arms to Cuba by the Soviet Union was in response to the flaunted design for invasion, the repeatedly advertised threat of U.S. forces to attack Cuba. (p. 67.)

This great accomplishment of Soviet men of science (space flights) is a harbinger of the coming triumph of the Soviet Union who have readied on the launchpad of history a mighty social vehicle, the 20-year plan for the construction of communism within its borders. (p. 115.)

The Soviet Union is wholly motivated by the necessity to eliminate a hotbed of war danger from the heart of Europe. (p. 116.)

According to the New York Times of March 3, 1965, page 3, James E. Jackson, Gilbert Green 32 and Hyman Lumer 33' attended meetings of Communist parties held in Moscow at the time.

20 The entire speech of James E. Jackson, Jr., before the 21st Congress of the CPSU, including sections quoted above, was included in a Moscow broadcast of Feb. 2, 1959. 30 The Worker, May 10 and 24, 1959. 31 Political Affairs, January 1960, pp. 46-52, “Our Party and the World Communist Movement by" James E. Jackson. 313 Publishers New Press Co., Inc., 1963. 32 Gilbert Green, also known as Gil Green, was a member of the national committee of the Communist Party, U.S.A. He was sentenced to 5 years in jail under the Smith Act and 3 years for contempt of court because he did not surrender until Feb. 27, 1956. He was released from the Federal Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kans., on July 29, 1961.

33 Hyman Lumer was formerly national educational director of the Communist Party, U.S.A. He surrendered on Nov. 8, 1961, to begin an 18-month sentence, having been convicted under the Taft-Hartley Act. He was released from the Federal prison at Milan, Mich., on Jan. 18, 1963. In 1964, he was the editor of Political Affairs, monthly theoretical organ of the CPUŞA. He spoke in Moscow protesting the trial of the CPUSA under the McCarran Act. (Worker, Feb. 14, 1965, p. 3).

Mr. Jackson has spoken frankly of his veneration for Lenin, the patron saint of the CPSU. An editorial written by him in the Worker of April 24, 1960, page 2, reads in part as follows:

Lenin: his truth goes marching on. * * * The mighty U.S.S.R. and the great fraternity of socialist countries, where almost a billion people dwell, are his living monument. * *

With the establishment of the Soviet Union, mankind had attained the first government in the history of the world which by its very nature requires, and is wholly dedicated to the cause of peace.

The truth for our time is revealed in the life and works of Lenin.

* * *

HERBERT APTHEKER

The close interlocking relationship between the CPSU and the CPUSA was further revealed on the occasion of Herbert Aptheker's visit to Moscow in September 1966. The Pravda of September 2, 1966, reported that "One of the leading figures of the Communist Party, Herbert Aptheker, Director of the American Institute of Marxist Studies” gave a speech at a meeting in Moscow on September 1 to commemorate the 45th anniversary of the U.S. Communist Party. The meeting was organized, according to the Pravda, by the Soviet Communist Party Central Committee's Marxism-Leninism Institute, the Academy of Social Sciences, the Central Committee's Higher Party School, and the Institute of History of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Other speakers included: P. N. Pospelov, director of the Marxism-Leninism Institute; "Worker" Moscow correspondent Art Shields; and Canadian Communist, Alfred Dewhurst.

The English-language publication Tass of September 2 reported that a taped talk by Mr. Aptheker was carried by Moscow television on September 1, 1966.

VICTOR PERLO

A striking demonstration of the subordination of the Communist Party, U.S.A., to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is to be found in the multifarious activities of Victor Perlo, who, after serving as an economist for the American Government for a period of 14 years, was revealed in sworn testimony before a congressional committee as having been the head of an underground Communist espionage ring working in the U.S. Goveri.ment since 1944. Perlo subsequently invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to ønswer all questions regarding his Communist Party membership.34

On March 26, 1961, the (Communist) Worker announced with pride that "beginning with the April 2 issue, we will publish weekly a column on the economic situation by Victor Perlo, well known economist." The Worker claimed that since 1947 Perlo had been "an economic consultant for unions and progressive organizations, an author, lecturer, and teacher." Perlo's "major works" were listed, including “U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.," "American Imperialism," "Empire of High Finance,” and “Dollars and Sense of Disarmament”—all of them hostile to the American Government.

* "Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the U.S. Government,” July, August, and September 1948, before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. "Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments,” Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, pt. 7 May 12, 1953.

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Perlo has used his column in the Worker and other Communist publications to hail the achievements of the Soviet Union. The following headlines will illustrate:

Rising Soviet Living Standards (the Worker, Jan. 23, 1966, p. 5).
New Soviet System Begins (the Worker, Apr. 24, 1966, p.

5).
How the Soviet Economy Works (People's World, Oct. 28, 1961, 7).

In 1965, Perlo digressed from his economic writing to attack American policy in Vietnam. For example:

Aggression in Vietnam ... Why does Johnson follow the "hawks" rather than the “doves''? (The Worker, Feb. 28, 1965, p. 5.)

The big vultures prey on Vietnam. (People's World, July 24, 1965, p. 6.)

Vietnam roulette the war is revealed as a major, imperialist war for colonial conquest. (The Worker, July 25, 1965, p. 5.)

In 1954, Perlo conducted a course at the Jefferson School of Social Science on "Stalin's Economic Problems of Socialism in the U.S.S.R." [This school has been cited as subversive by the Attorney General.]

Let us look at some examples of Victor Perlo's direct service to the Soviet apparatus.

Articles by and references to Victor Perlo appeared with considerable frequency in the Soviet periodical Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn’ (International Affairs). This magazine is issued by the All-Union Society “Znaniye" (Knowledge) in Moscow in three separate versions—in English, French, and Russian. Here are a few specific instances:

Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn' of June 1962 carried an article by Victor Perlo entitled "Economic or Military Upsurge?" It dealt with problems of slow economic growth in the United States and with Kennedy administration policy. No comments were added concerning the author. The article was written in New

York in May, 1962. Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn’ of September 1964 printed an article “Washington Economic Strategy,” by Victor Perlo, and in connection with it referred to Perlo as a well-known American economist. This article, which was written in New York in July 1964, deals with continuing prosperity in the United States, the new policy of budgetary deficits as an economic stimulus, the tax cut, President Johnson's antipoverty program, the prospect of an overcapacity situation and recession, world economic growth, and capitalist policies.

Mezhdunarodnaia Zhizn’ of May 1965 included an article by Victor Perlo entitled “The Dollar Operates in Latin America," which was written in New York in April 1965. It was not accompanied by any references to the standing of the author. In this article, Perlo wrote of profits from U.S. investments in Latin America, the area's economic dependence on the United States, the growth of light and secondary industry, the Alliance for Progress and U.S. support of reactionary regimes, the Johnson administration's abandonment of reform aims, and failure to alleviate Latin America's social contradictions.

International Affairs of December 1965 printed an article by Victor Perlo, "The U.S. Boom; Vietnam War Phase” written in New York in September 1965. In connection with this article Perlo was presented to the reader as "an American economist." Among the various topics are the growing military spending factor in business activity, defense production (including napalm),

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