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unemployment and the antipoverty program, installment buying, and balance-of-payment problems.

In articles written by Soviet authors and published in International Affairs, Victor Perlo is referred to as "a U.S. economist” (August 1965, p. 36, first column) and as a well-known American

economist” (March 1966, p. 99, first column).35 The above list may be amplified from other Soviet sources which have published articles by Victor Perlo.

The Moscow Pravda published a Perlo article on “Nelson Rockefeller's Dangerous Demagogy," which was broadcast over the Soviet Home Service from Moscow on December 22, 1959.

The same radio service broadcast on October 18, 1959, the following eulogy of Soviet Prime Minister N. S. Khrushchev, by Victor Perlo, “U.S. economist”:

The (Moscow) New Times, No. 28, for July 1960, page 10, disclosed how highly Mr. Perlo was rated by the Soviet apparatus. We submit an excerpt:

Mr. Victor Perlo, who has come to Moscow at the invitation of Soviet scientific organizations to read a series of lectures, is a well-known specialist in statistics and economics. In the thirties he was one of the group of young Government experts engaged in working out U.S. economic problems. Their findings were used by President Franklin D. Roosevelt for formulating his New Deal.

Mr. Perlo is the author of several important works on the U.S. economy. Some of his books have been translated into the Russian: “American Imperialism? (1951), "The Negro in Southern Agriculture" (1954), and “The Empire of High Finance” (1958). Some time ago he wrote “The Dollars and Sense of Disarmament" in collaboration with Carl Marzani.

In the New Times, No. 5, dated January 1960, at page 17, the following New Year greeting from Victor Perlo was printed:

Best wishes to the Soviet people for 1960. * * * May millions of Americans shout loudly what I know is in their hearts-Yea! to the Khrushchev proposal for complete disarmament.

Mr. Perlo has been a consistent Soviet apologist. An article over his name, headed, “American Economist,” which was published in the New Times, No. 43, for October 25, 1961, at pages 10 and 11, included the following:

When I visited the Soviet Union last year economists and planners mentioned the 20-year plan on which they were working. I obtained an impression that this was a planning effort of enormous scope,

Now I find the first fruits of their work embodied in the draft program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. * * *

If the stated goals are reached-and they will be the U.S.S.R. will during this decade surpass the United States economically, * * *

* * * We can clearly ''foresee" that Soviet power output will surpass that of the United States before 1980, even if U.S. output continues to grow as in recent years.

I visited the great Stalingrad works, and the Metallichesky plant in Leningrad where its turbines were made. I was tremendously impressed with their magnificent accomplishment. * * *

* * * Great strides have been made in recent years in improving the organization and economic arrangements of the collective-farm system,

The period of greatest success in Soviet agriculture lies ahead. ***

* * * The Soviet Communist Party considers that the struggle for peaceful coexistence is the central objective of the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. ***

In my own country, the most aggressive imperialists have consolidated their grip on the affairs of state, are pressing forward to increase militarism in every way,

* * *

* *

35 Reported in a study made by Dr. Sergius Yakobson of the Legislative Reference Service of the Library of Congress, dated Sept. 12, 1966, on Victor Perlo.

* * *

The new program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as its contents become known, and even more as it comes to life, will be of inestimable value to the American people in winning significant improvements in our own life.

In an article in connection with which he was referred to as an “American journalist,” Mr. Perlo reviews a book on the Kennedy assassination entitled "Oswald: Assassin or Fall Guy?" by Joachim Joesten. This review was printed in the (Moscow) New Times, No. 38, for September 23, 1964, at pages 30 and 31. Ín it Perlo told his Moscow readers that:

Regardless of details, the killing was used by the ultras to try to incite antiCommunist hysteria, using the fabricated "leftism” of Oswald.

GUS HALL

(Also known as Arvo Kusta Halberg) On February 2, 1960, Leonard Patterson, a former member of the Communist Party, U.S.A., and a graduate of the Lenin School, testified before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee that Gus Hall had been a fellow student at the Lenin School in Moscow during the early 1930's. He testified that the following leading members of the CPUSA were also students at this school: Steve Nelson, Jennie Cooper, William Odell Nowell (deceased), Beatrice Siskind, Morris Childs, Bill Lawrence, Philip Frankfeld, Vera Hathaway, Manya Riess (deceased), George Hewitt (deceased), and others. 36

Mr. Patterson testified he had been Gus Hall's roommate at the Lenin School and that both attended lectures on military strategy and tactics, sabotage, use of explosives, and guerrilla warfare.

While in Moscow Gus Hall was, according to Patterson's testimony, a member of the Young Communist International Commission of the American Young Communist League. Meetings of the 12th plenary session of the executive committee of the Communist International, at which Hall was present, were addressed by leading members of the Russian Communist Party, including Otto Kuusinen, Ossip Piatnitsky, and Dimitri Manuilsky.

Hall's Moscow training brought early dividends for communism. The transcript of proceedings in the municipal court of Minneapolis, as of April 20, 1934, shows that Hall, under the name of Arvo Halberg, was convicted of rioting: During the trial, Halberg testified that he approved of the Soviet Government in comparison with the American Government and that he would be willing to fight and with arms to overthrow the Government of the United States.

John P. Frey, former president of the Metal Trades Department of the AFL has referred to Hall (Halberg) as the leader of a dynamite crew in and about Warren, Ohio. He (Hall) was indicted on July 8, 1937, by a Trumbull County, Ohio, grand jury on a charge of possession and use of explosives during a strike at the Republic Steel plant in Warren, Ohio. He escaped a heavy penalty by pleading guilty to a lesser charge of malicious destruction of property, and was fined $500.

In his keynote speech at the 17th National Convention of the CPUSA Hall indicated how firmly the American Communist Party is tied to the CPSU. He bore witness to the confusion and bewilder

36 “Communist Leadership, Tough Guy Takes Charge,” testimony by and about Gus Hall, before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, pp. 35 and 36.

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ment" which prevailed in the CPUSA between its 16th and 17th convention, "resulting from the revelations of the 20th congress of the CPSU concerning the weaknesses and mistakes of the Stalin era." He called attention to the "historic visit of Khrushchev to this country and its momentous consequences.

Hall has been quick to endorse every twist and turn of Soviet policy. In 1961, as general secretary of the CPUSA, he released a statement endorsing the draft program of the CPSU even before that program had been formally adopted in October. Hall declared that "In sharp contrast to the dangerous repression of liberty in our land, the draft program of the Communist Party sets forth the everexpanding democracy in government and within the Communist Party itself.” 38

Symbolic of the closeness of his party's ties with the CPSU was Gus Hall's tribute to the CPSU's patron saint, Lenin, on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of Lenin's birth. Hall assured his followers that “as history unfolds, it brings with it an ever-greater appreciation by ever larger sections of the population of the greatness of V. I. Lenin and his teachings.'

The Moscow meetings which Gus Hall attended gave him opportunities to meet representatives of other Communist parties and to coordinate the policy of the CPUSA with them. He was accompanied to some of these meetings by Arnold Johnson, member of the National Committee of the CPUSA and its national legislative director. Johnson, in an article under a Moscow byline, described Hall's meetings in Moscow with representatives of the Communist parties of Venezuela and Australia. 40

Moscow has found it expedient to moderate its demands upon its satellite parties and grant minor dispensations. Thus Gus Hall has been able to criticize the Soviet Union publicly for its recent imprisonment of two Russian writers who smuggled to the West their works critical of the Soviet Union.41 By this device of permitting a Communist reader outside Russia to voice fringe criticism calculated to be domestically popular, the Soviet Communist Party hopes to confuse the outside world into accepting its current line that Moscow communism is showing moderation and tolerance. [Implicit even in this line is the recognition of Moscow control-in order to "permit” criticism, Moscow must be in a position to stop it if so desired.]

Moscow has put Gus Hall to good use in filling its anti-American propaganda arsenal. The Moscow radio of February 26, 1966, broadcast Gus Hall's speech on the occasion of the 42d anniversary of the Worker in which he declared that U.S. foreign policy was characterized by aggression, intrigue, and subversion.

Hall has utilized almost every available occasion to sing the praises of the Soviet Union. In a Political Affairs article appearing in February 1961, he voiced his enthusiasm as follows:

The forward march of Socialist and Communist construction has also advanced to a new and higher stage. The Soviet Union is now moving along the new hitherto untraveled but exciting path toward a Communist society.

He urged his comrades to follow Lenin's advice that "Communists must not stew in their own juice, but learn to penetrate into prohibited 37 Political Affairs, January 1960, “Our Sights to the Future" by Gus Hall. 39 New York Times, Aug. 2, 1961, p. 9. # The Worker, Apr. 24, 1960, p. 9. 49 The Worker, Sept. 18, 1966, p. 3. 4 St. Paul (Minn.) Pioneer Press, Feb. 26, 1966.

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premises where the representatives of the bourgeoisie exercise influence over the workers.”

In his application for a passport, in connection with his 1966 visit to Moscow, Hall claimed that he was contemplating visiting Russia and other countries for pleasure and study. 42

But his actual purpose proved far more serious. While in Moscow, he was interviewed by a Soviet youth publication with regard to newly organized W. E. B. ĎuBois Clubs in the United States. The interviewer quoted him as saying that:

Quite naturally we have the closest ties with the DuBois Clubs since they occupy a Marxist position.

Hall also was quoted as stating that:

Many of the members of the Du Bois Clubs have joined our party, and asserting that these Americans have to overcome in their minds the feeling of official patriotism.43

Hall dutifully reported the activities of the CPUSA to his superiors in Moscow when he visited the editorial offices of the Pravda, official newspaper of the CPSU.

of the CPSU. We present his remarks in part: When I tell people that in the United States there is opposition to Washington's imperialist policy, it comes as a revelation to many people. * * * It is of enormous importance now to achieve a broad political mobilization of people throughout the world against U.S. aggression in Vietnam. ** * Thousands of Americans are taking part in demonstrations and meetings against the war in Vietnam. A new interpretation of patriotism is being born in the United States.4

Hall added exuberantly that “The recent 18th Congress of the U.S. Communist Party was a very important and joyous event."

Under the byline of Arnold Johnson, the Worker describes the royal welcome given in Russia to Gus Hall:

The editor of Pravda * * * was among the first to greet Hall. A series of meetings and welcome events in Moscow and Leningrad followed, including a long discussion with the mayor and leadership of the Moscow Soviet, a conference with the editorial staff of Pravda, a session with the leadership of the party in Leningrad and a number of other meetings with political leaders. 45

The new 1966 program of the CPUSA, presented by Hall, excoriates the United States as “the whip and gun of counterrevolution," while it eulogizes the Soviet Union as "the most serious obstacle to global ambitions of U.S. corporate power." 46

While Hall's vituperation knows no limits when he refers in the press or on the radio to American policy, he blandly defends the territorial conquests of the Soviet empire. An example is this press statement issued by Hall:

The whole world is repelled with horror by this desperate banditry on the part of the United States. Our foreign policy is now in the hands of maniacs who endanger the safety of mankind. The United Nations must consider immediately quarantining the U.S. aggressor. Unless the American people compel such measures at once, we will be forced to shoulder the guilt for World War III.168

In direct contrast the new program of the Communist Party, U.S.A., as presented by Hall to its 18th national convention, glories

44

12 New York Times, Mar. 1, 1966, p. 17. 43 David Lawrence in the New Bedford (Mass.) Standard Times, Aug. 26, 1966, p. 6. 44 Moscow broadcast, Aug. 24, 1966. 45 The Worker, Aug. 30, 1966, p. 5. ** New program of the Communist Party, U.S.A. (a draft), pp. 24 and 25. 40. The Worker, July 3, 1966, p. 1.

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in the claim that “one-sixth of the world, the Soviet Union, has been wrested from imperialism" and further that "one-third of the world, the Socialist portion, has been wrested irrevocably from imperialism.”

În the current quarrel between the Communist Party of China and the Soviet Communist Party, Gus Hall has sided consistently with the CPSU, as his following statement indicates:

Therefore, it is all the more appalling that some leaders of the Communist Party of China, because of their own narrow factional purposes, are following a policy of attempting to drive the same wedge. But this attempt is also doomed.

The attempt to split the very forces that make the present world relationship of forces possible. It is an attempt to split the force that has tipped the scales on the side of peace, progress, and socialism.

Who can now deny that it is the existence of the Socialist countries, and in the first place the Soviet Union, that has made possible the historic mass leap to independence and freedom by scores of nations and peoples within a very short period of years? * * *

*** Egypt needed a dam. The U.S. imperialists said: nothing doing. At this critical moment the Soviet Union came to the aid of this underdeveloped country.

*

China, which is herself the victim of generations of imperialist enslavement, is not ready or able to give such aid. In fact, the overwhelming majority of all industrial enterprises built in its first 10 years of Socialist construction in China came from the Soviet Union. 17

For years, Art Shields has been a correspondent in the U.S.S.R. for the Communist press in the United States. Shields described the reception given to Gus Hall on the Soviet television as follows:

Hall SEEN ON Soviet TV

BY ART SHIELDS

Moscow.-Gus Hall, chief spokesman of the U.S. Communist Party, appeared in millions of Soviet homes in an all-Union telecast last week.

Hall spoke after the evening newscast. This is a popular viewing time. He was heard in every Soviet city. And it is estimated that up to 70 million people listened in.

The broadcast was made from a tape produced in New York where Hall answered questions by a Soviet commentator.48

As a display of his loyalty to the CPSU, Gus Hall sent a message to the XXIII Congress of the Communist Party, Soviet Union, in the name of the CPUSA. He referred to the congresses of the CPSU as "landmarks along the path of human progress, toward a new society of socialism and communism.” He added that “the XXIII Congress became a historic demonstration of a new level of the processes of reunification of the world Communist movement." 49

While his actions and most of his words confirm it, Gus Hall has been highly emphatic on occasion in denying the role of his party as a creature of the Soviet Foreign Office and of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In a pamphlet entitled “The Foreign Agent” by Oakley C. Johnson, the following statement is attributed to Gus Hail:

We vigorously and categorically deny that we are agents for a foreign power. There are no organizational ties between the Communists of this land and other

45b For July 1966: pp. 35 and 36. 47 The Worker, May 17, 1965, p. 3. 49 The Worker, Jan. 2, 1966, p. 2. ** The Worker, Apr. 12, 1966, p. 4.

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