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CCD and the UN General Assembly. Work will continue at the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD) in Geneva (a 31-nation conference) and the UN General Assembly in New York during FY 1977. The CCD adjourned last fall after holding two sessions during calendar 1975 and reconvened in February 1976. The U.S. Delegation to the CCD will continue to be led by a senior ACDA official and will be composed predominantly of ACDA personnel. During the FY 1976/7 period, the CCD is expected to address several important developments and issues, including:

Environmental Warfare. Much has been done since
the joint Us-Soviet statement at the 1974 Moscow
Summit advocating effective measures to overcome
the dangers of the use of environmental modifica-
tion techniques for military purposes. Identical
U.S. and Soviet draft conventions on the
prohibition of the hostile use of environmental
modification techniques were submitted to the CCD
last August. Consideration of these drafts will
be a leading item in the CCD this session.

Military Expenditures. Last July, the United
States proposed to the CCD a study of the means
by which military expenditures reported by
different nations could be expressed in compa-
rable terms. This proposal, which is now under
consideration in the CCD, is a necessary
preliminary step toward establishing a basis on
which the possible limitation of military
expenditures can be effectively considered. A
major experts' study of this issue is expected
to be conducted in the CCD during the coming

Arms Transfers. The continued growth in inter-
national transfers of conventional arms and
technology has led to increased international
interest in controls on such transfers. The u.s.
called for consideration of such controls in the
spring 1975 session of the CCD, and expects
that further attention will be focused on this
problem in international forums in FY 1976/7.
Chemical Weapons. The problems involved in
applying restraints on chemical weapons have
been under consideration at the CCD for several
years. At the 1974 MOSCOW Summit, the U.S. and

USSR agreed to consider a joint initiative in
the CCD for limiting the most lethal chemical
agents. There will be active discussions in
the CCD on this subject in 1976, and ACDA will
continue to give it expert attention.
Antarctic Inspection. It is in the U.S. interest
to maintain the inspection option of the 1959
Antarctic Treaty prohibiting military facilities
or activities in Antarctica. A u.s. inspection
of Antarctic facilities is planned for FY 1977,
with ACDA providing the principal staffing and

Administrative and Other Support. The rest of ACDA manpower and funds will be used for administrative support, liaison with other government entities (particularly Congress, the NSC, OMB, the State Department, DOD, GSA, and ERDA), public information, and historical research in the fields of arms control. Although domestic and overseas wages and prices are expected to rise over the next two years, ACDA administrative costs should remain relatively constant in FY 1977. This is due to the conversion by the Department of State, from which the Agency receives considerable administrative support, to a new system which will reduce the share of administrative support costs paid by ACDA.

FY 1977 Budget Amendment. A $400,000 budget amendment for fiscal year 1977 is requested to implement recently enacted amendments to the Arms Control and Disarmament Act. These amendments have placed new responsibilities on the Agency which will require increased resources in fiscal year 1977 to continue activities begun under the ACDA supplemental request for fiscal year 1976.

Ás outlined in our fiscal year 1976 supplemental request, Congress authorized $440,000 of additional funds for ACDA to accelerate its development of nuclear safeguards techniques in consultation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. We requested half of this amount in our fiscal year 1976 supplemental and are seeking the balance of $220,000 in fiscal year 1977. These funds will be used to conduct external research to develop improved international safeguards against the diversion of nuclear materials. Specifically, we are planning to conduct follow-on research in advanced concepts for international safeguards and physical security of nuclear materials, and also to initiate research on safeguards techniques for the new Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor, which produces large quantities of plutonium.

While the 1975 statutory changes in the Agency's Act will increase ACDA's workload, the Agency has requested only four additional permanent staff members to meet these needs. We asked for these four additional employees (three professionals and one secretary) and five temporary personnel in the FY-76 supplemental to work on arms control impact analyses, reviews of arms transfers and the military expenditures study, all required by recently enacted amendments to the Arms Control and Disarmament Act. Three of the four permanent employees will prepare reports on arms control impact analyses of new weapons systems. One permanent employee will work on arms transfer reviews, while the five temporary employees will be recruited on leave of absence from academia for periods of six months to one year under the Intergovernmental Personnel Act to meet the most compelling requirements of the various amenments to the ACDA Act. We are requesting $130,000 to continue funding these positions in fiscal year 1977.

In addition to these external research and personnel requirements, the Agency is requesting $50,000 for administrative purposes to be used for a reconfiguration of office space to accommodate the additional personnel required by the Agency's new responsibilities.

FY 1977 Budget Request. To carry out the activities discussed above and other functions provided for in its basic Act, ACDA is requesting an FY 1977 appropriation of $11,800,000. When including the $400,000 fiscal year 1977 amendment, the total fiscal year 1977 request is $12,200,000. This is $ 470,000 above the current requested level for FY 1976. The net increase is composed of $590,000 for external research and a decrease in program operations of $120,000. The decrease in program operations is due mainly to the SALT negotiations, which are expected to be in session during fiscal year 1976 for twice the normal duration.

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This activity funds the staffing and related administrative costs necessary to accomplish arms control and disarmament policy formulation, coordination, direction and implementation; the preparation for and conduct of arms control negotiations with other world powers; and internal analysis and evaluation of self-generated research as well as of research in the field of arms control and disarmament sponsored by other u.s. Government organizations.

When including a requested FY 1976 supplemental of $1,000,000 and a FY 1976 pay supplemental of $230,000 with the base FY 1976 appropriation, the FY 1977 request for program operation is a net of $120,000 less than the total requested in FY 1976. This is mainly due to the extended SALT negotiations continuing through late FY 1976. In this regard, the net decrease of $120,000 is comprised of (1) decreased SALT-rent, communications, utilities, administrative support, and travel (-$581,000); (2) decreased State administrative support (-$150,000); (3) plus increases for the 1975 pay act, staffing positions more fully, within-grade increases, and other pay costs ($328,000); (4) computer support, printing, GSA rent, administrative and other services ($283,000).

External Research


This activity funds the research studies conducted by the Agency through contracts or grants with nongovernmental research organizations and through reimbursement agreements with other U.S. Government organizations. The increase of $590,000 over the total requested for FY 1976 is required to bolster the external research program, to provide increased funding for research toward improved safeguards and other efforts to limit nuclear proliferation, as directed by the Congress in the ACDA authorization. The complete FY 1977 program of External Research is outlined on pages 10 to 12.




The external research program proposed by ACDA for FY 1977 will concentrate primarily on the problem of preventing the further proliferation of nuclear weapons. The remainder of the program will focus on arms control issues under active or imminent negotiation, with a small portion to be used for research into forward looking work on new arms control concepts.

Following is a summary of the Agency's proposed external research program for FY 1977:

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In all ACDA research efforts, extensive liaison is maintained with Government agencies (particularly the Department of Defense, ERDA, and the intelligence community) for coordination and to prevent duplication of effort. A breakdown of funds required for each category is as follows:

1. Nuclear Non-Proliferation ($1,220,000). For FY 1977, the need for a major international effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons is highlighted by the fact that over two-fifths of ACDA's external research is planned for this category. The worldwide spread of nuclear power reactors and the increased possibility that other nations might follow India into the nuclear club underscore the urgency of the non-proliferation effort.

The Agency's charter for non-proliferation research derives not only from the Arms Control and Disarmament Act but also from ACDA obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Most of these funds will be used to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in continuing its development of efficient systems to implement the safeguards required by the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Budgetary constraints, technical staff limitations and lack of pertinent nuclear facilities require the IAEA to depend on the United States and such other technically qualified sources as the

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