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analyze and identify the type of explosive from blast residue. These methods are suggested out of the realization that identification taggant addition to certain categories of explosives (military explosives, homemade explosives, and explosives in inventory prior to National implementation of the identification tagging concept) represent broad categories of explosives for which only residue analysis can provide investigative support.

The above-described efforts delineate the approach of this program under sponsorship of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Key program efforts are designed to provide for predetonation detection of illegally used explosives and, in the event of detonation, provide a mechanism of explosives identification thereby giving investigative leads. This duality of concerted efforts is targeted at the ultimate objective toward controlling the illegal use of explosives.

1. INTRODUCTION

The illegal use of explosives has been recognized as a serious threat to the country for a number of years, and several Government agencies have sponsore studies and developments toward countering this threat. However, no substantial gains had been made in achieving a significant impact on the problem until relatively recently. Noting that many bombings were taking place in public areas traditionally considered inviolate, there has developed an element of coordination and cooperation among United States Federal agencies.

Efforts in explosives vapor characterization, identification tagging develop ments, and initial detection tagging feasibility studies were originated by the Law En forcement Assistance Administration. The U.S. Postal Service also pioneered studies in explosives vapor characterization, barrier penetration, and detection, as did the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command (USAMERADCOM). In addition, the Bureau of Mines contributed substantially toward the development of identification tags and an implementation model of a Nationwide explosives identification tagging program.

Under the impetus and coordination of the Advisory Committee on Explosives Tagging of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), an explosives control program resulted. This report addresses a majority of the technical areas having sige nificant potential for detecting and identifying illegally used explosives.

In addition to ATF, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) currently sponsor the vast majority of ongoing work. Both FAA and ERDA have their own particular operational requirements, which narrowly constrain their objectives and direct their research efforts. As a result, their programs have little impact in the areas of greatest concern to law enforcement personnel, although they may have an effect in the prevention of explosions in public buildings and other controlled areas. The investigations by FAA, and those of the Sandia Corporation (sponsored by ERDA), have been coordinated with ATF efforts to a significant degree, and this cooperative spirit has begun to show results in developing complementary programs. Nevertheless, the ATF program rernains the only substantial effort underway which promises to provide the investigator and the analyst improved methods and capabilities for attacking this pernicious problem.

2.2.2 Training of Forensic Laboratory Personnel

Personnel from each of the ATF laboratories have visited the taggant recovery and decoding laboratory at the Aerospace Washington, D.C. office. These forensic scientists received training in recovering taggants from bomb-scene debris normally submitted, as well as instructions in reading the taggant code. 2.2.3 Continuing Efforts

As the pilot test program continues toward a National implementation target date during Fiscal Year 1978, the efforts in training and instruction must be expanded to instruct bomb investigating personnel. Further developments in the 3M Company identification taggant technology and the newly developed magnetic Curie point taggant technology must be transferred to the law enforcement community as their feasibility is established.

Law enforcement personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the State/local agencies must likewise be trained. Video taped programs and slide/tape shows should be developed for use as stand-alone training aids. Courses should be developed as part of the regular entry-level and advanced-agent training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. Toward the latter part of Fiscal Year 1978, training should be initiated for the ATF regulatory offices in methods to ensure that explosives manufacturers and distributors are carrying out the required manufacturing practices and recordkeeping necessary to ensure a successful identification taggant tracing ability that track the investigator to the last legal owner.

Economic Impact Statement
The major conclusions of the "Explosives Tagging and Control Inflation Impact

22 March 1977) are summarized as follows. The expected annual cost for na s

to the explosives industry for identification and detection tagging is i miliwn per year. This is well below the impact critera of $50 million per year with willen wo years. National costs would include the purchase and operation of new

vetect and identify explosives. It is estimated that the purchase and *THL equpment would add another $40 million per year to the program cost.

bis ucal of $35 million is significantly less than the National impact criteria of Wallon ex me year, or $150 million over two years. The impact on individual States

ab eode relative to their personal incomes. The program is judged to have no

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