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and are carried on to advantage; but they are gene. rally such as require only a few bands, or whereir. great part of the work is performed by machines. Goods that are bulky, and of so small a value as not well to bear the expense of freight, may often be made cheaper in the country than they can be imported; and he manufacture of such goods will be profitable wherever there is a sufficient demand. The farmers tri America produce indeed a good deal of wool and fax, and none is exported—it is all worked up; bus it is in the way of doinestic manufacture, for ite use of he family. The buying up quantities of wool and fax, with the design to einploy spinners, weavers, &c. and form great establishinents, producing quan. lities of linen and wouilen goods for sale, has been sei eral times attempted in different provinces; but thy se projects have generally failed, goods of equal vaine being imported cheaper. And when the go. ve.ninents have been solicited to support such schener by encouragements, in inoney, or by iinposing duties in importation of such goods, it has been generally relused, on this principle, that is the country is ripe for the manufacture, it may be carried on by privato persons to advantage; and, if not, it is folly to think of forcing nature. Great establishments of manufac. ture require great numbers of poor do the work for small wages; those poor are to be found in Europe, but will not be found in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated, and the excess of people who cannot get land want employment. The manufacture of silk, they say, is uau:ral in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material; but if England vill have a manufacture of silk as well as that of cloth, and France of cloth as well as that of silk these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importa tions of each others goods; by, which means the workmen arc enabled to tax the hoinc consumer by greater prices, while the higher wages they receive makes thein neither happier nor richer, since they only drink mure and work less. Therefore the go. remment in America do nothing to encourage such
projects. The people by this means are not imposed on either by the merchant or mechanic: if the mer. chant demands too much profit on imported shoes, they buy of the shoemaker; and if he asks too nigh a price, they take them of the merchant: thus the two professionis are checks on each cther. The shoemaker however has, on the whole, a considerable profit upon his labour in America, beyond what he bad in Europe, as he can add to his price a sun nearly equal to all the expenses of freight and com mission, risk or assurance, &c. necessarily charger by the merchant. And the case is the same with the workinan in every other mechanic art. Hince it is, that the artisans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe; and such as are good economists make a comfortable provision for age, and for their children. Such may, therefore move with advantage to America.
In the old long-settled countries of Europe, all arts, trades, professions, farms, &c. are so full, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where they may gain, or learn to gain, a decent livelihood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in business, refuse to take apprentices, but upon conditions of money, maintenance or the like, which the parents are unable to comply with. Hence the youth are dragged up in ignorance of every gainfulart, ad obliged to become soldiers, or servants, or thieves, for a subsistence. In America the rapid in. crease of inhabitants takes away that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit by their labour, dur.ng the remainder of the time stipulated, after they shall be instructed. Hence it is casy for poor families to get their children instructed; for the artisars are su desirous of apo prentices, that many of them will even give money to the parents, to have boys from ten to fifteen years of age bound apprentices to them, till the age of twenty-one; and many pnor parents liave, by that means, on their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy land sufħcient to establish themselves, and to subsist the rest of the family by agriculture. These contracts for apprentices are made before a magistrate, who regulates the agree.nent according to reason and justice; and, having in view the forma. tion of a future useful citizen, obliges the master to engage by a written indenture, not only that, during the time of service stipulated, the apprentice shall be duly provided with meat, drink, apparal, washing and lodging, and at its expiration with a complete new suit of clothes, but also, that he shall be taught to read, write, and cast accounts; and that he shall be well instructed in the art or profession of his master, of some other, by which he may afterwards gain a livelihood, and be able in his turn to raise a family. A copy of this indenture is given to the apprentice or his friends, and the magistrate keeps a record of is to which recourse may be had, in case of failure by the master in any point of performance. This desire among the masters to have more hands employed in working for them, induces then to pay the pas. sage of young persons of both sexes, who, on their ar. rival, agree to serve them one, two, three, or four years; those who have already learned a trade, agreeing for a shorter térın, in proportion to their skill, and the consequent immediate value of their service; and those who have none, agreeing for a longer term, in consideration of being taught an art their poverty would not permit them to acquire in their own country.
The almost general mediocrity of fortune that prevails in America, obliging its people to follow some business for subsistence, those vices that arise usually from idleness, are in a great meastire preventer, Industry and constant employment are great preser. vatives of the morals and virtue of a nation. Hence bad examples to youth are more rare in America, which must be a comfortable consideration to pa. rents. To this may be truly added, that serious re. ligion, under its various denominations, is not only tolerated, but respected and practised: Atheism is unknown there; and infideliiy rare and secret ; so that persons may live to a great age in that country without having their piety shocked by meeting with
either an athiest or an infidel. And the Divine po ing seems to have manifested his approbation of the mutual forbearance and kindness with which the different sects treat each other, by the remarkable prosperity with whioh he has been pleased to favour the whole country.
THOUGHTS ON COMMERCIAL
Of Embargoes upon Corn, and of the Poor.
In inland high countries, remote from the sea, and whose rivers are small, running from the country, and not to it, as is the case with Switzerland; great distress may arise from a course of bad harvests, if public graneries are not provided, and kept well stored. Anciently, too, before navigation was so general, ships so plenty, and commercial transactions so well established; even maratime countries might be occasionally distressed by bad crops. But such is now the facility of communication between those countries, than an unrestrained commerce can scarce ever fail of procuring a sufficiency for any of them. If indeed any government is so imprudent as to lay its hands on imported corn, forbid its exportation, or compel its sale at limited prices, there the people may suffer some samire from merchants avoiding their ports. But wherever, commerce is known to be always free, and the merchant absolute master nf his commodity, as in Holland, there will always be a reasonable supply.
When an exportation of corn takes place, occa. sioned by a higher prioe in some foreign countries, u
18 comnion to raise a clamour, on the supposition
that we sha!l thereby produce a domestic famine. Then follows a prohibition, founded on the imaginiry dis. tresses of the poor. The poor, to be sure, if in dis. tress, should be relieved; but if the farmer could have a high price for his corn from the foreign demand, must he by a prohibition of exportation be compelled to take a low price, not of the poor oily, but of every one that eats bread, even the richest? The duty o relieving the poor is incumbent on the richi ; but by Vis operation the whole burden is laid on the farmer LO is to relieve the rich at the same time. Or the 900., too, those who are maintained by the parishes lave no right to claim this sacrifice of the fariner : as while they have their allowance, it wakes no differince 11 tliem, whether bread be cheap or rear. l'hose svorking poor, who now mind business only five or four days in the week, if bread should be su dear as tu oblige them to work the whole six required Ly the commandment, do not seem to be aggrievec, so as to have a right to public redress. There wil then remain, comparatively, only a few families is every dislici, who froin sickness or a gr at numbeu of children, will be so distressed by a high price of corn, as need relief; and these should be tak ii care uf by particular beriesactions, without restraining the farmer's profit.
Those who fear, that exportation may so far draid the coun:ry of corn, as to scarve ourselves, fear what never did, or never can happen. They may as well, when they view the tide ebbing towards the sea, fear that all the water will leave the river. The price of corn, like water, will find its own level. The more we export, the dearer 1. becomes at home; the more is received abroad, the cheaper it becomes there and as soon as these prices are equal, the exporta. tion stops of course. As the seasons vary in different countries, this calamily of a bad harvest is never uni. versal. if, heu, all ports were always open, and all coinmerce frce, every maritime country would genecally cat bread at the medium price, or average of all the harvests; which would probably be more equal Uian we can inake it by our artificial regulations, and