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ad with the old world must agree, that in no parto it are the labouring poor so generally well fed, well lodged, and well paid, as in the United Stated of Anierica.
If we enter the cities, we find that since the Re volution, the owners of houses and lots of ground have had their interest vastly augmented in value; rents have risen to an astonishing height, and thench encouragement to increase building, which gives em ployment to an abundance of workmen, as does als ihe increased luxury and sp'endour of living of th inhabitants thus made richer. These workmen al. demand and obtain much bigher wages than any other part of the world would afford them, and are paid in ready money. This rank of people therefore do not, or ought not, to complain of hard times; and they make a very considerable part of the city inhabitants.
At the distance I live from our American fisheries, I cannot speak of them with any degree of cer. tainty ; but I hare not heard that the labour of the valuable race of men employed in them is worse paid, or that they met with less success, than before the revolution. The whale-men indeed have been depriv. ed of one market for their oil, but another, I hear, is opening for them, which it is hoped may be equally ad. vantagevus; and the deinand is constantly increase ing for their spermaceti candles, which therefore bear a much higher price than formerly.
There remain the merchants and shopkeepers Of these, though they make but a small part of the whole nation, the number is considerable, too great indeed for the business they are employed iw ; for the consumption of goods in every coumry has its limits; the faculties of the people, that is, their ability to buy and pay, are equal to a certain quantity of merchan dise. If merchants calculatr amiss on this proportion, and import too much, they will of course find the sale dull for the overplus, and suide of them will say that trade languishes. They should, and doubtless will, grow wiser by experience, and import less.
If too many artificers in town, and farmers from the country, Aattering themselves with the idea al beading easier lives, turn shopkeepers, the whole jatural quantity of that business divided among hem all may afford too small a share for each, and sccasion complaints that trading is dead: these may also suppose that it is owing to scarcity of money, while, in fact, it is not so much from the fewness ni buyers, as from the excessive number of sellers, that the mischief arises; and, if every shopkeeping farmer and mechanic would return to the use of his ploug! and working tools, there would remain of widow's and other women, shop-keepers sufficient for the busi aess, which might then afford them a comfortablo maintenance.
Whoever has travelled through the various parts of Europe, and observed how small is the proportion of people in affluence or easy circumstances tñere, compared with those in poverty and misery; the few rich and haughty landlords, the multitude of poor, abject, rack-rented, tythe-paying tenants, and half-paid and half-starved ragged labourers; and views here the happy mediocrity that so generally prevails through out these States, where the cultivator works for him. self, and supports his family in decent plenty; will methinks, see abundant reason to bless Divine Providence for the cvident and great difference in our favour, and be convinced that no nation known to us enjoy a greater share of human felicity.
It is true, that in some of the States there are parties and discords; but let us look back, and ask if we were ever without them? Such will exist wherever there is liberty; and perhaps they help to preserve it. By the collision of different sentiments, sparks of truth are struck out, and political light is obtained. The different factions, which at present divide us aim all at the public good; the differences are only about the various modes of promoting it. Things, actions, measures, and objects of all kinds, present themselves to the minds of men in such a variety of lights, that it is not possible we should all think alike ai the same time on every subject, when hardly the same man retains at all times the same ideas ofit. Par. ties are therefore the cominon lot of humanity; and qursare by no means more mischievous or less benefici
less expenses ;
al than than those of other countries, nations, and ages, enjoying in the same degree the great blessings of political liberty.
Some indeed among us are not so much grieved for the present state of our affairs, as apprehensivo for the future. The growth of luxury alarms them, and they think we are froin that alone in the high road to ruin. They observe, that: no revenue is sufficient without ecouony, and that the most plentiful in. come of a whole people froin the natural productions of their country inay be dissipated in vain and need
poverty be introduced in the place of affluence. This may be possible. It how. ever, rarely happens ; for there seeins 10 be in every nation a greater proportion of industry and frugality, which tend to enrich, than of icileness and proligal. ity, which occasion poverty; so that upon the whole there is a continual accumulation. "Reflect what Spain, Gaul, Germany, and Brtiain were in the tinie of the Romans, inhabited by people little richer than our savages, and consider che wealth that they at present possess, in numerous well-built cities, in. proved farms, rich movtables, magazines stucked with valuable manufactures, to say nothing of plate, jewels and coined money; and all this, notwithstanding their bad, wasteful, plundering governinents, and their mad destructive wars; and yet luxury and extravagant living has never sufferer! inuch restraint in those countries. Tien consider the great proportion of industrious frugal farmers ivabiting the interior parts of these American States, and of whoin the Fwdy of our nation consists, and judge whether it is possible that the luxury of our seaports can be sufficient o ruin such a country. li the importation of foreign lusuries could ruin a people, we should probably have been ruined long ago; for the British natior clajined a right, and practised it, of importing ainong us not only the superfluities of their own production, but those of every nation under heaven; we bought and consumed them, and yet we fourished and grew rich. At prese:t our independent govem monts inay do what we could not then do, discourage by heavy duties, or prevent by heavy prohibitions such importations, and thereby grow richer :-if, in deed, which may admit of dispute, the desire of adorning ourselves with fine clothes, possessing fino furniture, with elegant houses, &c. is not, by strong ly inciting to labour and industry, the occasion of producing a greater value than is contn ued in the gratification of that desire.
The agriculture and fisheries of the United States are the great sources of our increasing wealth. He that puts a secd into the earth is recompenseil, per haps, by receiving forty out of it, and he who draws, a fish out of our water draws up a piece of silver.
Let us (and there is no doubi but we shall) be at tentive to these, and then the power of rivals, with all their restraining an'l prohibiting acts, cannot much hurt us. We are scns of the earth and seas, and, like Antæus in the fable, if in wrestling with a Hercules, we now and then receive a fal., the tourin of our parents will coinmunicate to us fresh strregui wud vigour to renew the contes
INFORMATION TO THOSE WHO WOULU
REMOVE TO AMERICA.
: Many persons in Europe have directly, or by letters, expressed to the writer of this, who is well acquainted with North America, their desire of transporting and establisiring themselves in that country. but who appear to have formed, though ignorance mistaken ideas and expectations of what is to be ob tained there; he thinks it may be useful, and preven inconvenient, expensive, and fruitless removals and voyages of improper persons, it he gives some clearer notions of that part of the world than appear to have hitherto prevailed.
He finds it is imagined by numbers, that the in habitants of North America are rich, capable of res warding, and disposed to reward, all sorts of ingenuity; that they are at the same time ignorarıt of all the scien. ces, and consequently that strangers, possessing talents in the belles-lettres, fine arts, &c. must be higlily esleemed, and so well paid as to become easily rich themselves; that there are also abundance of profitable offices to be disposed of which the natives are pot qualified to fill; and that having few persons of family among them, strangers of birth must be greaty respected, and of course easily obtain the best of chose offices, which will make all their fortunes s that the governments too, to encourage emigrations from Europe, not only pay the expense of personal transportation, but give lands gratis to strangers, with negroes to vork for them, utensils of husbandry, and stocks of cattle. These are all wild imaginations and those who go America with expectations found. od upon them, will surely find themselves disap pointed.
The truth is, that though there are in that country