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stance. The skipper of a shallop, emplo ed wee tween Cape May and Philadelphia, had done us some sınall service, for which he refused to be paid. My wife understanding that he had a daughter, sent her a present of a new fashioned cap. Three years after, this skipper being at my house with an old far. mer of Cape May, his passenger, he mentioned the cap, and how much his daughter had been pleased with it. “But (said he) it proved a dear cap to cu congregatim."-" How so?”—“ When my daughte appeared with it at meeting, it was so much admired that all the girls resolved to get such crys from Philadelphia ; and iny wife and I computed that tho whole could not have cost less than a hundred pounds."- " True (said the farmer) but you do not tell all the story. think the cap was nevertheless an advantage to us; for it was the first thing that put our girls upon knitting worsted mittens for sale at Philadelphia, that they might have wherewithal to buy caps and ribbons there; and you know that that industry has continued, and is likely to continue and increase to a much greater value, and answer better purposes."-Upon the whole, I was more reconciled io this little piece of luxury, since not only the girls were mare happier by having fine caps, but the Phi. iadelphians by the supply of warm mittens.
In our cominercial towns upon the sea coast, for tunes will occasiovally be marle. Some of those who grow rich will be prudent, live within bounds, and preserved what they have gained for their posterity; uthers, fond of showing their wealth, will be extravagant, and ruin themselves. Laws cannot prevent ihis; and perhaps it is not always an evil to the pub
ic. “A shilling spent idly by a fool, may be picke up by a wiser person, who knows better what to d with fo is therefore not lost. A vain, silly fallow builds a pre house, furnishes it richly, lives in it ex pensively, and in a few years ruins himself; but the inasons, carpenters, soiths, and other honest trades. men, have been by his employ assisted in maintain." ing and raising their fainilies; the fariner has been paid for his labour, and encouraged, and the estate is now in better hands. In some cases, indeed, certain
modes of luxury may be a public evil, in the same manner as it is a private one.
If there be a nation, for instance, that exports its beef and linen, to pay for the importation oi claret and porter, while a great part of its people live upon potatoes, and wear no shirts; wherein does it differ from the sut, who lets leis family starve, and sells his clothes to buy drink? Our Americali commerce is, I confess, a little in this way. We sell our victuals to the islands for rum and sugar; the substantial vecessaries of life for super Buities. But we have plenty, and live well never thelesz ; though by being soberer, we might be richer
The vast quantity of forest land we have yet to clear, an.) pui in order for cultivation, will for a long time keep the body of our nation laborious and frugal. Forming an opinion of our people, and their manners, by what is seen among the inhabitants of the sea-ports, is judging from an improper sample. The people of the trading tovins may be rich and luxurious, while the country possesses all the virtues that tend to promote happiness and public prosperity. Those towns are not mich regarded by the country; they are hardly considered as an essential part of the States; and the experience of the last war has shown; that their being in the possession of the enemy did not necessarily draw on the subjection of the country; which bravely continued to maintain its freedon and independence notwithstanding,
It has been computed by some political arithme ticians, that if every man and woman would work four hours each day on something useful, that labour would produce sufficient to procure all the necessa. ries and comforts of life; want and misery would be anished out of the world, and the rest of the twenty our honrs might be leisure and pleasure.
What occasions then so much want and misery? It is the employment of men and women in works that produce neither the necessaries nor niences of life; who, with those who do nothing. consume necessaries raised by the laborious. To explain this:
The first elements of wealth are obtained hy labour from the earth ard watera. I have land, and raise
corn. With this if I feed a family that does nothing, my com will be consumer, and at the end of the year? shall be no richer than I was at the beginning. But, if, while I feed them, I employ them, some in spinning, others in making bricks, &c. for building, the value of my corn will be arrested and reinain with me, and at the end of the year we may be all better clothed and better lodged. And if, instead of em ploying a man I feed in making bricks, I employ him i fiddling for me, the corn he eats is gone, and n part o his manufacture remains to augment the wcalth and convenience of the family; I shall, there. fore, be the poorer for this fiddling man, unless the rest of my family work more, or eat less, to make up the deficiency he occasions. | Look round the world, and see the millions employed in doing nothing, or in something that amounts to nothing, when the necessaries and conveniences of life are in question. What is the bulk of coinmerce, for which we fight and destroy each other, but the toil of millions for superfuities, to the great hazard and loss of many lives, by the constant dangers of the sea ? How much latour is spent in buildings, and fitting great ships, to go to China and Arabia for tea and coffee, to the West Indies for sugar, to America for tobacco ? These things cannot be called the necessaries of life, for nur ancestors lived very comfortably without them.
A question may be asked - Could all these people . now employed in raising, inaking, or carrying super. ; fluities, be subsisted by raising necessaries? I think they might. The world is large, and a great part of it is still uncultivated. Many hundred millions of cres in Asia, Africa, and America, are still in a orest; and a great deal even in Europe. On a hundred acres of this forest, a man might become a substantial farmer; and a hundred thousand men em. ployed in clearing each his hundred acres, would hardly brighten a spot large enough to be visible from the moon, unless with Herschel's telescope ; so vast are the regions still in wood.
It is, however, some comfort to reflect that upon be whole, the quantity of industry and prudenca
among mankind exceeds the quantity of idleness and folly. Hence the increase of good buldings, farms cultivated, and populous cities filled with wealth, all over Europe, which a few ages since were only to to be found on the coast of the Mediterranean ; and this notwithstanding the mad wars continually raging, by which are often destroyed in one year, the works of many years peace. So that we may hope he luxury of a few merchants on the coast will no te the ruin of Arnerica.'
One reflection more, and I will cnd this long ram bling letter. Almost all the parts of our bodies re quire some expense. The feet demands shoes; the legs, stockings; the rest of the body clothing; and the belly a good deal of victuals. Our eyes, though exceedingly useful, ask when reasonable, only the cheap assistance of spectacles, which could not much impair our finances. But the eyes of other people are the eyes that ruin us. If all but myself were blind, I should want neither fine clothes, fine houses, por fine furniture.
ON THE SLAVE TRADE.
READING in the newspapers the speech of Mr. Jackson in congress, against meddling with the affair of slavery, or attempting to mend the condition of slaves, it put me in mind of a similar speech, made about one hundred years since, by Sidi Mahome brahim, a member of the divan of Algiers, which nay be seen in Martin's account of his consulship, 1687. It was against granting the petition of the sect called Erika, or Purists, who prayed for the aboli. tion of piracy and slavery, as being unjust~Mr. Jackson does not quote it: perhaps he has not seen it. If, therefore, some of its reasonings are to be found in his eloquent speech, it may not only show that men's interests operate, and are operated on, with surprising similarity, in all countries and ca males, whenever they are under similar circumstan. ces. The African speech, as translated, is as far luws:
“ Alia Bismillah, &c. God is great and Mahomes is his prophet
“ Have these Erika considered the consequences of graniting their petition? If we cease our cruize against the Christians, how shall we be furuished with the commodities their countries produce, and which art so necessary for us? If we forbear 10 make slaves of their people, who, in this hot climate, are to cultivate our lands? Wild are to perform the comincn labours of our city, and of our families? Must we not then be our own slaves ? And is there not inore compassion and more favour due to lis Mussulmen than 10 those Christian dogs. We bave now above fifty thousand slaves in and near Algiers. This number, if not kept up by fresh supplies, wiil soon diminish, and be gradually annihilated. If, then, we cease taking and plundering the infidels' ships, and making slaves of the seamen and passen. gers, our lands will become of no value, for want of cultivation; the rents of houses in the city will sink one half; and the revenues of government arising from the share of prizes, must be totally destroyed. -And for what? To gratify the whim of a whimsical sect, who would have us not only forbear making more slaves, but even majumit those we have But who is to indemnify their masiers for the loss? Will the state do it? Is our treasury sufficient? Will the Erika do it? Can they do it? Or would they, to do what they think justice to the slaves, do a greater inustice to the owners! And if we set our slaves free what is to be done with them? Few of them will ra turn to their native countries; they know too well tha greater hardships they must there be sulyject to.
They will not embrane our holy religion: they will not adopt out inanners: our people will not pollute theinselves by inter-marrying with them. Must wo maintain them as beggars in our streets; or suffer our properties to be the prey of their pillage ? for nien accustomed to slavery will not work for a livelihood