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work is proceeding on schedule. To assure full support for this project it has been given a top national priority. All three elements—the ballistic missile early warning stations, the long lines of communication and the NIKE-ZEUS antimissile missile—are being developed as an integrated ballistic missile defense system, which will tie into the existing air defense system.
Another key item accelerated last year was the SAC dispersal and alert program. This is a program involving a great many different locations, entailing numerous problems of design and layout. Some difficulties in specific localities have been experienced, but the program as a whole is proceeding satisfactorily. Construction is now well along on most of the projects included in this program.
ANTISUBMARINE WARFARE Good progress has also been made in improving our antisubmarine warfare capabilities. New ASW ships and nuclear-powered attack submarines with greatly improved capabilities are joining the fleet. Antisubmarine surveillance has been intensified. Personnel and ships have been assigned to the antisubmarine task forces and hunter-killer groups on a more permanent basis to increase their efficiency. Programs designed to improve techniques for detection and tracking of submarines have been stepped up and expanded. Research and development on new techniques and equipment has been intensified, including work on antisubmarine missiles, nuclear depth bombs, homing torpedoes, drone helicopters, and special aircraft for ASW use.
There are numerous other areas that have received increased attention during the last year, but I believe the examples I have cited will illustrate the substantial nature of the progress already accomplished.
EFFECT OF RAPID ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
We are living today in an era of extremely rapid advances in science and technology. Some of the programs which appeared to have had great merit only 12 months ago, now, in view of the progress made on more technically advanced projects, no longer have the same importance or urgency. In developing the fiscal year 1960 weapons program, therefore, we have followed two basic principles:
1. Where a program is considered to have unquestioned essentiality rate of development has been maintained and, where advisable technologically, has been advanced.
2. Where a program, in view of current technical information now seems to be of lesser importance or has been overtaken by events, the level of effort has been reduced or the project eliminated entirely.
This policy will not only enable the Department to get more defense out of each dollar spent but will also, by concentrating effort on the more advanced and more promising weapons systems, achieve the greatest overall progress.
POLARIS VERSUS REGULUS II Let me give some examples of how this policy has been applied to the 1960 budget. The Navy, as you know, has had under active development two ship-based surface-to-surface missile programs. The
older of the two programs was the intermediate range REGULUS II aerodynamic missile designed to be fired primarily by specially designed or modified submarines in a surfaced position. The second is the intermediate range POLARIS solid propellant ballistic missile planned to be fired by specially designed submarines in a surfaced or submerged position. Now, the REGULUS II is a good weapon concept and its development was progressing satisfactorily. However, the POLARIS system promises to be far superior in overall etiectiveness. Since this system has now progressed to a point where we can have confidence in its early operational availability, the REGULUS II is no longer of the same importance. Considering the extremely high costs involved in developing, producing, operating, and maintaining the training and logistics support for two distinctly different missile systems, both designed for similar missions—we decided to concentrate our efforts on the POLARIS, the more advanced of the two, and drop the REGULUS.
REDSTONE REPLACEMENT BY PERSHING
The REDSTONE-PERSHING relationship presents a similar picture. The REDSTONE is a liquid fuel tactical missile which has been in production for some time and which is already in the hands of Army units. The PERSHING, a solid propellant tactical missile now under development, promises to be a distinctly superior field Feapon. Since the potential of this missile is so great and its success is reasonably assured, we have decided to taper off future production of the REDSTONE and shift the emphasis to the PERSHING.
In the same way the air-to-ground HOUNDDOG is replacing the RASCAL program, and the tactical range solid propellant SERGEANT will replace the liquid fuel CORPORAL.
ANTIMISSILE MISSILE PROGRAMS
The antimissile missile offers a somewhat different example. Last year studies were being made on NIKE-ZEUS as well as other possible antimissile missile systems. Among the candidates under study was the land based TALOS which, although designed for use against manned aircraft and aerodynamic missiles, does have a limited potential as an antimissile missile. There were also two studies under contract for the development of an entirely new Air Force system, WIZARD. As these studies progressed, however, we found that many of the components being considered were basically similar in concept to the NIKE-ZEUS system. Careful weighing of all of the relevant factors led to the conclusion that the NIKE-ZEUS at this time offered the best promise of success and that work on the present alternative systems should be dropped. Thus our available skills and talents in this area could be concentrated on the NIKE-ZEUS and on advanced research to develop an improved antimissile system in the years ahead.
OTHER PROJECTS DROPPED FROM PROGRAM A number of other projects have been dropped from the program for a variety of reasons. Because of technical difficulties and delays resulting in successive cost increases in the Navy's P6M Seamaster program, it was deemed impracticable to continue production beyond
the 14 required for test and tactical development of the jet seaplane concept. Because of a change in tactical concepts the Air Force decided to drop the decoy missile, Goose. Similarly, the Army dropped the Dart missile because of failure of the system to meet anticipated capabilities.
The reason for canceling the Navy F8U-3 all-weather fighter is well known to you. You will recall that the Congress directed the Department of Defense to make a selection between the F8U-3 and the F4H-1, both of which are all-weather fighters designed for the same mission. Concurrent development of these two aircraft has been carried through preliminary evaluations. Both aircraft demonstrated outstanding flight performance. The F4H-1 has been chosen for procurement because it demonstrated greater weapon system effectiveness, better safety of operations, greater mission versatility and greater growth potential.
MISSILE PROGRAMS FUNDED
Specifically, the fiscal year 1960 budget provides increased funds for such advanced missile systems as the NIKE-ZEUS, PERSHING, POLARIS, TITAN, and MINUTEMAN. Funds are also provided to continue production of the ATLAS, BOMARC, HAWK, NIKEHERCULES, TALOS, TERRIER, TARTAR, and other missile systems. A final increment of funds is included in this budget to complete the presently planned production program for JUPITER and THOR. Îf an early decision is made, we can extend this production for the needs of our allies over and above the eight squadrons presently planned. In this event additional production would be financed by direct purchase by these allies or through the Military Assistance Program.
Recognizing that manned bombers will continue to be an important element of our retaliatory forces for some years to come, the fiscal year 1960 budget includes funds for the procurement of additional B-52 intercontinental jet bombers, B-58 supersonic medium bombers, and the supporting KC-135 jet tankers. This will permit us to start replacing some of the older B-47 medium jet bombers. Funds are included for an additional quantity of the HOUNDDOG air-to-ground missile for use by the B-52. Provision is also made for the continued development of the B-70, a very high performance intercontinental jet bomber, and for the development of advanced penetration aids, such as a new air-to-ground ballistic missile which could be employed by the B-52 and B-58 as well as the B-70. Successful development of such a missile would provide a greatly improved followon for the HOUNDDOG, thus further extending the useful life of the B-52 as well as enhancing the operational capabilities of the B-58 and B-70.
MANNED INTERCEPTORS Although we do not plan to place orders for additional manned interceptors for the Air Force in 1960, we will be buying substantial quantities of NIKE-HERCULES, BOMARC, and HAWK groundto-air missiles, TALOS, TERRIER, and TARTAR ship-to-air mis
siles and a number of different types of improved air-to-air missiles for aircraft already in units or on order. Thus, our air defense capabilities will continue to be strengthened during the period ahead. At the same time funds are provided in the budget for the continued development of the new F-108 all-weather manned interceptor system. This long-range, Mach 3 fighter will be able to meet an aircraft or aerodynamic missile attack far beyond our own borders.
The budget also includes funds for additional tactical aircraft for the Air Force and fighters and attack aircraft, including the super
, sonic A3J, for the Navy and Marine Corps-together with a variety of helicopters, trainers, and cargo aircraft for all the services.
REQUEST FOR ATTACK CARRIER
In developing the shipbuilding program for 1960, very careful consideration has been given to the need for additional modern attack carriers. It is our conclusion that the attack carrier is a vital and unique element of our military strength, especially in many limited war situations. Its worth was clearly demonstrated during the LebaDon and Taiwan difficulties. If we are to continue to deploy strong carrier task forces equipped with modern aircraft, both in the Mediterranean and in the Far Pacific, we must plan for the gradual replacement of the World War II Essex class carriers. These vessels are no longer suitable or safe enough for the employment of certain kinds of high performance aircraft now being delivered to the fleet.
There is no question that nuclear power should greatly enhance the combat capabilities of the carrier; but in view of the fact that the cost is considerably greater—roughly $120 million-it would seem to be prudent to gain more experience with the construction of the first nuclear-powered carrier before we commit ourselves to additional ships of this class. For this reason the attack carrier included in this budget is planned to be conventionally powered.
Another major issue in the shipbuilding program is the rate at which we should build POLARIS submarines. The first six of these submarines, as I mentioned earlier, have already been started. We plan to start three more in 1960, using funds appropriated for fiscal year 1939. Additional funds are included in this budget for the advance procurement of long-leadtime components of 3 more POLARIS submarines, making a total of 12. Actual construction of these latter three will be started early in fiscal year 1961. This will give us a program of three POLARIS submarines in each year 1958-61, without prejudging the number of additional submarines needed thereafter. The POLARIS missile program has been planned accordingly. We believe this is a properly balanced program in relation to our other Deeds.
SHIPBUILDING PROGRAM The 1960 shipbuilding program also includes six guided-missile frigates and destroyers, three nuclear-powered attack submarines and eight other vessels. Four submarines originally planned to employ the REGULUS II missile will be continued in the construction program
as nuclear powered attack submarines. Planner another guided-missile cruiser and four smalle destroyers will be extensively modernized in or useful life by an estimated 8 years. This latte the modernization of armament and electronic rehabilitation of hull and machinery. It is par range program to extend the useful life of World provides a partial answer to the problem of blo fleet.
Incidentally, this is the initiation of that prog expect if this were initiated it would be considere program for the next several years.
MODERNIZATION OF GROUND FORCE EQU
Attention is also given in this budget to the ca tion of our ground force equipment. Funds are trucks, small arms and ammunition, electronics, ment as well as for variety of missiles for em in the field.
Also included in this budget is a substantial su on space projects of military interest. Because of tionship of military and civilian space projects, a the national effort in this area requires considerat Defense Department program but also of the
P tional Aeronautics and Space Administration, programs provide for another sizable increase in ploration. Particular attention is being given to Înrger and more powerful rocket engines and to satellites for communications, navigation, and ot defense budget also provides funds for advance areas as solid propellant chemistry, ballistic missi sile early warning systems.
PACIFIC MISSILE RANGE
The Pacific missile range, under Navy manage veloped to augment our capability for fulfilling requirements for the IRBM and ICBM program and a host of other missiles and special devices. ments the other two national ranges-Atlantic Each has unique capabilities. The continued devel ranges is essential to rapid progress in our miss grams.
I might say this Pacific missile range is a very involves the placing of devices to detect what ha impact areas that are intended for these various m are fired, and to track with greater effectiveness sa be launched, from the Pacific range as distinct from Again the money that is appropriated for fiscal ye regarded as only the beginning-not quite the beg have some fiscal year 1958 funds for this purpose