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disseminated by the dragon, that original father of all lies, when he quitted his old station in the figurative heaven of the Latin church, and took a more advantageous position upon the earth. For a season the noisome sore broke out only upon a few individuals : but, in the course. of the latter half of the eighteenth century, the infernal ingenuity of Voltaire and his associates spread the poisonous humour far and wide throughout Europe. Still however we did not behold the full effect of the devil's labours upon the Roman earth. According to the sure word of prophecy, the great carthquake of the French Revolution was to take place in the year 1789, and the third woe-trumpet was publicly to introduce the anarchical principles of Antichrist on the 12th of August 1792, ere the noisome sore of Atheism broke out under the first vial. But, when that memorable 12th of August was past, and when on the no less memorable 26th of the same month an open profession of Atheism was made by a whole nation once zealously devoted to the papal superstition, then was the first vial poured out upon the earth, then commenced the eruption of the noisome sore. At this period, in consequence of the success of the French revolution, corresponding societies and atheistical clubs were every where held fearlessly and undisguisedly. All Europe seemed to have drunk deep of the cup of trembling. Scarcely a Christian was to be found within the limits of the papal Latin eurth : and, in protestant countries, many, who had clean escaped from them that live in error, had been allured, through the lusts of the flesh, by vain promises of liberty, of a lawless freedom from all restraint both civil and religious, to forsake the religion of their fathers.
At this period moreover, the project of converting all the kingdoms of the earth into atheistical republics framed after the model of the misshapen democracy of France, was unreservedly and triumphantly avowed by infidel demagogues, and Joudly and incessantly applauded by the populace throughout the whole great Roman city. When all these signs of the times concurred together, when the poisonous humours were perfectly concocted, then it was that the noisome sore broke out, The principles of Antichrist
were now publicly developed in the face of the whole world: and, since all the prophetic periods of the Apocalypse are dated, not from the secret cogitations of the heart which are known only to the Almighty, but from some overt and prominent display of those cogitations reduced to actual practice and manifested to the eyes of all men ; to what era shall we look for the first undisguised avowal of national Atheism, for the first open eruption of the noisome sore predicted under this vial, except the 26th of August 1792, on which day the denial of a God was for the first time formally established by law ?
" And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea : and it became as the blood of a dead man; and ev. ery living soul died in the sea.”
The pouring out of this vial immediately succeeds that of the first : and it relates, I conceive, to the dreadful massacres of revolutionary France which commenced early in the September of the year 1792 ;* massacres, which, extending from the metropolis to the provinces, converted that unhappy country into one great slaughter-house. The sea symbolizes a nation in a violent state of effervescence and revolution : and, when it is said to become as the blood of a dead man, we are evidently led to con, clude, that the nation thus convulsed with intestine discord is deeply stained with the blood of its slaughtered citizens. That such has been in an eminent degree the case with France, in consequence of her being infected with the noisome sore of Atheism, we have all unhappily bebeld, as it were, with our own eyes.
We have seen murder accumulated upon murder, and the life of man, which every civilized legislature bas hitherto regarded of the utmost importance, considered as a thing of no val
Of so little consequence did it appear in the eyes of Marat, the friend of the people, that he scrupled not to assert, that, in order to cement liberty, the national club ought to strike off 200,000 heads. During the reign
The massacres, which took place before this time, are not comprehended under the second vial, because they were perpetrated previous to the sounding of the third zvern trumpet on the 12th of August 1792. They belong on the contrary to the great eartbe quake of the first revolution, which commenced in the year 1789, and the last shock of which produced together with the downfall of the limited monarchy of France the atrocities of the 10th of August 1792.
of terror, as it was emphatically termed, “ the revolutionary tribunal added daily, for a long time, new victims to the thousands who had fallen on the fatal days of August and September. Here the mockery of justice was complete; for, in the condemnation of the accused, the conviction of the jury, without the examination of witnesses or even the confession of the prisoner, was declared sufficient to establish guilt.” As for the privilege of extending mercy to the condemned, it was contemptuously disclaimed : and all applications for pardon were rejected with the declaration, that the enlightened government of republican France possessed no such power.* It was esteemed indeed a sufficient crime to be suspected of being a suspicious person.
" In such a state of society, when fortune, honour, and life, depended upon the caprice of sanguinary individuals, it is not surprising that private assassinations were frequently perpetrated with impunity; and, from the torpor and insensibility that prevailed, † were regarded as trivial acts. Suicide likewise became the resource of the unfortunate, especially of those who had renounced every idea of religion, of the superintendance of a Providence, and of a future existence. Thus those, who escaped from the tribunal of the ruling faction, perished by their own hands. Valazé stabbed himself; Echelle and Condorcet preferred poison ; L'Huillier killed himself in prison ; Rebecqui drowned himself: they were both agents in the atrocities of Avignon, and the second of September. Hidon, and the academician Champfort, fell by their own hands. Such also was the end of Roland, who was one of the principal actors in the revolution of the tenth of August— In the short space of two years, almost every individual of the principal actors in that revolution was brought to a violent end. Danton and Westerman, the one who directed, and the other who executed, the counsels of the insurgents, perished on the same day, and on the same scaffold. A similar fate befell many of those, who decreed the death or imprisonment of the king. Of the 693 members of the Convention, who voted that the king was guilty, seven were assassinated, eight were suicides, thirty-four were proscribed, ninety-two were imprisoned, and sixty-five were guillotined. The addition of those, who have since suffered in various ways, will swell this account to a far greater number. Thus, for a considerable time, in the interior of France each recent event surpassed in horror that which preceded it ; and the metropolis was the centre of massacre, atheism, and anarchy. The conduct of the governors and the governed was equally an outrage to all decorum, humanity, and consistency of conduct-In short, it appears, that there have been two millions of persons murdered in France, since it has called itself a republic.”* After the downfall of Robespierre, the effusion of blood began to abate : for the vial of the second angel was then exhausted. France, however, was previously converted into a vast Aceldama ; or, to use the strong language of prophecy, its revolutionary sea“ became as the blood of a dead man, and every living soul died in the sea.”+
* “I fly far off,” said the poet Klopstock, “from the cries of that execrable tribunal, which murders, not only the victim, but which murders also the mercy of the people.” Well then might Dumourier observe in his address to his own countrymen, “ If the despotism of a single individual be dangerous to liberty, how much more odious must be that of seven hundred men, many of whom are void of principles, without morals, and who have been able to reach that supremacy by cabals or crimes alone."
+ --" it became as the blood of a dead man."
"And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters, and they became blood. And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink ; for' they are worthy. And I heard another out of the altar say, Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.”
Is the sea significs a nation in a violent state of revo
* Kett's Hist. the Inter. Vol. ij. p. 245–252. + Mr. Bicheno supposes this second vial to have begun to be poured out on the sca in the year 1793, when, as he thinks proper to express it,“ the maritime countries joined the Antichristian tyrants in their crusade against the liberties of France, and when the naval power of Europe was put into motion." (Signs of the times, Part iii. p. 168.) He has no warrant for explaining a symbolical prophecy literally; more especially since he himself had explained the cflusion of tbe first viat not literally but cymbulically.
lutionary tumult, so rivers and fountains symbolize kingdoms and their heads existing in the opposite state of a regular and settled government. These mystic streams are the different powers of the papal Latin empire ; which were now to receive, by the unheard of inroads of a barbarous republican enemy, the due reward of their former persecutions of the saints. By a long and bloody war, the whole constitution of the Germanic body has been shaken to its very centre ; and its emperor, the successor and representative of Charles the fifth that great enemy of the witnesses, and of the perjured Sigismund that wretched tool of papal malice, trembling for the safety of his capital, has been compelled to sue for an ignominious peace with the republic of France. In the course of the same war, papal Italy has been overrun and pillaged of every thing valuable : Savoy, the ancient parent and persecutor of the Waldenses, has been wrested from its sovereign, nothing in a manner being left to him but the empty title of a king : Spain, after suffering for a time the horrors of war, has been reduced in effect to the state of a mere vassal province of France : the renegado inhabitants of the united provinces, who preferred their pelf to their God, and whose polluted presses had long teemed with the blasphemous productions of Voltaire and his associates, have been first duped into a revolution, and have ever since been plundered and harassed by their unrelenting tyrants : and the Helvetic confederucy, in name partly papal and partly protestant, but in reality tainted with atheism to its very core, * has been dissolved ; its citizens have been massacred ; and its territory bas been plundered, by the infernal cruelty and harpy rapacity of republican banditti. Future historians will speak of this unparalleled war with astonishment. They will describe Europe as bleeding at every pore, and trembling for the fate of every civilized government. They will detail battle after battle, massacre after massacre, campaign after campaign. They will represent fer
* " Holland was the grand asylum of infidelity in the North, the nursery and chief propagator of its works by the licentious liberty allowed to the press”-and, as for Switzerland, D'Alembert and Voltaire boasted, that “in Calvin's own town there were but a few beggarly fellows who believed in Christ, and that from Geneva to Berne not a Christian was to be found.”