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for the Study of the War
ALBERT E. McKINLEY
The World War has led to an intense sharpening prepared and described a series of maps bearing of interest among Americans in international rela- upon the military, economic, racial, and political : tions and world history. Races, countries, and poli- aspects of the war. To these have been added a
cies hitherto almost unknown to the great body of number of outline maps which may be used in depictAmerican citizens, have in a moment become of vital ing further military and political changes. importance to all. And with this new importance Professor Dutcher, in Part V, has prepared an exhas come a truly American desire to understand the
tensive critical bibliography of the war. While the significance of the new world movements. Hence, list of seven hundred titles may seem formidable to from the public generally, from students in schools
some, yet it is so closely sub-divided that the stuand colleges, from teachers, lecturers, and conductors
dent can readily gain an appraisal of the books upon of classes in clubs and camps, has come the demand
any phase of the war. for information and interpretation. The aim of the
Part VI contains statutes and joint-resolutions compiler of the following pages has been to present
of the Congress of the United States from April, in brief compass such materials as will best meet this
1917, to May, 1918. The aim has been to include demand.
those laws and parts of laws which show the manner President Wilson's principal addresses in war
in which the country has been legally reorganized to time have been included not only because they pre
meet war conditions. It cannot be hoped that the sent the official statements upon the entrance of the
selection of statutes will be satisfactory to all, but United States into the war and upon the war aims of America, but also because of their incomparable style tions would permit.
the list has been made as inclusive as space limita
No attempt has been made to and diction. No condensations or omissions have
include all the laws on a given subject, but rather to been undertaken in any of the addresses. In Part II is presented what is by far the best student can gain an idea of the vastly important leg
pick out typical statutes, from which the reader or analysis of the immediate antecedents and principal islation of the Sixty-fifth Congress. It has been imevents of the war which has yet been prepared. Pro- possible, too, to print the full text of the longer fessor Harding has adopted a topical form for his
statutes, some of which, like the Revenue Act of study of the war, but he has so woven together the
1917, would occupy fifty of the large pages of the evidence, and accompanied it with such telling quota- present work. The parts omitted have been inditions that he has made a most interesting narrative. This outline has already been made the basis of study cluded are those which contain general principles of
cated in the usual manner (...). The sections inin hundreds of classes throughout the country, and it legislation; qualifying clauses and sections have in will soon, doubtless, be adopted on a still wider scale.
some cases been cut out. Persons desiring to conMr. Hoskins, in his Syllabus, in Part III, goes
sult the statutes for legal reasons rather than for back to an earlier date in order to get an adequate general information or historical facts should read background for the present conflict. Beginning with the official text published in the “Statutes at Large the Middle Ages he analyzes the steps by which
or the "slip-laws” of the United States. modern Europe has come into existence and the man
What has been said above concerning the laws, ner in which its institutions have developed. Particular attention is called to the " problem questions
holds true also of the Executive Proclamations in given under each topic. These thought-provoking
Part VII. To save space the parts of proclamaquestions will stimulate any intelligent person into a
tions which recite a statute or part of a statute have new attitude toward historical events and personages.
been omitted, as well as the usual form of subscription
and seal by the President and Secretary. Next to a demand for information concerning the historical origins of the war has come that for an
The material in Parts II, IV, and V of this colunderstanding of world geography. Places and dis- lection was prepared in co-operation with the Natricts hitherto unnoticed by even well-informed per
tional Board for Historical Service of Washington, sons have in a day become of world-wide im
D. C. It was first published in The History portance. German colonies in distant parts of the
TEACHER'S MAGAZINE for January, March, and world have been seized by the Allies; battle-lines in
April, 1918, and later reprinted in pamphlet form. Europe have shifted back and forth; and German
Acknowledgment is cheerfully made of assistance in armies have occupied great districts whose very
the preparation of Part IV received from Professor names previously were hidden within the large bulk
G. B. Roorbach, Mr. Randolph G. Adams, Messrs. of the Russian state. Geography has helped in an
Henry Holt and Co., the C. S. Hammond Co., and understanding of the war by showing racial bound
the Atlantic Monthly Press. aries as well as political; it has brought us to realize The several parts of this collection have been isthe value of physical land and water features in sued by the publishers in separate pamphlet form the conduct of military campaigns; and of the (except that Parts VI and VII are included in one economic background which has exercised such a pamphlet), and these separates may be obtained in deep influence upon German annexationists. Pro single copies or in quantities for class use where the fessors Harding and Lingelbach, in Part IV, have adoption of the entire collection is impracticable.
The President's addresses should, in the case of its finance in order to devote all its energies to wineach, be studied in their entirety. Each should be ning the war. Such material is somewhat difficult to comprehended as a complete work of art. But in ad- use in school and college classes unless the assigndition to this they should be studied in a series with ments of topics and questions are most carefully made the purpose to discover (1) the immediate reasons for by the instructor. Occasionally the briefer statutes the entrance of the United States into the war; (2) may be assigned entire for close study and analysis ; the ultimate purpose of our intervention; (3) the but for the longer documents a more intensive method change from our old policy of isolation (Monroe should be used. The following suggestions will illusDoctrine); (4) our wishes concerning the Allies; trate how these and the other statutes may be so as(5) a plan for a better organization of the world than signed to the class that the essential parts of the laws existed before the war. The text of the addresses will not be overlooked by the careless reader. may also be studied in connection with the study
From the text of the Selective Draft Act (page cutlines given in Part II and Part III.
137) answer the following questions: The syllabus prepared by Professor Harding is designed as the basis for a connected study of the war What kinds of organizations and what numbers of each and its immediate causes. The successive sections
is the President authorized to raise by paragraphs 1-7 of should be assigned for study and discussion. Mem
Section 1? Which of these are to be raised by voluntary
enlistment and which by selective draft? bers of the class or group should look up additional
What persons are liable to the draft?. How are the information in the references accompanying the sev
drafted persons apportioned among the States? May a foreral chapters.
eigner be drafted ? The outline prepared by Mr. Hoskins lends itself Contrast the bounty provision in Section 3 with the pol. to a more extensive study of the conditions leading up icy pursued in the Civil War. Which is the more demoto the war. It is designed particularly for high cratic? Why? school and college classes in which time is available Can you give satisfactory reasons why each of the classes to study more in detail the historic development of
of persons mentioned in Section 4 should be exempt ! the modern world. The outline should be assigned
Sketch the organization by which persons are registered in brief sections, and pupils should be required to pre
for the draft, and the method by which exemptions are do
termined. pare for the exercise by reading in the textbooks and
What official persons may the President call upon for asgeneral works. Their reading may be carried on with
sistance in the draft? What penalties are imposed for rea view to obtaining answers to the “problem-ques- fusal or neglect to perform such duty ? tions ” which the author has inserted under each sub- What powers are given to the President to safeguard tho topic.
morals of the army? The geography section should be made the basis Compare the text of this Act with the proclamation of of careful study. Too often students and teachers
the President for the registration on June 5, 1917 (page are content to use a map simply as a means of refer
171). ence to locate a specified place. In addition to such The following topics and problems are based upon use, maps should, in class instruction, be made the
the Act of August 10, 1917 (page 145), giving the basis for propounding and answering definite prob- President power to control food and fuel: lems. Such problems may deal with simple facts of
Give in brief the purposes of the Act. locations and distances; or they may take up more What agencies may the President use to enforce the Act ! subtle questions of the relation of geography to mili- What limitations concerning contracts are imposed upon tary, political, and economical activities. Thus the these persons and agencies? Why are these imposed ! map showing the Pangermanist plan of 1895 (page What acts are made unlawful by Section 47 93) may be contrasted with the races (on colored map
For what classes of acts may licenses be required under opposite page 92) to be subjugated, or with the map
Section 5? What is the advantage of a license system? of the recent territorial redistribution in Russia (page
Who are exempt from the license system? Why so exempt!
What punishment may be inflicted upon hoarders? What 98). The map of the German drive of March, 1918,
becomes of the articles hoarded? shows the alternate attack upon the center and the
What powers does the President possess to seize and to flanks of the Allied position; it shows also the grad- sell necessaries? ual slowing down of the German advance. A num- What control does he possess over the prices of necesber of excellent geographical problems are presented saries, especially wheat? by Professor Lingelbach on page 85.
What restriction does the Act impose upon the manufacThe bibliography of wår literature is inserted in ture of di: tilled liquors? Does this affect breweries! this volume because it is believed that it will prove
When shall the provisions of this Act cease to havo
effect? useful not only in designating books fo library purchase, but also because it gives an impartial valuation
Outline the powers of the President over the fuel supply.
State from your own knowledge or other sources how the of each volume. Professor Dutcher's bibliography is
food and fuel control has been exercised in your locality. the most complete work of this character which has appeared. With its careful subdivision into topics, A similar treatment of the other statutes and of it should be a continual help to the historical scholar. the Executive Proclamations will bring out the sig
The United States statutes and proclamations nificant parts of each document. Only by such means show the means by which a peaceful nation reorgan- can a class be led to use with profit legal documents ized its military system, its trade and industries, and of this character.