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In his research, Navasky read nineteen oral history interviews conducted by the staff of the John F. Kennedy Library, including those with Ross Barnett, Herman Talmadge, Theodore Hesburgh, William 0. Douglas, and a number of former officials of the Department of Justice. He also interviewed a large number of individuals and used relevant, accessible files. Navasky does not footnote specific interviews or provide a list of persons (some of whom requested anonymity) he interviewed although he seems to depend heavily on them. Navasky plans to deposit his research files in the Kennedy Library and eventually to make his interviews available to researchers.

LARRY J. HACKMAN

John F. Kennedy Library The Kennedy Doctrine. By Louise FitzSimons. (New York: Random House, 1972. 275 pp. Bibliography and index. $7.95.) FitzSimons critically examines and challenges the basic foreign policy concepts of the Kennedy administration in the light of revisionist thinking about the cold war. She concludes that John F. Kennedy, while capturing the imagination of and providing inspiration for many peoples of the world, , never succeeded in freeing himself from the traditional cold war ideological concept of the American struggle against a monolithic communist foe. Rather, he pursued a very active counterrevolutionary policy in his battle to contain communism, and he greatly increased the American strategic arsenal.

In this light, she asks, "Was the Cuban missile crisis necessary?” and also wonders how much of the Berlin crisis was due to the need of the new president to preserve his prestige after Vienna and the Bay of Pigs. The growing involvement of the United States in Vietnam is described, as the Kennedy administration held to the “fatal illusion" that the United States could control events in Southeast Asia through the use of counterinsurgency forces.

FitzSimons used more than forty interviews in the John F. Kennedy Library oral history collection in her research. She quotes extensively from at least twelve of them, including those with George Kennan, U. Alexis Johnson, Robert Hurwitch, Dean Acheson, Robert Lovett, George Smathers, Robert Amory, and Llewellyn Thompson.

Kennedy et la Revolution Cubaine: Un Apprentissage Politique? By Manuela Semidei. (Paris: Julliard, 1972. 284 pp. Photographs and bibliography.) The subtitle of this study of John F. Kennedy's Cuban policy poses the author's main question. Were President Kennedy's actions at the time of the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban missile crisis part of his political apprenticeship? Were his decisions forced by the bureaucratic structure and the political climate or did he overestimate the ability of the United States to act in a global context? Semidei concludes that President Kennedy, learning much from these two experiences, “firmly decided ... to defuse the Cuban bomb, in order to preserve the chances of coexistence.” Kennedy in many ways chose "the middle course"; he did not allow the Bay of Pigs invasion to lead to all-out American support for the invaders, and he did not decide on U.S. air strikes against Cuba as a way of eliminating the threat of Soviet missiles. After the missile crisis, he "again chose the middle course: there would be neither invasion nor reconciliation"; the United States would "be content to seek to isolate Cuba.”

For her study Semidei made extensive use of oral history interviews at the Kennedy Library, including those with Dean Acheson, Robert Lovett, Lyman Kirkpatrick, Arleigh Burke, U. Alexis Johnson, Robert Hurwitch, Juan Bosch, and George Smathers. Also of interest is her analysis and assessment of the Kennedy Oral History Program which appears in the introduction.

SYLVIE TURNER John F. Kennedy Library

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Ira Dye is a systems analyst whose major avocation for many years has been the study of mari. time history. He holds degrees in engineering, a B.S. from the University of Washington and a M.S. from the University of Pittsburgh. He is a member of the Society for Nautical Research and the Navy Records Society. His professional position is director of the Office of Systems Analysis and Information in the Department of Transportation. He earlier completed a career in the U.S. Navy, attaining the rank of captain.

Yehoshua Ben-Arieh was born in Tel Aviv and holds a Ph.D. in geography and history from the Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He has published several articles and books on Israeli geography and specializes in the geography of the Jordan Valley. His most recent book, The Rediscovery of the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century, won the Ben-Zvi Prize for its outstanding contribution to the study of the Jews in the Middle East. He is associate professor of geography and director of the Institute for History, Geography, and Regional Studies at the Hebrew University.

Kenneth J. Grieb is associate professor of history and coordinator of Latin American studies at the University of WisconsinOshkosh. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Buffalo and his Ph.D. from Indiana University. He is the author of The United States and Huerta and coeditor of Latin American Government Leaders. He has also published numerous articles and book reviews in the fields of Mexican, Central American, and Caribbean history. He is president of the Midwest Association for Latin American Studies and editor of the association's newsletter.

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Philip Edward Mancha is assistant professor of history at Montgomery College, Rockville, Maryland. Born in Westminster, Maryland, he received his B.A. from Bridgewater College, Virginia, and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Duke University. He was formerly on the staffs of the Virginia public school system, the Atlantic Division of the University of Maryland, and the Audiovisual Archives Division of the National Archives.

David R. Young is a special James E. O'Neill is the deputy assistant on the staff of the Na- archivist of the United States. tional Security Council. He holds His article "The Accessibility of degrees in law from Cornell Uni- Sources for the History of the versity and Oxford, is a member Second World War: The Archiof the New York State, District of vist's Viewpoint” appeared in the Columbia, and Supreme Court spring 1972 issue of Prologue. bars, and is a barrister-at-law of the Inner Temple in London. In 1972 he served as White House coordinator for the drafting of Executive Order 11652, and he is executive director of the Interagency Classification Review Committee.

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