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The National Archives and Records Service continuously publishes items of interest to the historian, genealogist, and general reader. Previous publications are listed in the leaflet Select List of Publications of the National Archives and Records Service. Unless otherwise indicated, the new publications described below are available from the Publications Sales Branch (NATS), National Archives (GSA), Washington, DC 20408.

well as various unpublished transcripts. The hearings are arranged by Congress and thereunder alphabetically by committee. Information given includes titles of the hearings, dates, number of pages, and whether printed or transcript. A similar list is in preparation for hearings in the records of the House of Representatives.

Hearings in the Records of the U.S. Senate and Joint Committees of Congress, Special List no. 32, is a list of congressional hearings that have been found in the committee records of the Senate and Joint Committees of Congress, 1865-1944. Although hearings are among the most useful and most frequently requested records of congressional activity, they were not distributed systematically until 1938 and are often difficult to locate. The hearings in the National Archives are not a complete record set, inasmuch as many nineteenthcentury Senate committee records have not been preserved in their original series. Many rare printed hearings are listed as

Select Audiovisual Records: Pictures of the Civil War, prepared by Sandra Nickles and Joe D. Thomas, is a revision of Select Picture List Number One: The Civil War. The photographs listed are from the records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, War Department General and Special Staffs, Office of the Quartermaster General, Office of the Chief of Engineers, Mathew B. Brady collection, and private collections in the records of the War Department. The pictures have been arranged under four headings: activities, places, portraits, and Lincoln's assassination. Photographs of artworks have also been listed, and names of photographers or artists have been given when available. An index to photographers follows the list.

Milstead prepared the records for microfilming, and Coffee wrote the introduction.

Regional Branches of the National Archives, General Information Leaflet no. 22 (revised), provides information on the location and area served by the regional branches and also on the general nature of the records in their custody.

Internal Revenue Assessment Lists for Iowa, 1862-66 (M766) and Internal Revenue Assessment Lists for Kansas, 1862-66 (M767) are now available. These lists were compiled by district assessors who billed and collected periodic taxes on manufactures, income, and personal property. They are of particular value to persons interested in local or business history and to genealogists.

Microfilm Publications

Records of the Assistant Commissioner for the State of South Carolina, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1865-1870 (M869) reproduces fourteen series of records of that office: letters sent, June 1865-January 1870; endorsements sent, January 1865-June 1870; registers of letters received, June 1865-October 1870; letters received, May 1865-February 1870; records relating to restoration of property, 1865-68; reports, 1865-68; orders and circulars, June 1865-July 1870; records relating to the issuance of rations, 1863-69; records relating to contracts, February 1866September 1868; records relating to legal actions, 1865-68; quartermaster records, 1865-68; personnel records, 1865-68; records relating to transportation, 1865-68; and other records such as receipts, bills of lading, property titles, and certificates of marriage of freedmen, 1865-67.

Also available is the Alaska File of the Special Agents Division, Department of the Treasury, 1867-1903 (M802). This file consists primarily of reports and correspondence of treasury special agents assigned to customs duty in Alaska. It also includes correspondence between the secretary of the treasury and the secretary of state and foreign diplomatic officials, correspondence between treasury and customs officials stationed in Alaska, correspondence with commercial firms, and correspondence with educators operating schools in Alaska and church officials there. A copy of the protocol of transfer of Russian property in Alaska to the United States is also included.

Federal Non-Population Census Schedules, Ohio, 1850-1880 in the Custody of the State Library of Ohio (T1159) contains detailed statistics on agriculture, industry, and social matters. The State Library of Ohio loaned the census schedules to the National Archives for microfilming.

Indexes to Records of the War College Division and Related General Staff Offices, 1903-1919 (M912) consists of the subject, name, foreign biography, and geographic indexes to several important series of records of the War Plans Division and its predecessors, the Army War College, the Second and Third Divisions of the General Staff, the Second Section of the General Staff, and the War College Division. The four indexes reproduced in this publication are part of the records of the War Department General and Special Staffs, Record Group 165. Edwin R. Coffee and Mabel P.

Extranjeros (Foreigners in Puerto Rico, ca. 1816-45) (T1170) reproduces the case files of about three thousand immigrants and their families who settled in Puerto Rico during that period. These materials, written in Spanish, are arranged alphabetically by name.


The Naval Academy Illustrated History of the United States Navy. By E. B. Potter. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1971. 300 pp. Photographs and list of sources, maps, diagrams, and index. $15.00.) Professor Potter's classic military history, Sea Power, written in collaboration with Admiral Chester Nimitz, has served for years as a standard text for American naval history. To this survey he has now added a pictorial history to "provide adequate aids to enable the reader to visualize battles and campaigns." The illustrations-chosen, Potter says, for "accuracy over art"-fall into two major groups demarcated by the invention of the camera. Most of the prints, engravings, and paintings are taken from the Naval Historical Division's collection. The photographs, except for the most recent, still in the custody of the navy, are from the general photographic files of the Navy Department currently maintained in the Audiovisual Archives Division of the National Archives.

CHARLES A. THOMAS Audiovisual Archives Division

case from the foundation of Dartmouth College. The present significance of the case, he concludes, lies in the continuing concern for individual rights in the American constitutional system. The author used the docket and minutes of the Supreme Court of the United States in the National Archives and records of three related federal circuit court cases in the federal records center at Waltham, Massachusetts, and at the United States district court at Concord, New Hampshire.

MARION JOHNSON Legislative, Judicial, and Fiscal Branch

Private Interest and Public Gain: The Dartmouth College Case, 1819. By Francis N. Stites. (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1972. 172 pp. Notes and index. $9.50.) Acknowledging the abundance of material relating to the landmark constitutional case Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Stites points out that no one source gives a comprehensive account of all aspects of the case. He meets the need for such a source by tracing the history of the

Hostiles and Horse Soldiers: Indian Battles and Campaigns in the West. By Lonnie J. White with contributions by Jerry Keenan, Stanley R. Davison, James T. King, and Joe A. Stout, Jr. (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Company, 1972, 231 pp. Illustrations, maps, and index. $8.95.) This collection of articles attempts to present objective accounts and analyses of several of the better-known confrontations between Indians and whites in the TransMississippi West between 1864 and 1886. The first five chapters of the book, originally published in the Journal of the West, focus on conflicts with the Southern Plains tribes during and following the Civil War. The remaining chapters are concerned with the Wagon Box Fight in 1867, the Sioux campaign of 1876, the Bannock-Paiute War of 1878, and the Geronimo campaign of 1886.

The authors of most of the articles consulted the records of U.S. Army Continental Commands, 1821-1920. Photographs from the National Archives, including those from the U.S. Signal Corps collection, were also used.


Old Military Branch

Weird and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall, Explorer. By Chauncey C. Loomis. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971. 367 pp. Photographs, map, notes, bibliography, and index. $8.95.) Charles Francis Hall was an obscure and not particularly successful Cincinnati businessman who in 1860 left his family and career to begin the first of three expeditions to the North American Arctic. He was woefully ill prepared for his first trip to Baffin Island to determine the fate of the men lost on the Franklin expedition, but he survived by living with the Eskimos. Hall returned twice more to the Arctic, in 1864-65 and in 1871. His third and last voyage, aboard the S.S. Polaris, was aided by a $50,000 appropriation from Congress and supplies from the navy and other federal agencies. Hopes that this semiofficial expedition could reach the North Pole via the Davis Strait ended abruptly in November 1871 when Hall died under suspicious circumstances. At a navy inquiry held in 1873 there were dark hints that Hall was poisoned. With the permission of the Danish government, Loomis and three companions went to Greenland in 1968 to exhume Hall's body. An autopsy showed that Hall had ingested a fatal amount of arsenic before his death. Loomis discusses the impli. cations of this discovery in his epilogue.

At the National Archives Loomis used the journal of Noah Hayes and the papers of George E. Tyson, members of the Polaris expedition; correspondence and notes of Rear Admiral C. H. Davis, cocompiler of the official report of the Polaris expedition; and Patent Office records.

ALISON WILSON Center for Polar Archives

The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954. By Joyce and Gabriel Kolko. (New York: Harper & Row, 1972. 820 pp. $15.00.) Although their argument that post-World War II American leaders fabricated a Russian military threat in an effort to fasten economic control on much of the world may be disputed, the scholarship of Joyce and Gabriel Kolko is certainly impressive. The Limits of Power is the product of wide research, a wealth of fresh evidence, and original interpretations. Their revisionist thesis follows from the authors' basic contention that politics in twentieth-century America result from the domination of the capitalist ruling class, a situation precluding genuine reforms in the interest of the common people.

The authors contend the Soviet Union, militarily inferior to the United States in the decades following World War II, posed no real menace to American security. But President Truman and his advisers deliberately exaggerated and misrepresented the communist threat and spurned genuine Russian offers to negotiate a détente in order to browbeat the world into semicolonial dependence on the United States. They maintain American leaders felt that only in a world economically dominated by the United States could the country sustain a level of employment and profits necessary to ensure the survival of the capitalist system. Seeking to keep the world economically subservient, the United States made alliances with reactionary leaders, bribing corrupt governments to suppress leftist movements which threatened American economic dominance.

The authors made extensive use of the resources of the Harry S. Truman Library. In addition to the White House files, they examined the papers of Stanley Andrews, Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr., Will L. Clayton, Joseph M. Jones, Edwin A. Locke, Jr., John W. Snyder, Stephen J. Spingarn, and James E. Webb. They also consulted the records of the President's Air Policy Commission and the President's Materials Policy Commission.

DENNIS E. BILGER Harry S. Truman Library

fear, the author contends, the administration was able to change a negative bias toward economic aid to a positive attitude within a relatively brief span of time. However, he points out, the anticommunist crusade had unanticipated consequences. Several events, notably the takeover of China by Mao Tse-tung and his followers, the explosion of the first Soviet atomic bomb, the Alger Hiss trial, and the Korean conflict, caused the president to lose control of affairs and opened the door to the excesses of McCarthyism.

During the course of his research, Freeland made extensive use of the resources of the Harry S. Truman Library. In addition to the White House files, he examined the papers of Thomas Blaisdell, Will L. Clayton, Clark Clifford, George Elsey, Joseph M. Jones, Samuel I. Rosenman, John W. Snyder, Stephen J. Spingarn, A. Devitt Vanech, the records of the Committee for the Marshall Plan, and oral history interviews about the Marshall Plan.

Philip D. LAGERQUIST Harry S. Truman Library

The Truman Doctrine and the Origins of McCarthyism: Foreign Policy, Domestic Politics and Internal Security, 1946-1948. By Richard M. Freeland. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972. 419 pp. Bibliography and index. $10.00.) This book by a member of the revisionist school of cold war history attempts an explication of the anticommunist hysteria of the 1950s in terms of the Truman administration's campaign to win support for its Marshall Plan program. The administration, the author says, was convinced that if the high level of prosperity attained by the United States during the war were to continue, the faltering economies of Western Europe would require massive infusions of economic aid. Only by such measures could the dangers of a communist takeover be averted and American economic and strategic interests in that area be secured. The administration overcame a hostile Congress and an initially apathetic public to win overwhelming approval of aid to Europe. This was achieved, the author maintains, by a propaganda effort carried on by the government between March 1947 when the president announced the Truman Doctrine and March 1948 when the Marshall Plan was approved. During this period foreign policy and international events were consistently interpreted by government leaders in terms of the anticommunist rhetoric of the Truman Doctrine. Domestically, by such means as a stepped-up federal employees loyalty program and executive support of the House Un-American Activities Committee's investigations, there was an attempt to create the impression of widespread communist subversion within the country. Thus, by deliberately creating a climate of

Kennedy Justice. By Victor Navasky. (New York: Atheneum, 1971. 447 pp. Appendixes, bibliography, and index. $10.00.) In Kennedy Justice, Victor Navasky examines decision-making in the Department of Justice under Robert Kennedy. His conclusion that the appointment of the “maximum Attorney General" did not result in the maximum performance is less interesting than his detailed exploration of the interaction of factors influencing the decisions of Kennedy and other officials in the department. These factors, in Navasky's framework, were embodied in the operation of “The Code of the FBI,” “The Code of the Ivy League Gentleman," and "The Code of the Kennedys." To explore the influence of these "codes,” Navasky looks closely at civil rights matters, reapportionment cases, and the "Get Hoffa" campaign.

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