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BOOK NOTES

To illustrate the varied research possibilities among the holdings of the National Archives, the presidential libraries, and the federal records centers, each issue of Prologue notes recent books based to some extent on records in the custody of the National Archives and Records Service. Authors, editors, and publishers are encouraged to submit books for future listing.

America's Lighthouses: Their Illustrated History since 1716. By Francis Ross Holland, Jr. (Brattleboro, Vt.: Steven Greene Press, 1972. 215 pp. Index. $15.00.) In two introductory chapters the author deals with European and colonial lighthouses and technical developments in lamps and fuels. A detailed chapter on the administrative history of aids to navigation in the United States is followed by sections on the duties and life of the keepers and the evolution of lightships, especially the development of the design of the vessels. But most of the book consists of histories of individual lighthouses in the United States and its possessions.

The author relied on the United States Coast Guard "Clipping Files," general correspondence of the Light House Board, annual reports of lighthouses, Light House Service Bulletins, Light Lists, and published rules, regulations, and instructions of the board.

William F. SHERMAN Legislative, Judicial, and Fiscal Branch

Federal Land Series: A Calendar of Archival Materials on the Land Patents Issued by the United States Government, with Subject, Tract, and Name Indexes. Volume 1. 1788-1810. By Clifford Neal Smith. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1972. 368 pp. Maps and indexes. $20.00.) This volume calendars governmental correspondence and other archival material for the period 1788 to 1810, during which time the federal government issued thousands of land patents to individual settlers on western lands chiefly in Ohio. The author has calendared administrative correspondence of the United States Treasury Department, which was in charge of what became the General Land Office, as well as correspondence of the district land offices, surveyors general, surveyor of land south of Tennessee, boards of land commissioners, and territorial governors. Smith's introduction explains the scope of the work and includes a discussion of archival source materials, many of which are available as microfilm publications from the National Archives. The work is comprised chiefly of serial entries, which calendar the original documents, and name, subject, and tract indexes. All names of persons, and their addresses when given, tract descriptions, and subject matter are set forth in the serial entries.

Records of the General Land Office in the National Archives were researched extensively for this study. Among the records examined were the Miscellaneous Letters Sent by the General Land Office, 1796-1889, Letters Sent by the General Land Office to Surveyors General, 1796-1901, Letters Sent by the Secretary of the Treasury Relating to Public Lands (“N” Series), Records of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention among the Papers of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789, and other documents in libraries and private collections.

RICHARD S. MAXWELL Natural Resources Branch

journal has been taken as the basic text, although, as the editor observes, the official text is really the manuscript journal in the records of the Senate in the National Archives. All variations in the textual formsrough notes made during Senate sessions by Secretary of the Senate Samuel Otis, the manuscript made from those notes, and the final printed edition-have been carefully noted and listed in this volume.

In addition to textual variations, notes identify the various documents referred to in the text of the journal such as bills, committee reports, and petitions. Many of these documents, located in the National Archives or other repositories, will be printed in future volumes. Cross-reference notes lead the reader to subsequent actions of the Senate regarding the issues under consideration. A glossary of legislative terms and an appendix listing the bills considered in the First Congress are also provided. The volume is attractively printed in a form similar to that of the original journal and is thoroughly indexed. Although more immediate interest may attend the publication of the later volumes of unofficial papers, the Senate Legislative Journal is a necessary and distinguished beginning to this documen

tary series.

Documentary History of the First Federal Congress of the United States of America. Volume 1. Senate Legislative Journal. Edited by Linda Grant De Pauw. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. 775 pp. Index. $22.50.) This volume is the first of a projected eighteen that will reprint significant public and private documents of the first federal Congress, 1789 to 1791. The official records related to the Congress, defined by the editor as all documents produced by order of the Senate or the House of Representatives or directed to the Senate or House, are to be published as the first nine volumes. The concluding volumes will contain such unofficial documents as letters, newspaper articles, and diary entries.

In issuing the Senate Legislative Journal as the first volume, the editor has begun with the most basic of the official records of Congress. Each house is required by the Constitution to keep a journal of its proceedings, which is a record of the acts of each house not a transcript of debates. The proceedings of the Senate in regard to treaties and presidential appointments are recorded in the Executive Journal, which is scheduled as the next volume in this series.

De Pauw states in the introduction that editorial annotation will be more elaborate in the volumes of unofficial documents and that the primary aim of the notes in this first volume is to establish an accurate text. The contemporary printed edition of the

CHARLES SOUTH Legislative, Judicial, and Fiscal Branch

The Papers of John C. Calhoun. Volume 6. April 1, 1821-March 31, 1822. Edited by W. Edwin Hemphill. (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1972. 826 pp. Bibliography and index. $17.95.) The sixth volume of the John C. Calhoun papers contains more than 435 transcriptions and 890 abstracts of documents in numerous repositories. Since the volume covers a portion of Calhoun's long tenure as secretary of war, a majority of the documents are from the National Archives. Each is described by record group number, series title, and, whenever possible, by item. Documents reproduced in the volume reflect the range of Calhoun's activities. At the behest of an economy-minded Congress, Calhoun presided over a major retrenchment of the army that involved reductions in military personnel and spending for fortifications. Since the War Department also administered the government's Indian policies, much of the correspondence is with officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Of interest is another series of letters with Andrew Jackson, then governor of the recently acquired Floridas. Readers will find correspondence of a less official nature scattered throughout the documents, such as letters revealing Calhoun's political aspirations as the second term of Monroe's administration commenced and the Era of Good Feelings drew to a close.

ELAINE EVERLY Old Military Branch

port on the Department of the Pacific. The records of the Adjutant General's Office furnished post returns from Fort Orford, Oregon, a consolidated file of reports by Lieutenant Colonel Robert C. Buchanan relative to his operations during the Rogue War of 1855-56, and Colonel Joseph K. F. Mansfield's 1855 inspection report on the Department of the Pacific.

ROBERT H. GRUBER Old Military Branch

Requiem for a People: The Rogue Indians and the Frontiersmen. By Stephen Dow Beckham. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971. Maps, photographs, bibliography, and index. $7.95.) The Indian bands of southwestern Oregon, known collectively as Rogues, numbered about 9,500 in the early 1850s when whites began to settle in their country. Initially friendly Rogue-white relations soon degenerated into killings and warfare. Indian resentment at white encroachment led to attacks on immigrants and settlers, which in turn provoked white retaliation. At length, the Rogues were crushed by military expeditions conducted in 1851, 1853, and 1855-56 by U.S. and local volunteer forces. By the late 1850s, the Rogue population had been decimated by warfare, massacres, and disease. Most of the survivors were forced onto reservations.

Beckham did not use the holdings of the National Archives extensively, although he cites both cartographic and textual records. The records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers furnished maps as well as Captain Thomas J. Cram's topographical re

Brahmin in Revolt: A Biography of Herbert C. Pell. By Leonard Baker. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1972. 350 pp. Illustrations, bibliography, and index. $7.95.) Leonard Baker presents a popular biography of Herbert C. Pell, tracing his brief rise in politics from Progressive county committeeman in 1912, to Democratic congressman from New York's Silk Stocking District in 1918, to defeated candidate for reelection in 1920. Pell's family relationships and friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt are portrayed, and almost half the book is devoted to his diplomatic career which included appointments as minister to Portugal and Hungary and as the United States representative to the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Pell is sympathetically pictured as a man of high principles who played an important role in leading America from its age of innocence to its acceptance of the responsibilities of world leadership.

Baker used the Herbert C. Pell papers and the Franklin D. Roosevelt papers at the Roosevelt Library as well as the oral history transcripts at Columbia University and interviews with members of the Pell family.

DONALD B. SCHEWE Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Hugo Black: The Alabama Years. By Virginia Van der Veer Hamilton. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972. 330 pp. Photographs, bibliography, and index. $10.95.) Hugo Black was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1937 after a varied legal and political career. During his two terms in the Senate he attempted to limit the work week to thirty hours and investigated lobbying activities and airmail contract awards. He was not intimately involved in major New Deal legislation, but he was a staunch supporter of President Roosevelt, especially during the Supreme Court reorganization fight. The author concludes this volume with a discussion of the controversy surrounding Black's nomination to the Supreme Court when his past affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan was revealed. She used various collections of the president's papers and the Morgenthau diaries at the Roosevelt Library to document Black's part in the Roosevelt administration and his nomination to the Court.

JEANNE SCHAUBLE Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

of Austria on the other. Nazi foreign policy shied away from multilateral commitments during this period, preferring bilateral agreements that could be violated with fewer repercussions. Consequently, Germany left the League of Nations and concluded agreements with many countries including pacts with Poland and Austria and naval agreements with Great Britain. Taking advantage of the unwillingness of Great Britain and France to become involved in another major European war and the inability of the League to prevent the Italian takeover in Ethiopia, Hitler established Germany as the dominant power in Europe by remilitarizing the Rhineland, supporting Franco in the Spanish civil war, and establishing the Axis with Mussolini.

Records from the Captured Records Branch were used extensively. Microfilm reproductions of the records of the German foreign ministry, the German army areas, the headquarters of the German armed forces high command, the Nazi party, the Reich economic ministry, Mussolini's personal papers, and records of the Italian foreign ministry yielded a wealth of information. Other records cited include various Nuernberg trial interrogations and documents, proceedings of the Far Eastern war crimes trials, the State Department Special Interrogations Mission, State Department Decimal Files, and collections at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

JOHN MENDELSOHN Captured Records Branch

The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Diplomatic Revolution in Europe, 1933-36. By Gerhard L. Weinberg. (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1970. Maps, bibliography, and index. $12.75.) In this first of a projected two volume work on German foreign policy, Weinberg describes the diplomatic revolution that transformed Germany from a barely accepted equal to the dominant power in Europe. The driving force in this revolution was Adolf Hitler, motivated by the twin doctrines of Germanic supremacy and the need for lebensraum to be acquired by force of arms if necessary. Hitler's goals included the defeat of France and expansion to the east, not only to rectify territorial losses imposed by the Treaty of Versailles, but also to annex additional space. While these goals remained fairly constant, Hitler exhibited much flexibility in achieving them. In dealing with Italy, for example, he favored abandoning German privileges in the southern Tirol on the one hand and standing firm on the annexation

The Best and the Brightest. By David Halberstram. (New York: Random House, 1972. 688 pp. Bibliography and index. $10.00.) David Halberstram, a New York Times reporter in Vietnam during the early 1960s, has written a detailed account of how the men in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations increased American commitments in Vietnam. To Halberstram, Vietnam was the overriding problem of the sixties, and his concern is to find out why “the best and the brightest" men of the country could not solve it. He provides lengthy biographical sketches, including those of McGeorge Bundy, Robert McNamara, and Lyndon Johnson, and analyzes the operations of the bureaucracy to try to explain the decision-making process by which the nation became so deeply involved in Vietnam.

Halberstram is critical of the rational, tough, brilliant political leaders who were too willing to use force, too reliant on statistics, and too little concerned with moral values. Conversely, he gives sympathetic treatment to the Adlai Stevenson-Chester Bowles wing of the Democratic party, which, he argues, was given short shrift in the Kennedy-Johnson years.

In the course of his research Halberstram interviewed many individuals and used twenty-three interviews from the John F. Kennedy Library Oral History Collection. Included are those with Dean Acheson, George Kennan, Lucius Clay, Arthur Krock, Thomas Finletter, William Benton, U. Alexis Johnson, James MacGregor Burns, Robert Lovett, and Henry Luce.

SYLVIE TURNER John F. Kennedy Library

societies that used clay tablets or other more durable record forms, Posner is on firmer ground.

The author adopts a broad definition of archival management, not limiting himself to "techniques required and used for the keeping of archives.” Instead he views archival developments "against the background of the society of which they were a part," considering also the nature and functions of the bureaucracies that created the records.

In addition to the central theme of the essay, the book contains many vignettes of interest. Archivists will find that no progress has been made since Imperial Rome in differentiating between public and private papers of government officials. They might also lament the elimination of certain rules governing researchers. The Metroon in Athens barred anyone who had the smell of garlic about him. Posner admits the prohibition may have been more for the benefit of those praying to the goddess than for the keepers of the records. Readers interested in pursuing the subject of ancient archives will also find the thirty-five-page, multilingual bibliography valuable.

Archives in the Ancient World. By Ernst Posner. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972. 283 pp. Map, photographs, illustrations, bibliography, and index. $10.00.) Posner traces the development of archives and archival practices in the Mediterranean Basin from their inception through the period of Imperial Rome. For some periods his evidence is limited by the lack of spadework of his predecessors, particularly in his treatment of pre-clay-tablet civilizations. Ivory writing boards were seldom used, and few wooden boards and leather rolls have survived. To overcome this unevenness in evidence, Posner at times extrapolates "what should have existed" from what is known. When dealing with

Indian Treaties, 1778-1883. Edited by Charles J. Kappler. (1904; reprint ed., New York: Interland Publishing Company, 1972. 1099 pp. Index, maps, and illustrations. $67.50.) This is a reprint of volume 2 of Charles J. Kappler's edition of Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. A map showing the distribution of North American Indians, prepared by John M. Carroll under the direction of Sol Tax, and illustrations of various Indian subjects have been included. Generous margins facilitate the annotation the book will invite. Although Kappler may be faulted on a number of points, this work is recognized as a standard reference tool. The reprint will make Treaties available to many who are unable to gain access to the rare original edition.

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