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produced or contributed to such condition, and (c) what remedial legislation, if any, is necessary or desirable for the elimination of any such causes. The committee shall report its findings, together with its recommendations for such legislation as it may deem advisable, to the Senate at the earliest practicable date.
UNITY OF IRELAND Mr. DIRKSEN (for himself and Mr. KENNEDY) submitted the following resolution (s. Res. 35), which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations:
Whereas the House of Representatives, Sixty-fifth Congress (1919), third session, by House Joint Resolution 357, duly passed a resolution declaring that the people of Ireland should have the right to determine the form of government under which they desire to live; and
Whereas the maintenance of international peace and security requires settlement of the question of the unification of Ireland; and
Whereas 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland have been successful in obtaining international recognition for the Republic of Ireland which has, as its basic law, a constitution modeled upon our own American Constitution; Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate that the Republic of Ireland should embrace the entire territory of Ireland unless a clear majority of all of the people of Ireland, in a free plebiscite, determine and declare the contrary.
COAUTHOR OF S. J. RES 1
On motion by Mr. BRICKER, and by unanimous consent,
Ordered, That the name of Mr. MCCARTHY be added as a coauthor of the joint resolution (S. J. Res. 1) proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to the making of treaties and executive agreements, and that the joint resolution be reprinted. PRINTING OF ADDITIONAL COPIES OF PRAYERS
OF FORMER CHAPLAIN OF THE SENATE, REV.
Mr. BRICKER submitted the following concurrent resolution (s. Con. Res. 4), which was referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration:
Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That there be printed and bound 31,950 additional copies of Senate Document No. 86 of the Eighty-first Congress, first session, the prayers offered by the Chaplain, the Reyerend Peter Marshall, D. D., at the opening of the daily sessions of the Senate of the United States during the Eightieth and Eighty-first Congresses, 1947–49; of which 9,900 copies shall be for the use of the Senate and 22,050 copies for the use of the House of Representatives. ADDITIONAL CLERICAL ASSISTANTS FOR COM
MITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS Mr. WILEY, from the Committee on Foreign Relations, reported the following resolution (S. Res. 33); which was referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration:
Resolved, That the authority of the Committee on Foreign Relations, under Senate Resolution 146, Eighty-second Congress, agreed to August 1, 1951, and Senate Resolution 249, Eighty-second Congress, agreed to January 15, 1952, authorizing the Committee on Foreign Relations to employ two additional clerical assistants, is hereby continued until January 31, 1954. INVESTIGATION OF DESERTIONS FROM THE
ARMED FORCES Mr. CLEMENTS submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 34), which was referred to the Committee on Armed Services:
Whereas the public press has reported that during the last 2 years large numbers of members of the Armed Forces have deserted or have absented themselves from their places of duty without leave, and that many such persons remain unapprehended; and
Whereas the existence of an abnormally high rate of desertions and absences without leave from the Armed Forces would seriously impair the military effectiveness of such forces and threaten the success of the national defense program: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved, That the Committee on Armed Services, or any duly authorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized and directed to make a full and complete study and investigation to determine (a) whether there has been or now exists an abnormally high rate of desertions and absences without leave from the Armed Forces, (b) if so, the causes which have
HILL, Mr. HUMPHREY, Mr. HUNT, Mr. JACKSON, Mr. KEFAUVER, Mr. KILGORE, Mr. LANGER, Mr. LEHMAN, Mr. MAGNUSON, Mr. MANSFIELD, Mr. MORSE, Mr. MURRAY, Mr. NEELY, Mr. PASTORE, Mr. PAYNE, Mr. SALTONSTALL, Mr. TOBEY, and Mr. KENNEDY), submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 38), which was referred to the Committee on Banking and Currency:
Resolved, That there is hereby created a select committee to be known as the Committee on Consumer Interests and to consist of 13 Senators to be appointed by the President of the Senate, of whom not more than seven shall be of the same political party, as soon as practicable after the date of adoption of this resolution.
It shall be the duty of such committee to study and survey by means of research and investigation all problems affecting consumer interests in the present national emergency and to obtain all facts possible in relation thereto which would not only be of public interest but which would aid the Congress in enacting remedial legislation, and to report to the Senate from time to time the results of such studies and surveys, together with its recommendations. No proposed legislation shall be referred to such committee and such committee shall not have power to report by bill or otherwise have legislative jurisdiction.
In carrying out its duties the committee shall give special attention to prices charged the ultimate consumer for food, fuel, and clothing and the costs and methods of producing, processing, and distributing these and other consumer goods.
For the purpose of this resolution, the committee, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act during the Eighty-third and succeeding Congresses at such times and places, whether or not the Senate is sitting, has recessed, or had adjourned; to employ upon a temporary basis such technical, clerical, and other assistants as it deems advisable; and, with the consent of the head of the department or agency concerned, to borrow from Government departments and agencies such special assistants, and to utilize the services, information, facilities, and personnel of all agencies in the executive branch of the Government; to hold such hearings, to require the attendance of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents; and to take such testimony as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under the signature of the chairman of the committee or any properly designated chairman of a subcommittee thereof, or any member designated by him, and may be served by any person designated by such chairman or member. The chairman of the committee or any member thereof may administer oaths to witnesses. The expenses of the committee under this resolution, which shall not exceed $
shall be paid from the contingent fund of the Senate upon vouchers approved by the chairman of the committee.
FAVORING ACTION BY CONGRESS TO CARRY
OUT PROVISIONS OF LAW RELATING TO LEGISLATIVE BUDGET Mr. DIRKSEN submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 36), which was referred to the Committee on Appropriations:
Resolved, That it is the sense of the Senate that the appropriate committees of the Senate and House of Representatives should proceed without delay to carry out the provisions of section 138 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, relating to the legislative budget,
ADDITIONAL CLERICAL ASSISTANTS FOR COM
MITTEE ON LABOR AND PUBLIC WELFARE
Mr. SMITH of New Jersey (for himself and Mr. MURRAY) submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 37), which was referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.
Resolved, That the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare is authorized, until otherwise provided by law, to employ four additional clerical assistants to be paid from the contingent fund of the Senate at rates of compensation to be fixed by the chairman in accordance with section 202 (e), as amended, of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 and the provisions of Public Law 4, Eightieth Congress, approved February 19, 1947, as amended.
COMMITTEE ON CONSUMER INTERESTS
Mr. GILLETTE (for himself and Mr. CHAVEZ, Mr. CLEMENTS, Mr. DOUGLAS, Mr. DUFF, Mr. GREEN, Mr. HENDRICKSON, Mr.
RECESS On motion by Mr. Tart, at 2 o'clock and 5 minutes p. m.,
The Senate took a recess until 11:30 a. m. on Tuesday next.
TEMPORARY PERSONNEL AND INCREASE IN
LIMIT OF EXPENDITURES BY COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT OPERATIONS
Mr. MCCARTHY, from the Committee on Government Operations, reported the following resolution (S. Res. 40), which was referred to the Committee on Rules and Administration:
Resolved, That in holding hearings, reporting such hearings, and making investigations as authorized by subsection (g) (2) (B) of rule XXV of the Standing Rules of the Senate, or any other duties imposed upon it, the Committee on Government Operations, or any duly authorized subcommittee thereof, is authorized during the period beginning on February 1, 1953, and ending on January 31, 1954, to make such expenditures, and to employ upon a temporary basis such investigators, and such technical, clerical, and other assistants, as it deems advisable.
SEC. 2. The expenses of the committee under this resolution, which shall not exceed $189,000 in addition to the amount authorized under Senate Resolution 251, Eighty-second Congress, second session, agreed to January 24, 1952, shall be paid from the contingent fund of the Senate upon vouchers approved by the chairman of the committee or subcommittee, as the case may be.
MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. Chaffee, one of its clerks:
Mr. President: The Speaker of the House having signed an enrolled joint resolution, viz, S. J. Res. 20, I am directed to bring the same to the Senate for the signature of its President.
ENROLLED JOINT RESOLUTION SIGNED
The Secretary reported that he had examined and found truly enrolled the joint resolution (S. J. Res. 20) making January 20, 1953), a holiday for Federal employees, field service postal employees, and employees of the District of Columbia in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.
The PRESIDENT pro tempore thereupon signed the same. THANKS OF SENATE TO THE VICE PRESIDENT
Mr. TAFT submitted the following resolution (S. Res. 39), which was considered by unanimous consent and unanimously agreed to:
Resolved, That the thanks of the Senate be, and they are hereby, tendered to Hon. ALBEN W. BARKLEY, President of the Senate, for the courteous, dignified, and impartial manner with which he has presided over its deliberations during his term as Vice President of the United States,
TUESDAY, JANUARY 20, 1953 (Legislative day of Friday, January 16,
1953) The Vice President and the President pro tempore being absent, Mr. EUGENE D. MILLIKIN, from the State of Colorado, called the Senate to order at 11 o'clock and 30 minutes a. m., and the Chaplain offered prayer. APPOINTMENT OF ACTING PRESIDENT PRO
TEMPORE The Secretary read the following communication rom the President pro tempore:
UNITED STATES SENATE,
PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE, Washington, D. C., January 20, 1953. To the Senate:
Being temporarily absent from the Senate, I appoint Hon. EUGENE D. MILLIKIN, a Senator from the State of Colorado, to perform the duties of the Chair during my absence.
President pro tempore. Mr. MILLIKIN thereupon took the chair.
THE JOURNAL On motion by Mr. Tart, and by unanimous consent,
The Journal of the proceedings of Friday, January 16, 1953, was approved.
MESSAGE FROM THE HOUSE A message from the House of Representatives, by Mr. Maurer, one of its clerks:
Mr. President: The House of Representatives has passed the bill (H. R. 568) to continue until the close of June 30, 1954, the suspension of certain import taxes on copper, in which it requests the concurrence of the Senate.
HOUSE BILL REFERRED The bill H. R. 568, this day received from the House of Representatives for concurrence, was read the first and second times by unanimous consent, and referred to the Committee on Finance.
Maybank Smith, Maine Jackson
McCarran Smith, N.J. Jenner
McCarthy Smith, N. C. Johnson, Colo. McClellan Sparkman Johnson, Tex. Millikin
Stennis Johnston, S. C. Monroney Symington Kefauver Morse
Mr. President: The President of the United States on January 16, 1953, approved and signed the enrolled joint resolution (S. J. Res. 20) making January 20, 1953, a holiday for Federal employees, field service postal employees, and employees of the District of Columbia in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.
Ordered, That the Secretary notify the House of Representatives thereof.
INTERNATIONAL LABOR CONFERENCE The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before the Senate the following message from the President of the United States, which was read and, with the accompanying papers, referred to the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare: To the Congress of the United States:
In accordance with the obligations of the United States of America as a member of the International Labor Organization, I transmit herewith, for the enactment of legislation or such other action as the Congress may consider appropriate, an authentic text of a convention (No. 97) concerning migration for employment (revised 1949) and an authentic text of a recommendation (No. 86) concern migration for employment (revised 1949), both of which were adopted on July 1, 1949, by the International Labor Conference at its thirtysecond session, held at Geneva from June 8 to July 2, 1949.
I transmit also the report of the Secretary of State with regard to the convention and recommendation, together with a copy of a letter from the Secretary of Labor to the Secretary of State setting forth the coordinated view of the interested departments and agencies of the executive branch of the Government with respect to the convention and recommendation. It will be noted that those departments and agencies do not recommend any Federal legislation, as they are of the view that existing Federal legislation is in substantial compliance with the basic intent and purposes of the convention, including Annex III thereof, and in addition conforms to the most important provisions of the recommendation and Annexes I and II of the convention.
For action and advice with respect to American Samoa and the Trust Terri
ENROLLED JOINT RESOLUTION PRESENTED
The Secretary reported that on today he presented to the President of the United States the enrolled joint resolution resolution (S. J. Res. 20) making January 20, 1953, a holiday for Federal employees, field service postal employees, and employees of the District of Columbia in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.
QUESTION OF QUORUM Mr. TAFT raised a question as to the presence of a quorum;
The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore directed the roll to be called;
Ninety-four Senators answered to their names, as follows: Alken Case
Hendrickson Butler, Nebr. Dworshak Hennings Byrd
Eastland Hickenlooper Capehart Ellender
tory of the Pacific Islands, and for transmission to the governments of Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands in order that those governments may give consideration to the enactment of legislation or other action, I am sending texts of the convention and recommedation to the Secretary of the Interior.
HARRY S. TRUMAN. THE WHITE HOUSE, January 20, 1953.
(Enclosures: (1) Authentic text of convention; (2) authentic text of recommendation; (3) report of the Secretary of State; (4) letter from the Secretary of Labor (copy).)
REPORT OF MUTUAL SECURITY PROGRAM
The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before the Senate the following message from the President of the United States, transmitted, pursuant to law, to the Secretary of the Senate during the adjournment of Congress; which, with the accompanying report, was referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations: To the Congress of the United States:
I am transmitting herewith the Second Report on the Mutual Security Program, covering operations during the first 6 months of 1952 in furtherance of the purposes of the Mutual Security Act of 1951 (Public Law 165, 82d Cong.). The report reviews the steps that we have taken with other nations to work for peace and security.
The Mutual Security Program is a positive program for peace. It is absolutely essential to the security of the United States. At a time when one nation is bent upon world conquest-as the Soviet Union is today—other nations, large or small, have but two real choices: to pay the ransom of appeasement or to pay the price of building together sufficient strength-military, economic, political, and moral strength, to keep the peace. The United States and other free nations have chosen to build up their strength. That is what the Mutual Security Program is all about.
During the 6-month period reviewed in this report, real progress was made in strengthening the free world. Although much remains to be done, we are heading in the right direction. If we keep on, if each of the partners in this joint effort makes every effort to meet problems in a sensible manner, we shall eventually reach our goal of a secure, peaceful, and confident world.
HARRY S. TRUMAN. THE WHITE HOUSE, November 18, 1952.
WATER RESOURCES POLICY The ACTING PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before the Senate the following message from the President of the United States, which was read and, with the accompanying report, referred to the Committee on Public Works.
to provide a better basis for the develop Thus we shall soon have three imporment of our water and related land tant additional field checks for particuresources.
lar regions upon the desirable pattern of These resources are a foundation upon development for each area. which rest our national security, our These studies have been undertaken ability to maintain a democratic society, against a background of great accomand our leadership in the free world. All plishment, and in accord with the Natoo frequently their significance has been tion's well-established tradition of pubobscured among the dramatic events lic interest in its water and land rewhich have characterized our time. sources. I believe them to be in accord
Realizing the importance of properly with our record of vigorous action to proplanned water resource development, in tect the public welfare in river-basin de1950 I appointed a special commission to velopment, a record which dates from recommend a consistent and forward the first years of this century. looking national policy for the conser The first real impetus to sensible rivervation, development, and use of our basin development came as a part of the water and related land resources. This conservation movement which was led was the Water Resources Policy Com by President Theodore Roosevelt. He mission under the chairmanship of Mr. and his advisers realized that the Morris L. Cooke.
continuing misuse of our natural reThe Commission reported to me in sources through unbridled private de1951. Their report has been under care velopment would seriously endanger ful and detailed study by the executive the Nation's welfare within a very branch agencies since then. I now am few generations. His dynamic leadertransmitting formally the Commission's
ship brought the first real safeguards report to the Congress for its considera to assure that benefits from resource tion in treating problems of resource de development would accrue to all the velopment. I believe that the report is people, rather than just to special inof great value. The Commission's un terests. At the same time, he sought derstanding of cooperative effort in the
to assure permanently productive forAmerican system, its clarification of the ests, waters, and lands, complex problems of multiple-purpose During the period prior to the First planning, its detailed professional anal World War the Congress also demonysis of water management, and its recog strated a bipartisan interest in publicly nition of the broad public interest make beneficial river-basin development. Inthe report an important public docu deed, its interest in waterway development.
ment and flood control in the nineteenth The general studies of the Commis century marked the beginnings of Fedsion will shortly be supplemented by spe eral water policy. cific field studies of resource development The interest of both the Congress and in three major regions of the country. the executive branch in comprehensive After Congress authorized the basic sur treatment of our river basins was reveys in 1950, I established Federal inter flected in the enactment of laws which agency committees to study the New established and provided for the adminEngland-New York region and the istration of the national forests-one Arkansas-White-Red Basins. Those main purpose of which was to protect committees were organized, and they important watersheds which are sources have been at work for 2 12 years. They for many streams. It was shown in the will report upon the multiple-purpose enactment of the Reclamation Act of development of those regions next year. 1902 to provide Federal aid for the deThe committees have been directed to velopment of irrigation on the arid lands draw upon the experience and ideas of of the West. The interest continued, the people of the regions to the great as indicated by passage of the Federal est extent possible. The committees also Water Power Act in 1920. That act rehave been directed to present fully co quired selection of electric power projordinated recommendations for all the ects or plans which developed and used purposes served by water and land de water resources most efficiently. The invelopment. The governors of the af terest was further illustrated in the fected States or their representatives 1927 authorization of the Corps of Enare participating in the committee work, gineers 308 reports, which specifically and their views will be reflected in these provided for comprehensive planning. reports.
Although the dynamic influence of In 1952 I appointed a bipartisan Mis Theodore Roosevelt was important in souri Basin Survey Commission to as the conservation movement, the legislasemble the facts and report its judg tion enacted to conserve and to develop ments upon the proper procedure for our water and land resources for the further development in that vast terri most part was broadly supported by both tory. The report of this Commission parties. The steps taken were in recogwill be available within a few weeks. nition of the overriding public interest The Commission, which is composed of in sound resource management. Members of Congress and leading citi The experience of this early period of zens of the Missouri Basin, has con public action showed that constant vigiducted intensive hearings throughout lance and competent professional guidthe basin States. This Commission's re ance are essential to prevent irreparable port will be based on first-hand expres losses. In spite of earlier efforts, whole sions by the people of the basin of their sections of our national resource foundaviews on the future development of this tion were crumbling as recently as 20 vital region in the heart of our country. years ago. We had not yet fully awak
To the Congress of the United States:
As I leave the office of President, I should like to call to the attention of the Congress several recent actions designed
ened to some of the dangers to national interest which lay in short-sighted private actions. Our lands were disappearing in gale and flood; our streams still were destructive giants unchained.
During the two eventful decades which have followed since 1933, the Nation has undergone some deeply moving experiences, like the appearance of the Great Plains Dust Bowl which directly or indirectly affected millions of people. In part under the stimulus of catastrophe, but with the advantage of wise counsel during those years, we have changed greatly our attitudes toward using our lands and waters.
We have learned that the mark of a well-managed land lies in the care a Nation gives to its rivers. We have learned that rivers truly can be our servants, harnessed to provide vast additions to our wealth. And as we have learned we have been working to restore the crumbling parts of our resource foundation in a manner which has captured the imagination of the world.
During these years I believe that we demonstrated for all time the efficiency and the humanity of comprehensively planned multipurpose river-basin development. Compare the Tennessee Valley of 1933, which lacked even hope, with the vigorous region TVA in 1953 is assisting the people to build further. There you now will find several million people who are working aggressively to make the best use of their resources. A unified management of their watershed has helped them to create new opportunities.
Or compare the great dams and thousands of acres of fertile green fields which are beginning to grace eastern Washington State, with the sagebrush and scabland of a few years ago. Look at the great works of the Central Valley, or of the Colorado, which literally move rivers from one basin to another. Look at the great developments which are getting under way on the Missouri and in the Southwest.
No wonder professional visitors from all over the world come to see our works, and to study our ideas. The stream of several thousand professional visitors who come every year to study the Department of Interior's, TVA's, the Department of Agriculture's, and the Corps of Engineer's work is not a matter of chance. Only something solid and stimulating could be so lasting an attraction.
During those 20 years, we have learned the true place of electric power-generating facilities in our national life. They are vital to the Nation-physically, economically, socially. We now know they are so vital that never again can we trust to haphazard planning for their construction.
We know that electricity can be produced and sold cheaply; and that when it is so produced, the market for it is of hitherto undreamed size.
We know that large reserves of generating capacity are vital to economic health and to national security.
We know that the public construction of main transmission lines from generators to wholesale distribution points
unlocks this generating capacity for the public at large, and eliminates the danger of monopoly.
We know these things because we had the foresight to commence multiplepurpose river development.
TVA proved a lot of these things to us, and our works in other parts of the country have confirmed and extended that proof. I need hardly remind you that without the electricity of the TVA and Bonneville systems, which resulted from Federal multiple-purpose development, we should not have had enough aluminum for planes, and we should not have had the timely atomic-energy program of the last World War. In fact those two public power systems are still the energy life lines for that greatest development of our time.
We have learned much more. We now know that fertilizer can be produced and sold more cheaply than it was in the past. That can be done through having low-cost electric power in the right place, as for the huge phosphate deposits of the Pacific Northwest. Or it can come through new processes, as have been developed by TVA. Both means help us to produce more food and clothing. And the fertilizer has been made to help the upstream farmer keep his soil on his farm. That is where the soil belongs, and not in the flooded basements and on the warehouse floors of valley cities.
We have learned that private citizens—farmers, ranchers, forest ownersin their own interest as well as that of the Nation, should plan the use of the resources they control so that those resources will be more fruitful as the years go by. All across our country individuals and private companies have demonstrated the value and the practicality of effective conservation in the daily management of their own enterprises.
We have learned that the farmer can have electricity in his dairy barn, and his wife can electrify her kitchen-at rates which he can afford.
We have learned that small towns can compete with cities for the location of industry and factory jobs without having the disadvantage of high electricity rates, and without the disadvantage of high transportation rates for their materials and goods. Frequently dams which produce electricity also make it possible for vessels to move at low cost on a river.
We have learned that the advantages of flood control can be extended on a large scale through multiple-purpose reservoirs and watershed improvements, aiding town and farm alike.
All these now nationally acknowledged benefits of comprehensive river basin development were little but the vision of a few foresighted men 20 years ago. But they were visions which had existed for many years before we were able to act upon them. I hope that the demonstration we now have before us will never be forgotten, nor its significance lost sight of.
I am happy to report that we have made impressive additions to our resource foundation during my administration. We have continued on the pro
grams which were so well started in previous years.
Since 1945, we have added about 2,700,000 irrigated acres to our farm lands. By the middle of 1953, works constructed by the Federal Government will be supplying irrigation water to 135,000 farm units in the West. Several million additional acres would be irrigated under projects which have been authorized by the Congress but not yet constructed.
Since 1945, also, we have made substantial progress toward the protection of our many valleys from disastrous floods. We have provided additional flood control on the Mississippi, the Ohio, the Columbia, in New England, the Southwest and California, and in the mid-Atlantic States. We have made encouraging progress on the vast works for control of the giant Missouri, probably our most important remaining problem in river development. Between 1945 and 1953, about 3,000,000 acres of valley land were given food protection. Works now under way will provide protection to an additional 7,600,000 acres. Thee hundred and fifty communities and 2,700,000 people are located in the areas which will be protected.
In this period we have continued to improve our navigable waterways. We now have 28,600 miles of them, 11,100 miles to a depth of 9 feet or more. They are important parts of the Nation's transportation system, and their use has increased greatly in these years.
We have continued our soil conservation program. In these last 8 years, 1,296 new soil conservation districts were formed. This addition nearly doubled the number of such districts in the country.
Our additions to the country's means of producing and distributing electric energy have also been great in this period. During these 8 years, the Federal Government alone has constructed 5,000,000 kilowatts of generating capacity. This has increased the size of our public power systems by 50 percent. Further ultimate capacity of 10,600,000 kilowatts will be added when we complete projects now in construction,
Since 1945, we have constructed 12,200 miles of main transmission lines. They assure widespread benefits to the people from public power.
Through the direct efforts of the Rural Electrification Administration since 1945, we have brought electricity to 1,500,000 farms which never before had it. More than 88 percent of our farms are now electrified, as compared to 46 percent in January 1945. Through the lines constructed by the Department of the Interior and the TVA we also have brought the benefits of low-rate public power to 65 additional municipalities.
I have not the slightest doubt that these works, by the example they gave as well as the electricity they delivered, were an important reason for the small change in our rates for electric service throughout the Nation during this period when many prices rose sharply. Since 1945, during a period when private utilities have experienced unprecedented prosperity, national average residential
and commercial electric rates actually have decreased, and industrial rates have increased less than 10 percent. Compare that to the general rate increase of almost 80 percent authorized in the same period for rail freight rates. Without multiple-purpose river basin development, I believe that few of these accomplishments would have been possible.
I have been privileged to see during this administration the beginning or completion by our Federal Government of great dams, gigantic irrigation enterprises, huge generating stations, and other monuments which will stand as symbols of the truths about water and land developments we have now accepted as a Nation.
I might speak of the engineering accomplishments alone: The Corps of Engineers' McNary Dam on the Columbia, the Bureau of Reclamation's Grand Coulee irrigation diversion in Washington, and its Hungry Horse Dam in Montana, the corps' Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri, and TVA's Shawnee steam plant, to be the largest in the world. These are among the great engineering accomplishments of all time.
Yet it seems more important to me that all these, and other projects too, are symbols of the things we have learned about efficient, orderly, organized development of river basins.
We built the Bureau of Reclamation's great new Hungry Horse Dam in Montana not as an isolated structure, but as a part of the Columbia Basin system. Its value lies much more in the water it stores for use in a score of places down the long Columbia system than in its own sizable electricity production.
We are building TVA's Shawnee plant where it is because we want to make the best possible use of the whole TVA electrical system for the development of atomic energy in the interest of our national defense.
This is what we must do for every one of these great works that we plan or build in the future. If we are to use our money and our effort wisely, they must all be planned and built with the full needs of the region and the Nation in mind. Each new structure must be recognized as part of a plant which comprises a whole system of river development. In planning for each function, we must be mindful of its relation to all other purposes.
And we especially must make sure that we safeguard the use of these resources for the benefit of all the people. Where the public moneys are invested, the resulting gains must accrue to the public, and not be diverted to the undue benefit of any private group.
As we consider what the Nation has done, and what we now know, we must admit that we still have much to do. But a great deal will depend on the way we do it. We now are at a stage where we can capitalize on the extensive ground work which has been laid for unified planning and management and multiple-purpose development of our regional water and land resources.
There are many reasons why we should take steps as soon as possible to improve
further our resource development policy and administrative machinery, and why we must modernize Federal Government techniques which determine the speed, justice, and efficiency we can muster for this work.
The national investment in resource development from all sources has taken a sharp upward turn since the end of the Second World War. The Federal Government alone is now spending about a billion dollars a year to help develop our river basins through irrigation, power, flood prevention, navigation, watershed treatment, and in other important ways. The Congress has authorized over $10,000,000,000 of projects for undertaking in the future. However, in the face of this program, Federal organization for carrying out water resources responsibilities remains diffuse, and there is no uniform congressionally approved Federal water resources policy to govern large parts of this program.
More and more people are beginning to realize the importance of immediate changes to assure wise investment. There is an encouraging tide of rising interest in this hitherto specialized technical field by farmers, businessmen, workmen, civic organizations, and others. Increasingly large volumes of publicity are being given to definite proposals for changed policy and organization; some of these have real merit, and some, if adopted, would be very harmful.
Finally, some of our regions are in need of immediate help. I cannot think of the wasting resources of the Rio Grande Basin, the Arkansas Basin, the Red River, or New England without considering what a unified multiple-purpose program might do for each of them, and in helping them, what it might do for the Nation. These are not jobs for isolated, unrelated single-project development. They demand comprehensive plans for water and land alike. We cannot escape the obvious relation of such improvements to our national security.
For these reasons I commend to the Congress for its serious attention several lines of action.
First, we should organize more efficient means of regional river basin planning and management in those parts of our country which need such improvement.
The type of organization need not be the same for all regions. The breadth of our land and the number of rivers in it inevitably have given rise to many differing needs. A fixed pattern may not be the sole answer to the problems of all these rivers.
But whatever the outward form, the objectives should be the same. The organizations we decide upon should be strong enough to uphold the peoples' interest in their resources. They should be strong enough to be efficient. They should be strong enough to see that unified multiple-purpose development is planned for, and works operated harmoniously in each basin-wide comprehensive system. Their responsibilities should embrace related land as well as water programs.
The Water Resources Policy Commission recommended in favor of decen
tralized but unified or coordinated administration for these resource programs. The need for better coordinated basin administration also was recognized by the Commission on the Organization of the Executive Branch, which reported earlier to me and to the Congress.
Second, we should increase our efforts to see that every affected State, and every affected community in a region, is given opportunity to share in the responsibility for basin development. I think it is a good rule that where States and communities assume a greater share in administrative or planning responsibility, they should also assume greater financial responsibility.
We hear more and more of management and planning by the States from the regions where work now is being done, or is about to be undertaken. But we have found, I regret to say, that this growing demand for local administrative responsibility, with few exceptions, is not matched by an equal willingness to relieve the Federal Government of financial responsibility for a proportionate share of the required investment. The assumption of greater State and community financial responsibility is one of the ways we can avoid irresponsible special pressure for undesirable projects.
We can view with favor the increasing local awareness of the necessity of planned, cooperative improvement of our streams, but we also must foster an understanding of the huge size of the job. There is much more to it than Federal Government funds are likely to accomplish in a reasonable time.
We must also see that improved Federal organization accompanies increased local and State participation. States and communities cannot cooperate effectively with the agencies of the Federal Government where sharp differences of opinion exist and where machinery for resolving these differences is cumbersome or absent.
Third, we should strengthen and simplify our Federal procedures for selection among the great volume of project proposals which come to the executive offices and the Congress every year.
It has been estimated that full development of our water and land resources over the years may require the investment of as much as a hundred billion dollars by private citizens and their Goyernment. Not far in the future the mold will be formed which will determine the pattern of works for most of our important regions. Whether or not the investment is to be sound or unsound, for all the people or for a fortu. nate few, will be decided by what the Federal Government does within a few years.
Thus far we have not even been able to compare projects on the same basis. There are a number of Federal resourcedevelopment laws, and they establish differing procedures and differing standards. We have had to judge irrigation proposals by one standard, flood control by another, pollution control by a third, and so on. In some cases, we have not even been able to get the facts as to whether or not benefits will be greater