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compartment and of all necessary nuclear power components and systems and propulsion equipment for a submarine is covered.

- In another ship prototype situation, the Department has held that assembling and fitting the components of nuclear steam propulsion units into the hull sections, including installation of the pressure vessels, turbo-generator sets, heat exchangers, control wiring, etc., is covered.

A later decision involving the same prototype indicates that the earlier rulings should not be construed as intended to cover all equipment assemblies irrespective of the status of construction and other pertinent factors.

(b) Paving. The construction of roads, including grading, and their repair--where such repair includes work on roadbeds before resurfacing, building up shoulders, forming ditches, culverts and bridges, and on the actual resurfacing of roads--is covered. However, recurring-type maintenance work, such as patching surface, filling chuck holes, patching shoulders, and resurfacing railroad crossings is noncovered. Similarly, patch and maintenance work on a parking lot, the replacement of bumper stops, and the repainting of parking dividers is noncovered.

(c) Stationary boilers. The construction, alteration and/or repair, including installation and rebuilding, of stationary boilers costing in excess of $2,000 for labor and materials is covered. In contrast, inspection may reveal need for replacement of pieces of insulation, individual tubes, or other defective parts. Such maintenance, necessary to keep the boiler in safe operating conduction, is non-covered.

(d) Startup of operating activity after fire or other catastrophe. Rebuilding of plant following a catastrophe, such as replacement of structural members, roof trusses, walls, roof, utility services, and process piping is covered. However, where process equipment can be restarted and/or operational activities resumed prior to such rebuilding, the actual work of startup, including preliminary activity, e.g., cleaning, drying, checking, adjustment, temporary services, and temporary weather protection of equipment, essential to such resumption of operational activity, is noncovered.

(e). Rehabilitation of facilities. By contrast with emergency services needed to restore or maintain functional usefulness, as above described, rehabilitation (e.g., painting, change-out, rearrangement and installation of equipment, replacement or repair of damaged parts of a structure or of building services or equipment) of a nonoperable facility or of significant nonoperable portions of a facility is


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covered. In such rehabilitation, the startup of equipment by operating employee is noncovered.

(f) Painting. Although painting and decorating are specifically mentioned in the Act, painting which is closely integrated within operation and maintenance activities, and such repainting as color coding of process lines and service piping (including valves and directional arrows), is noncovered; likewise, application of various materials for localizing contamination, painting of machine tools to identify degree of contamination, preventive maintenance, repainting of mach ine tools, equipment and plant structures is noncovered when performed with a stable work force employed by the operating contractor.

(g) Installation, rearrangement or adjustment of equipment. (See also paragraph (h). Experimental installations, of this section.)

(1) During construction. In the construction of a new facility--whether it is a production plant, a laboratory, or supporting facilities, such as shops and warehou ses--an integral part of a construction project is the installation of equipment (including mechanical equipment, building services, instruments, etc.) which permits the facility to be utilized for the purpose for which it was intended. Normally, the initial installation, arrangement, adjustment, balancing, calibration, and checking of such equipment is a logical part of the construction contract(s) for completion of the facility and, whether or not included within the scope of such contract(s), is covered.

(2) Plant startup. At the time of the turnover of an ERDA facility (which frequently differs in many respects from other facilities), from construction to operation activities, if the facility is turned over a section at a time, some problems of coverage may arise. It is extreme ly difficult, if not impossible, to write rules or criteria that can be practically applied in all situations. Usually, it is essential that final checkout of a plant prior to the startup of plant operations be performed by personnel of the operating contractor and, as such, is not covered. The important thing is to work out a practical plan that will assure: (i) Safe and effective startup of the facility, (ii) the fulfillment of obligations under applicable statutes, and (iii) continuing construction at the facility.

(3) Equipment and equipment assemblies. While the current construction status of a public building or public work is not controlling as to coverage of supply-installation-type contracts, this is a factory to be considered in judging the applicability of the DavisBacon Act. The Labor Department has ruled (Walsh-Healey Rulings and Interpretations: No. 3, section 6(b) that while contracts in excess of $10,000 for equipment, including erection or installation are subject to the Walsh-Healy Act, they may be also covered under the DavisBacon Act where more than an incidental amount (see $9-18.701-51(c)) of work is involved. Examples given in this ruling include furnishing and installation of mechanical equipment such as elevators or of generators requiring prepared foundations or housing. In a specific situation, the Department has indicated that a contract for furnishing the initial installation of piping, wiring, gas exhaust fans, plumbing, sheet metal work, and related activities to install kitchen baking equipment was comparable to the basic plumbing, wiring, and heating contracts and was covered.

While this situation involves an initial installation, alteration or rearrangement of existing facilities involving such work to accommodate new or different equipment is also covered. Conversely, it follows that where the test of more than an incidental amount of construction is not met, and where the installation, rearrangement or adjustment of equipment is not a logical part of any current related construction project, it is noncovered.

(4) Special leased systems. Most but not all contracts involving the installation of telephone, detective and other leased systems are not covered when the work is performed by employees of the companies supplying the services and the material and equipment installed is owned by such companies.

A contract for a telephone central system to be installed by the manufacturer and owned by the United States has been held to be covered.

(h) Experimental installations. Within ERDA programs, a variety of experiments are conducted involving materials, fuels, coolants, processes, equipment, etc. Certain types of situations where tests and experiments have sometimes presented coverage questions are described below.

(1) Set-ups of device and/or processes. The proving out of investigative findings and theories of a scientific and technical nature for extension into practical application may require the set-up of various devices and/or processes at an early or preprototype stage of development. These may vary from laboratory bench size upwards. As a rule, these set-ups are made within established facilities (normally laboratories); required utility connections are made to services provided as a part of the basic facilities: and the activity as a whole falls within the functional purpose of the facility. Such set-ups may be for exploring mechanical or electrical design suitability, physical or chemical properties, or for collecting data to verify or reject scientific hypotheses. Such set-ups are noncovered. Preparatory work for the set-up requiring structural changes or modifications of basic utility services--as distinguished from connections thereto--is covered. Illustrative of noncovered set-ups of devices and/or processes are the following:

(i) Assembly of piping and equipment within existing "hot cell" facilities for proving out a conceptual design of a chemical processing unit;

(ii) Assembly of equipment, including adaptation and modification thereof, in existing "hot cell" facilities to prove out a conceptual design for remotely controlled machining equipment;

(iii) Assembly of the first graphite pile in a stadium at Stagg Field in Chicago;

(iv) Assembly of materials and equipment for particular aspects of the direct current thermonuclear experiments to explore feasibility and to study other ramifications of the concept of high energy injection and to collect data thereon.

(2) Loops. Many experiments are carried on in equipment assemblies called loops in which liquids or gases are circulated under monitored and controlled conditions. For purposes of determining DavisBacon coverage, loops may be classed as loop facilities or as loop set-ups. Both of these classes of loops can include in-reactor loops and out-of-reactor loops. In differentiating between clearly indentified loop set-ups and loop facilities, an area exists in which there have been some questions of coverage, such as certain loops at the Material Test Reactor and Engineering Test Reactor at the National Reactor Test Site. Upon clarification of this area, further illustrations will be added. In the meantime, the differentiation between loop set-ups and loop facilities must be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the total criteria set forth in this subpart.

(i) Loop set-ups. The assembly, erection, modification and disassembly of a loop set-up is noncovered. A noncontroversial example of a loop set-up is one which is assembled in a laboratory, e.g., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, for a particular test and thereafter disassembled. However, preparatory work for a loop set-up requiring structural changes or modifications of basic utility services--as distinguished from connections thereto--is covered as is material and equipment that is installed for a loop set-up which is a permanent part of the facility or which is used for a succession of experimental programs.

(ii) Loop facilities. A loop facility differs from a loop setup in that it is of a more permanent character; usually, but not always, of greater size; normally involves the building or modification of a structure; sometimes is installed as a part of construction of the facility; and may be designed for use in a succession of experimental programs over a longer period of time. Examples of loop facilities are the in-reactor "K" loops at Hanford and the large Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion loop at National Reactor Test Site. The on-site assembly and erection of such loop facilities are covered. However, once a loop facility is completed and becomes operational, the criteria set forth above for operational and maintenance activities apply.

(3) Reactor component experiments. Other experiments are carried on by insertion of experimental components within reactor systems without the use of a loop assembly. Illustrative of reactor facilities erected for such experimental purposes are the special power excursion test reactors at the National Reactor Test Site, which are designed for studying reactor behavior and performance characteristics of certain reactor components. Such a facility may consist of a reactor vessel, pressurizing tank, coolant loops, pumps, heat exchangers, and other auxilary equipment as needed. The facility also may include sufficient shielding to permit work on the reactor to proceed following a short period of power operation and buildings as needed to house the reactor and its auxilary equipment. The erection and on-site assembly of such a reactor facility is covered work but the components whose characterisitics are under study are excluded from coverage. To illustrate, one of the SPERTS planned for studies of nuclear reactor safety is designed to accommodate various internal fuel and control assemblies as required to conduct a particular test. Accordingly, the internal structure of the pressure vessel is 80 designed that cores of differenct shapes and sizes may be placed in the vessel for investigation, or the entire internal structure may be easily removed and replaced by a structure which will accept a different core design. Similarly, the control rod assembly is arranged to provide for flexibility in the removal of instrument leads and experimental assemblies from within the core.

(4) Tests or experiments in peaceful uses of nuclear energy. These tests or experiments are varied in nature and some are only in a planning state. These tests or experiments consist of a single or series of nuclear or nonnuclear detonations for the purposes of acquiring data. The data can include seismic effects, radiation effects, amount of heat generated, amount of material moved and so forth. Some of these tests are conducted in existing mines while others are conducted in locations specifically constructed for the tests or experiments. In general, all work which can be performed in accordance with customary drawings and specifications as well as

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