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reports, cost analyses, and other information incidental to contract administration.

(b) "Proprietary data" means technical data which embody trade secrets developed at private expense, such as design procedures or techniques, chemical composition of materials, or manufacturing methods, processes, or treatments, including minor modifications thereof, provided that such data:

(1) are not generally known or available from other sources without obligation concerning their confidentiality,

(2) have not been made available by the owner to others without obligation concerning their confidentiality, and

(3) are not already available to the Government without obligation concerning their confidentiality.

(c) "Contract data" means technical data first produced in the performance of the contract, technical data which are specified to be delivered under the contract, technical data that may be called for under the Additional Technical Data Requirements clause of the contract, if any, or technical data actually delivered in connection with the contract.

(d) "Unlimited rights" means rights to use, duplicate or disclose technical data, in whole or in part, in any manner and for any purpose whatsoever, and to permit others to do so.

89-9.202 Acquisition and use of technical data.

$9-9.202–1 General.

(a) The provisions herein pertain to research, development, demonstration and supply contracts, and contracts for the operation, design, or construction of Government-owned facilities which are covered by $9-9.202-4. Under ERDA's broad charter to perform research, development, and demonstration work in both nuclear and nonnuclear fields, and to meet the objectives stated in 89-9.202-2 below, ERDA has extensive needs for technical data. The satisfaction of these needs and the achievement of ERDA's objectives through a sound data policy are found in the balancing of the needs and equities of the Government, its contractors, and the general public.

(b) It is important to keep a clear distinction between contract requirements for the delivery of technical data on the one hand, and rights in technical data on the other. The legal rights which the Government acquires in technical data in ERDA contracts (other than "facilities" contracts) are set forth in the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause of $9-9.202-3(e)(2). However, this clause does not obtain for the Government the delivery of any data whatsoever. Rather, known requirements for the technical data to be delivered by the contractor shall be set forth as part of the contract (e.g. in the statement of work). An Additional Technical Data Requirements clause is included in this subpart to enable the contracting officer to require the contractor to furnish additional technical data, the requirement for which was not known at the time of contracting. There is, however, a built-in limitation on the kind of technical data which a contractor may be required to deliver under either the contract statement of work or the Additional Technical Data Requirements clause. This limitation is found in the withholding provision of paragraph (e) of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause of $9-9.202-3(e) (2) which provides that the contractor need not furnish "proprietary data". It is specifically intended that the contractor may withhold "proprietary data" even though a requirement for technical data specified in the Statement of Work or called for pursuant to the Additional Technical Data Requirements clause would seemingly require the furnishing of proprietary data. This withholding of proprietary data is the primary means by which the contractor may protect its proprietary position.

(c) There are, however, two situations where the Government, or its representative, may need to have limited access to a contractor's proprietary data. First, paragraph (f) of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause gives the contracting officer's representatives the limited right to inspect at the contractor's facility the contractor's proprietary data which was withheld from delivery under paragraph (e) of the clause for the purpose of verifying that such data were properly withheld or to evaluate work performance. In carrying out the inspection, normally the contracting officer's representative is an ERDA employee although he may be an employee of an ERDA contractor acting under an agreement to treat in confidence the proprietary data to be inspected. However, where the contractor whose data are to be inspected demonstrates that there would be a possible conflict of interest if the inspection were made by such a contractor employee, the contracting officer's representative may be limited to an ERDA employee. Paragraph (f) has a built-in exclusion from these inspection rights for "specific items of proprietary data" when they are so specified in the contract schedule. Such exclusions limit even ERDA's minimum rights of evaluating contract work performance and verifying that technical data withheld by the contractor is proprietary in fact. Such exclusions should be sparingly used, and only in situations where program personnel stipulate to the fact that ERDA has no need for access to the specified items to be excluded from paragraph (f), i.e., that the nondisclosure and nonaccessibility will not adversely affect the ERDA program involved. It should also be noted that paragraph (f) permits exclusion of "specific items" of proprietary data and, accordingly, should not be used to exclude classes of technical data or all technical data pertaining to specific items or processes or classes of items or processes. The second situation, where the Government may have limited access to a contractor's proprietary data, is provided in optional paragraph (g) of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause. When used, optional paragraph (g) provides the Government the right to require the contractor to furnish with limited rights the proprietary data previously withheld under paragraph (e). In this situation, the limited rights in proprietary data and the Government's obligation for limited use and disclosure of such data as set forth in the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause provides the means by which the contractor protects its proprietary position. Paragraph (8) will be used only where it is determined by ERDA that for programmatic reasons there is a need for the delivery of proprietary data to the Government. Where proprietary data is to be delivered under paragraph (g) and subparagraph (a) or (b) of the limited rights legend is to be applied to the data, the contractor may, if he can show the possibility of a conflict of interest regarding disclosure of such data to other contractors, limit or modify subparagraphs (a) or (b) as set forth in $9-9.202–3(e)(3), to exclude or include certain contractors.

(d) The contractor licensing provisions of optional paragraph (h) of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause enable ERDA to require limited licenses in proprietary contract data to be granted to the Government and responsible parties in certain circumstances. Such a license may parallel or supplement the license obtained in background patents under the provisions of paragraph (k) of the Patent Rights clause of Subpart 9-9.1. Paragraph (h) is normally to be included in contracts for research, development or demonstration where it is deemed by ERDA that the limited license afforded therein is necessary to ensure widespread commercial use or practical utilization of a subject of the contract. As explained in $9-9.202-3(e)(4), paragraph (h) provides that upon request by ERDA, the contractor will grant to the Government and responsible third parties a license in proprietary data only where such data in the form of results obtained by its use, i.e., essential equipment, articles, products, and the like which were the subject of the contract, are not otherwise available, or cannot be made available in a reasonable time as set forth in paragraph (h).

(e) It is the responsibility of prime contractors and highertier subcontractors, in meeting their obligations with respect to contract data, to obtain from their subcontractors the rights in, access to, and delivery of such data on behalf of the Government. Accordingly, subject to the policy set forth in these regulations, and subject to the approval of the contracting officer where required, selection of appropriate technical data provisions for subcontracts is the responsibility of the prime contractor or higher-tier subcontractor. In many but not all instances, inclusion in a subcontract of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause of $9-9.202-3(e)(2) will suffice to obtain for the benefit of the Government the rights in and, if appropriate, access to technical data. Access by ERDA to technical data, i.e., the inspection rights afforded in paragraph (f) of the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause, 89-9.202-3(e) (2), normally should be obtained only in first.tier subcontracts having as a purpose the conduct of research, development, or demonstration work or the furnishing of supplies for which there are substantial technical data requirements as reflected in the prime contract. If a subcontractor refuses to accept technical data provisions affording rights in and access to technical data on behalf of the Government, the contractor shall so inform the contracting officer in writing and not proceed with the subcontract without written authorization of the contracting officer. In prime contracts (or higher-tier subcontracts) which contain the Additional Technical Data Requirements clause, it is the further responsibility of the contractor (or higher-tier subcontractor) to determine whether inclusion of such clause in a subcontract is required to satisfy technical data requirements of the prime contract (or higher tier subcontract). As is the case for ERDA in its determination of technical data requirements, the Additional Technical Data Requirements clause should not be used at any subcontracting tier where the technical data requirements are fully known, and normally the clause will be used only in subcontracts having as a purpose the conduct of research development or demonstration. Prime contractors and higher tier subcontractors shall not use their power to award subcontracts as economic leverage to inequitably acquire rights in the subcontractor's proprietary data for their private use, and they shall not acquire rights on behalf of the Government to proprietary data for standard commercial items unless required by the prime contract.

(f) Related to the acquisition and use of technical data are the contractor's rights in contract data as well as technical data furnished to the contractor by ERDA or its contractors. These rights are set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of each Rights in Technical Data clause of this Subpart and provide that the contractor may, subject to patent, security and other provisions of the contract, use for its private purposes contract data it first produces in the performance of the contract provided that the contractor has met its data requirements (e.g., delivery of data in the form of progress or status reports specified to be delivered) as of the date and the private use of such data. It is not necessary that a final report be submitted in order to privately use data if all required progress and interim reports and other technical data then due have been delivered. Paragraph (b)(2) further provides that technical or other data received by the contractor in the performance of the contract must be

held in confidence by the contractor in accordance with restrictions accompanying the data.

(g) An additional clause in this subpart includes that of paragraph 9-9.202-3(f)(2) entitled Rights in Data -- Special Works which is to be used in place of or in addition to the Rights in Technical Data (long form) clause in contracts where a purpose of the contract is the production of copyrightable material, a substantial portion of which is to be first produced in the performance of the contract, such as motion pictures, television recordings, books, histories, etc. Where, during contract negotiations, it may be determined to purchase, i.e., "specifically acquire", unlimited rights in technical data, or to lease or obtain a license therein, or to obtain rights in existing data, an appropriate clause therefor should be obtained from patent counsel. In situations where technical data including computer software are to be leased or licensed, the terms of any agreement restricting the Government's rights will be included in the contract as either a special provision or an agreement annexed thereto. Another clause, the Rights in Technical Data (short form) clause of $9-9.202-3(g) (2), is provided for use in research contracts with educational institutions and consultants. Such contractors may, for example, include those for conducting symposia, training, or education, or other contracts not involving possible use of proprietary data.

$9-9.202-2 Policy.

The technical data policy is directed toward achieving the following objectives:

(a) Making the benefits of the energy research, development and demonstration programs of ERDA widely available to the public in the shortest practicable time;

(b) Promoting the commercial utilization of the technology developed under ERDA programs;

(c) Encouraging participation by private persons in ERDA energy research, development and demonstration programs; and

(d) Fostering competition and preventing undue market concentration or the creation or maintenance of other situations inconsistent with the antitrust law.

$9-9.202-3 Procedures (supply, research,

development or demonstration contracts)

(a) Known requirements for technical data. Technical data requirements are determined in relation to the intended use of the

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