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reference to these events, when he says, “I would not have you ignorant, brethren, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, did all eat the same spiritual meat, and did all drink the same spiritual drink; for they drank of that spiritual rock that followed them, and that rock was CHRIST." Or, in other words, he unequivocally declares, that CHRIST is the JEHOVAH who was in the Pillar of the Cloud, which conducted the Israelites across the wilderness.
Jehovah rains down manna from heaven, and commands Moses to strike the rock in Horeb. 5. And Moses takes the rod of Elohim in his hand, wherewith he had smote the rivers.
The rod with which Moses performed his great miracles is called the “ Rod of ELOHIM.” This denotes that these were effected by the power of the united Godhead; and yet the distinctness of agency is visible in the peculiar way in which JEHOVAH is shown to preside over the proceedings of the Israelites.
Jethro heard all that Elohim had done for Moses, and that JeHOVAH had brought Israel out of Egypt. 12. And Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for Elohim. And Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses' father-in-law before ELOHIM.
It may be remembered that ELOHIM appeared to Moses in the burning bush; and thus the sacrifices are offered to the whole GODHEAD_Elohim. Nevertheless, Moses fails not to particularize that it is JEHOVAH who brought the Israelites out of Egypt.
CHAP. XIX. And the people came into the wilderness, and pitched before the Mount of Sinai. 3. And Moses went up unto Elohim, and Jehovah called to Moses and said, 5. If ye will obey my voice, ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people. 11. Jehovah commanded Moses to be ready for the third day, when he will come down in the sight of all the people upon Mount Sinai. 17. And Moses brought forth the people to meet with Elohim. 19. And ELOHIM answered him by a voice. 20. And Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai; and Jehovah called Moses up to the top of the Mount.
It is not possible, I think, to read the above extract, and not perceive a distinction of agency or person. Moses ascends Sinai, to appear in the presence of ELOHIM; but when there, it is JEHOVAH who comes and pronounces His commands and merciful promises
—thus, as it were, interposing his mediation between Moses and the whole Godhead, whom, in chap. iii., it was said Moses was afraid to look on.
CHAP. XX. V. 1.-And ELOHIM spake, saying, 2. I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt. Thou shalt have no other Elohim before me. 19. And the people said unto Moses, Speak thou to us, and we will hear thee; but let not ELOHIM speak with us lest we die.
We never hear the Israelites desire that JEHOVAH may not speak to them lest they die, but we read, that they pray for a mediator between themselves and the awful ELOHIM, or the concentrated majesty of the whole Godhead.
V. 13.–And Moses went up unto the Mount of Elohim. 16. And the glory of Jehovah abode on the Mount. And JeHOVAH gave him all the directions for making the tabernacle and ark, &c.
CHAP. XXIX. V. 45.—And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God. 46. And they shall know that I am Jehovah, their God, that brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among them. I am Jehovah their God.
Here it is plainly said that JEHOVAH dwelt among the children of Israel ; and in a great many places it is said, that he dwelt between the Cherubim which were placed on the Ark of the Covenant, although it is not said that he was visible to the human eye; yet it is certain that his presence there was something distinct from the general Omnipresence of the Almighty God; for the High Priest was commanded to go there, to pray to and consult him.
The Gospel history is perfectly consistent with the Jewish, for the inspired writers of the New Testament affirm that the same Divine Being, the JEHOVAH, who led the Jews through the wilderness, dwelt on earth while he was bringing life and immortality to light, and was to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.
CHAP. XXXI. V. 18.—When Jehovah had made an end of communing with Moses upon Mount Sinai, He gave him the Tables of Testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of ELOHIM.
It is said that ELOHIM, or GOD ALMIGHTY, writes the Commandments ; but Moses adds, JEHOVAH communed with him, and gave them into his hand.
CHAP. XXXII. And while Moses is detained on the Mount, the Israelites make a golden calf, v. 8. And said, “ These be thy gods, O Israel.”
Does not this prove that the Israelites at that time acknowledged a plurality in the Godhead, or else why do they say, “ These be thy Gods,” when they refer to one molten calf only?
V. 7.—And Moses pitched the tabernacle without the camp. 9. And when he entered into it, the cloudy Pillar descended and stood at the door of the tabernacle. · And the Lord talked with Moses. 11. And Jehovah spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend.
Is not this a prophetic transaction representing Jesus Christ's future abode on earth?
LEVITICUS. All the worship that is commanded in the tabernacle is offered to Jehovah. Jehovah gives all the directions, and commands all the rites and ceremonies.
Let it be remembered that JEHOVAH, in the 12th chapter of Genesis, promised to give the land of Canaan to Abraham's posterity; and then observe how consistently Moses retains the epithet JEHOVAH in relating all their progress : and in this book of Leviticus it is he who establishes their religious rites. But, above all, remember that Christ is elsewhere called JEHOVAH, (vide Acts, chap. vii., v. 38; 1 Cor. chap. X., v. 9;) and thus it is proved, that although there is a diversity of Persons, yet, in the mind of the inspired writer, they all finally concentrate into the one great God Almighty, Elohim.
CHAPS, XXIII.-XXIV. Balaam went to Balak; and when the altars were built, he went to a high mountain to seek Jehovah. 4. Elohim met him. 5. And Jehovah put a word into Balaam's mouth. 7. And he took up the parable and said, 8. How shall I curse whom God hath not cursed, or how shall I defy whom Jehovah hath not defied ?-A second time Balaam seeks the LORD. 16. And Jehovah meets Balaam, and puts a word into his mouth. 18. And he took up the parable and said, 19. God is not a man, that he should repent, &c. (Ch. xxiv., v. 1.) And when Balaam saw that it pleased JEHOVAH to bless Israel, he went not out as at other times; 2. But he lifted up his eyes, and saw Israel. 3. And the Spirit ELOHIM came upon him, and he took up the parable, &c.
Surely a distinction of persons is perceptible in this transaction of Balaam! ELOHIM meets him at first; then Jehovah and God are represented as taking a part; and finally the Spirit Elohim inspires him with the beautiful and wonderful prophecy which he pronounces.
CHAP. IV. Moses exhorts the Israelites to obedience to God, and says, V. 7. -What nation is there so great which hath Elohim so nigh unto them as Jehovah our God is in all things that we call upon him for? 32. Ask now of the days that are past, since the day that ELOHIM created man on the earth. 33. Did ever people hear the voice of ELOHIM speaking out of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and live? 34. Or hath ELOHIM essayed to take him a nation from the midst of another nation by signs and wonders, according to all that Jehovah your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes ? 35. Unto thee it was showed, that thou mightest know that JEHOVAH he is Elohim, there is none else beside him. 39. Know, therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that JeHOVAH he is ELOHIM, in the heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is none else. Thou shalt therefore keep his statutes and commandments, that thou mayest prolong thy days upon the earth, which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.