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Osseous System--Essay VI.

228 is nothing in this. They know that for a that if any person insinuates the contrary, man, professing himself to be a Papist, to be either deceives himself, or wishes to de take such oaths would be the sure way to ceive others. infamy, and would expose him to universal Is Mr. H. then deceived, or is he a deexecration as a perjured hypocrite. ceiver? According to Mr. Plowden, he is

To place the Moravians on the same either the one or the other. I believe him level with Papists, because they are subject to be the former, and ascribe his zeal in to a foreign synod, is perfectly ridiculous, this bad cause to a benevolent nature, unand is certainly any thing but a compli- happily, in this instance, uncontrolled by a ment to that "beautiful flock," which, he sound judgment. - As a friend to civil and says, are the most excellent Christians he religious liberty, I protest against putting had ever known. Between the Moravian power into the hands of men, of whom and the Papist there is no resemblance. there is a moral certainty that they will The Moravian acknowledges no power in greatly abridge, if not entirely destroy, a foreign, or any other synod, to control both. his conscience, or to doom him to perdi- If ever there was a time since the days tion. By' no synod has he at any time of James the Second, when it was impobeen taught the innocency of violating litic to give power to Papists, this is the faith with one of another sect; nor has any time. Their zeal within the last twenty synod assumed to itself the power of dis- years has increased ten-fold. And those solving the relation between kings and their pests of society, the Jesuits, who for their subjects. Neither have such synods erected manifold villanies were banished even an inquisition, or butchered thousands, both from papal kingdoms, have been restored male and female, because they would not to power, and permitted to establish thembow to an image, or subscribe to opinions selves in Protestant Britain. And shall which are alike at variance with reason and we raise those to the dignity of legislators, revelation. No, in their principles there is whose consciences are in the keeping and nothing inconsistent with the liberty and under the guidance of such men? Men the happiness of society. To represent who are under the most sacred obligations, these as alike innocent and trust-worthy, is implicitly in all things to obey the sucnot less absurd than it would be to present cessor of Hildebrand.

Is this acting in a virtuous female and a courtesan as equally accordance with the divine commandeligible candidates for the situation of go- “Come out of her, my people, that ye

be verness in a virtuous family. Between not partakers of her sins, and that ye rethe one and the other there is no resem- ceive not of her plagues ?” " He that blance.

honoureth me, him will I also honour; That Papists and infidels should exert but whoso despiseth me shall be lightly themselves to prepare the way for the ulti. esteemed.” mate overthrow of scriptural Christianity, Jan. 10th, 1829.

NEHEMIAH. is perfectly in character, and cannot be matter of surprise to any one; but that Protestants should advocate a cause which is intended to put fresh life and vigour into the Apocalyptic beast, a beast whose

(Continued from col. 138.) cruelty has generally been in proportion to its power, and which the voice of inspira

ESSAY VI. tion has doomed to destruction, is a thing In a previous portion of our essays, we have so strange, that, to account for it, we must stated the parts of the skeleton of redsuppose them either to be ignorant of the blooded animals, which may be considered history of Popery, or to believe that its as strictly essential, to consist of the skull character is changed. We trace their con- and vertebral column; and this latter we duct to the latter. But, on what authority have described as formed by a succession of do they build their opinion ? Not on the short thick bones, united, rather than jointed authority of papal councils, not papal bulls. together, and differing in number in difNot on the authority of Dr. Troy and Dr. ferent species of animals. Milner, both papal bishops, for they both Nor is this difference confined to number affirmed, that the “ principles of their only; for in their general figure and arrangechurch are unchanged and unchangeable.” ment, they exhibit variety also.-Among Nor on the authority of Mr. Plowden, an fishes, for example, we find the vertebral

eminent popish layman, for he explicitly column, either cylindrical, angular, or com. asserts, that modern Roman Catholics differ pressed ; and if we examine each vertebra not in' one iota from their ancestors; and singly, we shall observe, that i

instead of

ESSAYS ON THE STRUCTURE AND ME

CHANISM OF THE OSSEOUS SYSTEM.

229

Osseous System - Essay VI.

230

is

presenting a flat surface, as in mammalia, formly corresponding two ribs and one the body is hollowed into a funnel-shaped vertebra. depression at each end, so that, by the In the tortoise and turtle we find the union of one vertebra with another, a cavity vertebræ and ribs amalgamating with the

formed, consisting of two cones joined at back plate. In the lizard family, however, the base; and so on, throughout the whole the vertebral column is complete, so as to column. These cones, however, are not admit of motion. The ribs are united to hollow, but filled with a cartilaginous sub- a sternum, and by their motions assist restance very elastic, the structure of which spiration. In the frog, and others of the appears to consist of concentric fibres, those same order, the vertebræ are cup-shaped. next the centre being the softest and most Birds also depart considerably from the pulpy: It is by means of this cartilage general plan, as we find it in mammalia. that the vertebræ are united, and upon it It is true, that all the vertebræ are here they perform all their movements; for, in perfectly distinct, but all are not moveable ; another respect also, unlike those of mam- as for instance, the lumbur vertebræ, which malia, articular processes are wanting. This are all ossified into one piece with the method of conjunction by intermediate car- haunch-bones. The ribs differ also from tilage, occurs only among those fishes whose those of mammalia. At their vertebral skeleton is properly osseous; but in the extremity they are bifurcated; the sternal cartilaginous order the bones of the verte extremity is furnished with an osseous apbral column are so consolidated together, pendix ; and from the middle, a flat prothat they cannot be separately distinguished, cess projects obliquely backwards over the except by the spinous processes.

succeeding rib. Among osseous fishes, the cervical verte

Before, however, we mention the ribs of bræ are generally wanting, - in some species animals, we ought to observe, that with the however they do exist, as in the herring, to sternum (breastbone) they constitute the the number of four. In the cartilaginous necessary parts of the trunk. The ribs in order we find them consolidated into one. figure are like an arch, one extremity being The dorsal vertebræ are in general furnished united to the vertebral column, and the with transverse processes, to which the ribs other attached by the cartilaginous elongaare attached, at least in the osseous order ; tions to the sternum, and thus forming in for it is to be observed, that true ribs are mammalia and birds' the cavity of the thowanting in the cartilaginous. Fishes have rar, or chest.-In some animals the ribs no vertebræ answering to the lumbar in are wanting; in others again, as we noticed mammalia; the caudal vertebræ, however, with regard to serpents, they are extremely exist, to the last of which are articulated the numerous. delicate bones of the fin at its extremity. In the human species their number is Among reptiles, the vertebral column pre- twenty-four-twelve on each side;- but of sents very great varieties and differences.

these, seven only on each side are united to In serpents, the skeleton itself consists of the sternum by cartilages; the remainder little besides the vertebræ, all of a figure are short, and from the circumstance of their nearly similar ; their union is, however, very not uniting as the others, are termed false singular. The posterior articular surface of ribs. The sternum in man is flat and long, each vertebra is so constructed as to form and forms the anterior wall of the cavity of a rounded eminence or ball, and this is the chest. It is connected, as we have previreceived into a corresponding depression ously stated, to the clavicles, and to fourtcen in the anterior surface of that which suc- of the ribs. ceeds ; 'thus constituting throughout the Its forin, however, in many or most of whole column a series of ball-and-socket the lower animals, exhibits considerable articulations, from which the greatest flexi- variety. In birds, it is of great propor

bility is derived. The ribs are also united tionate magnitude. The internal surface is in a similar way to the vertebræ ; that is, concave, while externally it is divided by a

by means of a limited ball-and-socket arti- deep longitudinal ridge or crest, so that culution, the dorsal extremity of each rib altogether it bears a rough resemblance to having a depression, into which is received a boat, having a keel unusually deep. In A rounded protuberance of the vertebra, some animals, as for instance in serpents, the The ribs in some species amount to nearly sternum is wanting.

three hundred pairs. They terminate by a The limbs or extremities next require cartilaginous union to the scales of the our consideration. In many red-blooded belly; and according to the Count de la animals, as in serpents for instance, they Cepede, in the tiger, boa, and rattlesnake, are wanting : in the majority, however, of to each abdominal shield there are uni- ! this grand division, they constitute a requi

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Osseous System-Essay KI.

232 site part of the structure; and the number structed accordingly, and the whollows or when perfect is four. In all animals which depressions of the bones of the skulls in possess them, they constitute the instru- which the muscles of the jaws are situated, ments of progression, and in many, of de will have their peculiar depth and charac fence, or of obtaining the food which the ter. The organization of the stomach will God of nature has appointed for them. also be in accordance; and every part of

In man, the inferior extremities alone are the system will harmonize; we shall see a used in progression; these comprehend the power of frame for pursuing and overcomlegs and feet; the anterior extremities, viz. ing the prey, and organs of sense modified the arms and hands, at once place man at for discovering it even at a distance ; while the head of the animal kingdom. Man in the brain nature has placed that instinct uses the hand not merely for grasping or which impels it to lie in ambush, and retaining, but for examining many of the watch patiently the moment to dart upon properties of the natural objects around its victim. Now, vice versa, a tooth, or him, thus making it an agent to intellect-- the condyle of the jaw, will give in like an apparatus for increasing knowledge manner the form of the paw or foot, the of adding to the stock of ideas--of inform- figure of the scapula, the nature of the food, ing or correcting the judgment.

and the general plan of the whole. In quadrupeds, the extremities are not Such are the general conditions. But distinguished by the terms which are appro- subordinate to these, there are others having priate only to those of man,—but are di- a relation not only to the nature of the vided into fore and hind legs. In birds, food, but the manner of obtaining it; dethe extremities are wings and legs; in termined for instance, by the size, the spea fishes, pectoral and ventral fins. In the cies, or the haunts of the animals upon whale the posterior extremities cannot be which the individual is adapted to prey, distinguished from the tail, which serves as and hence result modifications of detail in an organ of progression and defence. the forms, the grand outline of which arises

If we examine the limbs of all animals, from these general conditions. Thus the we find that they are not only adapted to the class, the order, the genus, and species, wants of the species, but that they corre- have each their diagnostics in an equally spond naturally with the design and me- harmonious concordance, so that to the chanism of the system. There is, as we comparative anatomist, a tooth, or the scahave before observed, a mutual relation- pula, or the foot, is a key to the certain de: ship, an harmonious coincidence, between termination of the order and genus, and all parts of the organic frame; and this even the species, to which the fragment concordance is beautifully exemplified in shall have belonged. the relation which obtains between the This harmony, not only of the bones of formation of the extremities, and the con- the skeleton, but of the whole organic struction and arrangement of the teeth, in- economy, according to the broad view thus volving consequently the structure and stated, is simple; and the fitness and depower of the stomach and digestive ap- sign of this relationship of parts are at once paratus, the relative perfection or develop- obvious. There are, however, relations of ment of various muscles, --in short, the forms, of which, from their constant and total mechanism of the whole machine ; unvarying concurrence, experience and while, in like manner, the construction of observation alone inform us, but for which any part of the system reciprocally mani- we are unable to assign an adequate reason, fests that of the limbs also,

although we may be well assured, that For example, to elucidate our meaning, wisdom has not planned them in vain. let us take a carnivorous animal, (say the Thus, for example, we may well conceive tiger,) and examine the structure and me that hoofed animals must necessarily be all chanism of the paw. Fashioned as it is, herbivorous, since they have no means of and armed with tremendous claws, we see seizing upon prey; and reasoning onwards, at a glance its fitness for striking down and la- we may expect to find the teeth flattened, cerating the stag orox, on whose flesh it preys. and adapted for grinding or bruising herbs, This fact being then ascertained, another or seeds; we may also expect a relative in connexion immediately presents itself, form of the condyle of the jaw, and its namely, that the teeth must also be adapted articulating cavity, permitting the requifor cutting and dividing it. This construc- site freedom of lateral motion. We may tion of the teeth supposes a relative figure likewise suppose, that the muscles of the and strength of jaw, and muscles of a cer- jaws will not need such bold depressions tain power for moving it. The condyles, or that the shoulder-blades, instead of being articulating eminences, must also be con expanded and strong for powerful muscles,

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233
Astronomical Occurrences for March 1829.

234 will be natrow that the articulation of the eminences - at the corners. These ' bones radius will be hinge-like, and not a ball- | may be divided into two distinct rows, the and-socket, there being no occasion to tum first adjacent to the fore-arm, the second to the fore-arm. In general also, we may the bones of the metacarpus; each row will conceive the necessity of a more compli- consist of four bones ; - but the fourth of the cated system of digestive organs; but it is first row seems in a manner out of its rank. by observation alone, that we ascertain the Un each bone there are several cartilagifact, that animals only which ruminate have nous surfaces for their mutual articulations, true cloven hoofs, and that all ruminating and on some for articulating with the raanimals have them; that in this class alone dius, the bones of the metacarpus, and first there are horns on the forehead-except bone of the thumb. where the canine teeth are developed-and The names of the bones of the carpus are that where this is the case, the feet manifest as follows: In the first row, the first is the a greater relationship to those of non-ru- os scaphoides or naviculare, the second the minant animals, having the number of os lunare, the third the os cuneiforme, (from bones in the feet increased, the fibula its occupying the situation of a wedge,) the (small bone of the leg,) more distinct fourth the os orbiculare or pisiforme, and from the tibia; or both circumstances con- which may be easily felt on the outer edge, joined. If we examine the camel and the next the fore-arm on the concave side. In musk deer, we see examples at once in the second row, the first is the os trapezium, point. In the latter, in which the canine the second the trapezoides, the third the teeth are greatly developed, the fibula and os magnum, the fourth the os unciforme, tibia are perfectly distinct; whereas in other The bones of the carpus support those of cloven.footed animals the fibula is wanting, the metacarpus ; these consist of four long there being merely a small bone articulated bones in each hand, upon which rest the at the lower end of the tibia. In the camel, fingers ; externally they are slightly convex, which has canine teeth, as well as two or but the internal surface is Aattened and four incisor teeth in the upper jaw, there is concave. They are not in contact throughan additional bone in the tarsus, with small out their whole length, but only at the exhoofs and phalanges. In the cow, on the tremities, where an enlargement takes place, other hand, and in the sheep and deer, and where they are knit together by ligathere are no incisors in the upper jaw, the ments. The bones of the thumb and gum being merely indurated, the two meta- fingers, which in man are all perfectly discarpal and metatarsal bones are united, to tinct and elaborately fashioned, are termed form what are called the canon bones, and by anatomists the phalanges, from a fancied the forehead (in the males, at least in a similarity in arrangement to the Greek state of nature,) is furnished with horns. pálayš; the number in each hand is fif.

In this part of our subject, which our teen. Of these, the first row of the fingers readers may in strictness deem something is attached to the extremities of the four of a digression, interesting as it is, we must metacarpal bones ; but the first bone of the not linger, but pass on to an explanation, thumb is attached to the carpus, and the which will place what we have advanced in mechanism is such as to enable the thumb a clearer light to the general view. It to exert an opposing action to that of the remains for us, then, to examine the struc- fingers, thus producing that facility of graspture and economy. of the limbs or extremi- ing or retaining, which forms an important

characteristic. The bones of the anterior extremity con- Hammersmith. W. MARTIN. sist of the clavicle and scapula which form the shoulder-the humerus (or arm bone,)

(To be continued.) the ulna and radius (bones of the fore-arm,) all of which we have noticed before,-and

ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES FOR the bones of the hand. The hand is united

MARCH, 1829. to the radius, by which it gains the two mo- MARS is still a conspicuous object in the tions, pronation and supination ; and its western hemisphere; he is observed in the bones are divided into the carpal, the me- evening of the 1st under the three first tacarpal, and the phalanges. The carpal stars of the Ram, approaching a line drawn bones in each hand are eight in number, from, a Arietis to Mencar, in the head of and their shape is irregular; in their natu- the Whale. At the same instant Saturn is mal arrangement they present externally, noticed in the constellation Cancer, which that is, on the outer side of the hand, a is situated in the eastern hemisphere; he surface convex, even, and regular

, but ina is very slowly approaching a line drawn ternally a concavity more rugged, having from Castor through Pollux, and produced.

ties in man.

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Astronomical Occurrences for March, 1829.

236 At 31 minutes past 10 on the same even- At 49 minutes past nine in the morning ing, the former planet sinks beneath, and at of the 12th she is dichotomized, or appears 58 minutes past one in the morning of the as a half-moon; her situation in the ecliptic 2d the noble planet Jupiter appears above is in the 21st degree of Gemini ; the time our horizon; his situation is but slightly elapsed from her change is 6 days 21 hours altered since the commencement of last and 13 minutes, which is 4 hours 41 mimonth, being noticed a little to the east of a nutes more than in the preceding; her line drawn from Antares to n Ophiuchui. synodical revolution up to the same period, is

At 19 minutes past four, the waning 29 days 14 hours and 26 minutes, which is crescent of the Moon rises; her situation is 2 hours 21 minutes more than the preceding in the constellation Sagittarius, and she is revolution between the same periods. The observed during the morning to approach lines of the apsides and syzygies nearly coina and ß Capricorni. The Sun rises at 33 cide, and as she is now receding from the minutes past six, and sets at 27 minutes Earth, her motion is consequently retarded. past five. On the following morning the On the 13th the planet Mercury is stationMoon is observed to have passed the two ary, having just described his inferior semifirst stars of the Goat, and her decreased circle : the planet Venus is in aphelio on crescent announces that her change is not this day; she was in the same part of her far distant. At three in the morning of the orbit on the 30th of July, 1828, from which 4th she is in conjunction with Venus; she period has elapsed 226 days, which is one is also in perigee on this day, and in con- more than the preceding revolution, the junction with Mercury at 7 minutes past 10 planet having been in the same situation in the evening. The Sun and Jupiter are on the 18th of December, 1827. The Moon in quadrature about half an hour previous. is observed to approach Saturn as she in

Åt 36 minutes past 12 at noon on the creases in magnitude. On the evening of 5th, the moon changes, her situation being the 14th she is noticed considerably to the in the 14th degree of Pisces; her distance south of the planet, and is in conjunction from the ecliptic is less than at her last with him at 15 minutes past eight on the change, but still too great to deprive the following morning; he is scarcely removed Earth of any portion of the Sun's light : from his position at the commencement of the time that has passed since she was new, the month. is 29 days 10 hours and 5 minutes, making The Moon is in apogee on the 17th, a difference from her last synodical revolu- and arrives at that part of her orbit that is tion, with respect to her change, of 34 mi- opposite the sun at 51 minutes past one in nutes less. On the evening of the 6th her the afternoon of the 20th, when she passes slender crescent is noticed under and a through the Earth's shadow, and a space little to the east of the two eastern of the equal to 4 digits, 29 minutes, on her northfour stars forming a square, she is directing ern limb, is deprived of the sun's light; her course to Mars, who is observed a con- this eclipse is invisible in London, in considerable distance to the east of her, and sequence of the Moon not being above the nearly midway between the first of the Ram horizon. The time that has elapsed since and Mencar. On the following evening the change, is 15 days, 1 hour, and 15 she is noticed to have receded from the four minutes, which is 8 hours 31 minutes stars in square, and to have approached more than the same period in February; Mars, being now observed to the south of this difference is occasioned by the shifting the ecliptic. Having crossed it in her de- of the line of the syzygies, with respect to scending node on the previous morning, the line of the apside, and will be exher recess from the four stars in square, and plained in a future paper. The time from approach to Mars, is more conspicuous on the first quarter is 8 days, 4 hours, and 2 the evening of the 8th, when she is noticed minutes, which is 4 hours, and 10 minutes so near Mars as evidently to pass him be- more than the same period in the last fore her next appearance. At 35 minutes month, and 1 day, six hours, and 49 mi48 seconds past four in the morning of the nutes greater than from the change to first 9th, the shadow of Jupiter eclipses his first quarter; this difference arises from her satellite, he is still noticed near the same motion in an elliptical orbit, and will also spot :

: the Moon' is seen on the evening of be reserved for future illustration, The this day to the east of the planet Mars, her synodical revolution is completed in 29 recess from it

, with the passage under the days, 18 hours, and 36 minutes, which is Pleiades, and near Aldebaran, in her course 22 minutes less than the preceding: shortly towards the planet Saturn, and her nightly after becoming full, she crosses the ecliptic increase of splendour, are interesting objects in her ascending node. to the attentive observer,

At 37 minutes past 8 in the evening of

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