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Marine Wonders.


just right, and a humane procedure. Were beautiful than the singular clearness of the slavery to be immediately abolished, or water of the northern seas. As we passed were it acknowledged by the British legis- slowly over the surface, the bottom, which lature as having no legitimate right of here was in general a white sand, was existence, what, or wherein, would be the clearly visible, with its minutest objects, evil?

where the depth was from twenty to twentyAgainst the British government, or against five fathoms. During the whole course of the colonists, a most awful charge is laid. the tour I made, nothing appeared to me so Against the slaves, not any just complaint extraordinary as the inmost recesses of the is preferred. Nor can any complaint be deep thus unveiled to the eye. The surface justly laid to their charge, as an aggregate of the ocean was unruffled by the slightest body. They have been taken by force. / breeze, and the gentle splashing of the oars They have been held by power:

Were scarcely disturbed it. Hanging over the these prisoners in the island of Great Britain, gunwale of the boat, with wonder and deevery prisoner would not only be entitled to light I gazed on the slowly moving scene his acquittal, but to remuneration for the below. Where the bottom was sandy, the injury sustained. To take any description different kinds of asteriæ, echini, and even of property in Europe, (as men, women, and the smallest shells, appeared at that great children are taken in Africa, and transported depth conspicuous to the eye; and the to West India,) would subject the offender water seemed in some measure to have the to severe punishment. To want the labour effect of a magnifier, by enlarging the obof Africans originally, or now to want their jects like a telescope, and bringing them labours, may be perfectly in accordance with seemingly nearer. Now creeping along, established usage; but, for the planters of we saw far beneath, the rugged sides of a West India to claim a legitimate right to mountain rising towards our boat, the base the African, to require the African to pur

of which, perhaps, was hidden some miles chase his manumission, or to prohibit his in the great deep below. Though moving return to Africa under a severe penalty, is

on a level surface, it seemed almost as if we an assumption of colonial authority, that were ascending the height under us, and exceeds every anterior claim of any part of when we passed over its summit, which the human family, over any other portion of rose in appearance to within a few feet of our species.

W. our boat, and came again to the descent,

which on this side was suddenly perpendicular, and overlooking a watery gulf, as we

pushed gently over the last point of it, it These see the works of tbe Lord, and his won. seemed almost as if we had thrown ourders in the deep.”—Psalm cvii. 24.

selves down this precipice : the illusion, That the water of the sea conceals from from the crystal clearness of the deep, acour view objects of the most interesting na- tually producing a sudden start. ture, cannot be doubted. The watery world, “Now we came again to a plain, and as it has most significantly been term- passed slowly over the submarine forests ed, contains probably productions of almost and meadows which appeared in the exevery class peculiar to itself. An intima- panse below, inhabited, doubtless, by thoution of this is perhaps given us, when Elihu sands of animals, to which they afford both speaks of God as 'covering the bottom of food and shelter,----animals unknown to man: the sea, or, as in the marginal reading, the and I could sometimes observe large fishes roots, Job xxxvi. 30. The Red sea is, of singular shape, gliding softly through the literally, the weedy sea.

Mr. Bruce says,

watery thickets, unconscious of what was that it contains large trees or plants of coral, moving above them. As we proceeded, perfectly in imitation of plants on land. the bottom became no longer visible; its He saw one, which, from a root nearly cen- fairy scenes gradually faded to the view, tral, threw out ramifications in an almost and were lost in the dark green depths of circular form, measuring about twenty-six the ocean."— Travels through Sweden, feet diameter every way. To explore the Norway, and Finmark, to the North recesses of the ocean, is impossible. Our Cape, in the summer of 1820, by A. de acquaintance with them must, therefore, be Capell Brooke, A.M. 4to. p. 195. very partial and limited. In the following In these profound depths is found the extract it appears, that new scenes were remarkable gorgonia lepadifera of Linopened, and new enjoyments produced, to naeus, considered rare by the inhabitants an adventurous voyager in the northern of these parts, who, when they accidentally

meet with it, hang it up as a curiosity. "Nothing can be more surprising and This extraordinary zoophyte grows in the



A Burning and a Shining Light.

220 form of a tree or branch ; and its simila- | the upper and slighter parts, these give rity is such, that few indeed, even after a way, and are drawn to the surface along minute investigation, would suppose it with the line. They are hung up by the possessed life, or imagine it was any thing fishermen in their huts, who suppose them but what it has hitherto been considered, to be a kind of charm or protection against a vegetable. This idea, which long pre- storms. They arrive at a very extraordivailed with respect to the class of zoo- nary size, if we may believe the accounts phytes in general, has been gradually ex- of the fishermen, who have most frequent ploded, as the attention of naturalists has opportunities of seeing them, attaining dibeen directed to marine productions. mensions even equal to those of our largest

« On a final inspection of this gorgon, forest trees.”--Ibid. p. 321. we behold nothing but a mere branch, singular indeed in appearance, and covered over with whitish scales, which seem like A BURNING AND A SHINING LIGHT. seeds hanging on every part of it: how

(From Clarke's Commentary-John v. verse 35.) extraordinary then does it appear, when we are told that it is an animal, with not only

“The expression of lamp, our Lord took bone and flesh, but even possessed of mi- from the ordinary custom of the Jews, who nute muscles and tendons. The stem of termed their eminent doctors, the lamps of the branch, which is the inward support or

Israel. A lighted candle is a proper bone of the animal, appears to be formed emblem of a minister of God; and alteri of different distinct layers or circles of a

serviens consumor. .“ In serving others, I hard calcareous matter, and in the living myself destroy,”—a proper motto. There state is surrounded by a fleshy substance.

are few, who preach the gospel faithfully, This is thickly covered with small whitish that do not lose their lives by it. Burning tubercles, which appear like barnacles may refer to the zeal with which John hanging on it, and are the cells that con- executed his message; and shining may tain the numberless animals of which the refer to the clearness of the testimony which gorgonia consists, protecting their delicate he bore concerning Christ. Only to shine, parts from injury. These they have the is but vanity; and to burn without shining, power of contracting and opening; and will never edify the church of God. Some from them the tentacula of the polypus ex

shine, and some burn, but few both shine tend themselves, to procure nourishment,

and burn; and many there are who are which is afterwards conducted to the main denominated pastors, who neither shine nor stem or body.

burn. He who wishes to save souls, must “The manner in which the gorgon is ac- both burn and shine : the clear light of the cidentaily removed from the great depths of knowledge of the sacred records must fill the ocean, is singular. The uer, or red his understanding; and the holy flame of fish, (perca marina,) is seldom met with loving zeal must occupy his heart. Zeal but in the fiords, and where the depth is without knowledge is continually blunderfrom 150 to 300 fathoms. The fishermen ing; and knowledge without zeal makes no generally remark, that this fish is found in converts to Christ." the greater plenty in these parts, and more particularly where the sea - trees most abound ; delighting, as they informed me,

OBSERVATIONS OCCASIONED BY THE REV. in sporting about the branches of the gor

R. W. HAMILTON'S LETTER ON CATHOLIC gon, or animal-tree; but possibly they feed on the heads of the polypi, when they This letter, it seems, is considered by some stretch out their tentacula for nourish- of the advocates of what, in the vocabulary ment. It sometimes happens, that the of the day, is called “Catholic Emancipalines, when set at these great depths, are tion,” an able and masterly production; in let down between the arms of the gorgon which they evidently agree in opinion with itself, and the red fish, when it takes the the author himself, whose estimate of its bait, on finding itself hooked, runs away merits, and of his own talents, is so high, with the line, and entangles itself among that in its conclusion, he says, “It will not the branches of the animal. When this is be an unknown or common antagonist who the case, the fishermen endeavour to re- will tempt” him to reply. lease the line by pulling it; and if the gor- Why he should entertain so high an opigon be of a very large size, the branch nion of this production, I know not, unless round which it is fast resists all their en. it be that it is his own offspring, and bears deavours, and the line is lost. If, how. his image. Had I not known the author ever, it happen to have caught hold only of to have passed the spring-time of life, I



Catholic Emancipation : Hamilton's Letter.


should have supposed him to have been | ings of this persecuted people? Are they some school-boy, whose taste had been hindered from making a public profession vitiated by reading the pompous nothings of Popery? Are they forbidden the public of the minor French writers, or the vile celebration of mass ? Are they not allowed and turgid bombast of the Irish orators. to make secret confession to their priests ? He aims at prettiness, and endeavours to Are they excluded from the advantages of present his readers with a nosegay, which trade and commerce? May they not plead may possibly please some of the juvenile in our courts of justice, and rise to stations minds of the age. The letter is neither of honour in our armies and fleets ? distinguished by profoundness of research, Why then all this feminine “ quailing ?" extent of information, nor cogency of argu- Why! Because, forsooth, they are not ment; but by pompous declamation, cloth- eligible to become either our legislators or ed in a style which is neither prose nor our kings. And this is persecution! And verse, and which, perhaps, cannot better be this is the Egyptian bondage from which described than by saying, it borders on the they must be emancipated! ridiculous.

A man's religion, Mr. H. contends, should He writes as if he were the representative hinder no one from ascending to the highest of the whole body of the dissenters, and offices in the state. Certainly not, if there employed as their champion on this occa- be nothing in his religion prejudicial to the sion. But I know the dissenters too well liberty and happiness of the community to believe that, were their views univer- among whom he lives. Does Mr. H. mean sally coincident with his own, which they to say that religion, whether true or false, are not, they would employ him as their whether according to godliness, or against advocate. Whilst they have “ OLIVE it, whether beneficial or prejudicial to TREES,” and “FIG TREES,” and vines society, renders its subjects alike eligible to among them, they would never place their the highest and most influential situations cause under the shade, I will not say of in the state? Suppose the Hindoos, for the BRAMBLE, for I believe the writer is a example, were as numerous in Great Brigood-natured kind of gentleman, but of the tain and Ireland, as Papists are said to be, DAISY, or even the POLYANTHUS. Whilst and suppose these were as clamorous for they have a Hall, they would never employ seats in parliament as Papists are, and a Hamilton; and whilst they could have a suppose it were known that they are as Wellington for their leader, they would much attached to the dogmas of their never place themselves under the command superstition as the Papists are, and that of a Whitelock. The principles advocated should they ever be able, they would overby Mr. H., are held in reprobation by turn Christianity, and introduce the car of some of the ablest dissenting ministers of Juggernaut, and infanticide, and the burnthe present day,

ing of widows, with all the obscene and Mr. H. considers the Papists, (whom he sanguinary rites of their idolatrous system; calls Catholics, thereby unchurching him- just as the Papists, should they ever have self and his people,) a most deeply injured the power, would overthrow Protestantism, and persecuted people. One would sup- and interdict the reading of the scriptures, pose from his mournful “quailing," that and proscribe and persecute Protestants, as the Protestants of Great Britain and Ire- their predecessors persecuted our fathers. land had established an inquisition, in Suppose all this to be known, would Mr. which the thumb screws, and racks, and H. plead their eligibility to become legisbrass

pans, and all the other instruments lators in a Christian nation? used in that house of mercy, are employed; Would he say in such a case, where the or that, remembering the pious zeal of their germ of ruin and misery obviously exists, queen Mary, of blessed memory, they had that such persons are perfectly eligible to kindled their fires in Smithfield, and Oxford, the highest and most influential offices of and Gloucester, and Hadley, and else- the state; that with their religion we have where, and were burning bishops and nothing to do, for that is a thing between mechanics now, as Papists burnt Protes- God and themselves; that to withhold from tants then. But we have not heard either such men the power to injure others, is in England or Ireland, of either fires or persecution; and that it is our duty to put inquisitions ; nor are either to be appre power into their hands, and, should they hended from Protestants, for these are not abuse it, then punish them, but not till the progeny of Protestantism, but of popery, then, for no man should be deprived of of poor, innocent, pious, tolerant, and ten- any honour because of his religious opider-hearted Popery

nions. Either Mr. H. would or would not What then is the amount of the suffer- put such power into the hands of Hindoos.


Catholic Emancipation : Hamilton's Letter.


If not, then he gives up the principle, that | Happy for this country, he was kept out religious opinions cannot disqualify for the when he was out, where I trust he will ever highest offices of a state. But if, in de- remain. fiance of the natural and well-known con- That“Catholic Emancipation," so called, nection subsisting between cause and effect, which, rightly translated, means Protestant principle and consequence, he would put captivity, will tranquillize Ireland, is the power into the hands of such men, what most perfect humbug with which honest are we to think of his prudence? Was it John Bull was ever gulled. How in of such men Solomon said, “A prudent the name of common sense is it to tranman foreseeth the evil, and hideth him- quillize Ireland? Some twenty or thirty self?” Or rather, did he not describe them Papists may by that measure possibly obwhen he added, “The simple pass on, and tain a seat in parliament, and two or three are punished.”

barristers might perchance be raised to the If Mr. H. mean any thing but to “quail” bench. But what has the tranquillity of and declaim, he means to establish this Ireland to do with this? To tranquillize position, that whatever evil may be fore- | Ireland you must give the Irish employseen, if that evil be coupled with the name ment and bread. But will this give of religion, we must do nothing to prevent employment to a numerous unemployed it; that such interference would be perse- population ? Will this give bread to a cution; and that the long approved adage, starving people? Will this satisfy the “It is better to prevent evil than to cure Popish priests, who exercise an almost abit," is false. He reminds me of olden solute dominion over an uneducated multimes, when the Popish king James the titude? No, the great mass of the Irish Second, and his Jesuit associates, gulled population care not a rush about emancithe simple ones of those days, by their pation. It is a question in which they fair speeches and fair promises. Happily feel no interest, neither do the priests, if for this country, there were some men of considered as an ulterior object. As a discernment, whom he could not deceive. preliminary measure, indeed, a mere stepThey were ardent lovers of liberty, both ping stone to that on which their hearts civil and religious, and that she might con- have long been intensely fixed—the overtinue to dwell in our land, they detected throw of Protestantism in Ireland, and the and exposed the sophisms with which men possession of all the church livings, &c.— of feebler minds and inferior discernment they are not unfriendly. were carried away, and at once prevented Mr. H.'s eulogy of the Irish priests is the introduction of Popery, and banished truly poetical and amusing. From his deinto exile a Popish king. There was scription one would imagine them to be a mighty quailing about the good Papists most holy and devoted race of men. Does being disfranchised, and the Hamiltons of Mr. H. believe one word of all this bombast? that day published their letters and their Does he not know that the very men he pamphlets in favour of liberty of con- thus panegyrizes are, with all their atten. science, and against bigotry, in which our tion to the superstitious mummeries of a predecessors were told they had nothing to semi-heathenish Christianity, decided enefear from the Papists then, for though they mies to the gospel of Christ, and that in had shed much Protestant blood formerly, some instances they have even advised they had become a very peaceable and their people to burn their Bibles? Does kind-hearted people, and would not for the he not know that, whilst they enforce abworld persecute any man for his religion. stinence from flesh on certain days, they The priests laughed in their sleeves, as permit, and directly sanction, by their own Popish priests now do, at the credulity of example, the grossest violation of the the simple ones. But still they could not Christian sabbath? Did he never hear of accomplish their object, for the master

these very men, after the celebration of minds of the age, like the celebrated John mass, meeting their deluded devotees at Locke, the zealous friend and able advo

a whisky shop on a Sunday afternoon, cate of toleration, pronounced the princi- where they had both the fiddle and the ples of Popery to be essentially intolerant, dance? And are these the men who are and not fit to be tolerated. Let them into held up to admiration ? Are these the parliament, said the simple ones, for they inen who, on the ipse dixit of Mr. H., are will do you no harm; to which one not wholly “absorbed in their duties?” lees wisely than wittily replied,

That the priests have influence--a mighty “I hear a lion in the lobby roar,

influence---over the Papists of Ireland, is Say, Mr. Speaker, shall I shut the door, And keep him out; or let him in, and then

admitted ; but that this influence is the Try whether we can turn him out again." effect of transcendent merit in the priests,

Catholic Emancipation : Hamilton's Letter.

226 is denied. It is the influence, not of love, that he should send a bull to his spiritual but fear In this, as in many other parti- subjects, commanding them, on pain of culars, Popery bears a strong resemblance papal excommunication, which with the to paganism. The pagan presents his offer. Papist is the same as eternal damnation, ing to the malignant objects of his worship, immediately to withdraw their allegiance that they may not injure him; and the from their lawful sovereign; will Mr. H. Papist obeys his priest, lest he should re- say that in such a case there is no evil to fuse him absolution, and extreme unction, be apprehended, because the Pope is not and other rites of his church. To destroy a temporal potentate? What would Papists this influence, and to rescue the people in power do in such circumstances ? Their from this worst of all despotisms, is the oath of allegiance obliges them to obey true Catholic Emancipation, which every their temporal sovereign; but their reli. patriot and every Christian should labour gion, all the terrors of their system of to accomplish. But popish legislators and superstition, compel them to yield obejudges will never accomplish this. As far dience to the Pope, their spiritual ruler. as their power extends, it will be exerted Which of these shall they obey? A mere in riveting the chain, and perpetuating the earthly sovereign, who has power only to spiritual bondage, of the people. Give the destroy the body; or a spiritual potentate, population of Ireland education, and let the representative and vicar of Christ, who the ptures be read in every school; and has power to destroy both body and soul suffer not the priests in any case to hinder for ever. Would a thorough-bred Papist, the children of Papists from attending those especially if urged by a jesuitical conschools, and that mighty influence will, fessor, long hesitate whether to obey the in one or two generations, have no ex. temporal or the spiritual ruler ? istence.

It is indeed true that Popes have not Mr. H. thinks that Papists may with in our times attempted to put nations perfect safety be admitted to the highest under their curse, and to absolve subjects and most commanding stations in tlie state, from their allegiance to their lawful sovefor two reasons.

reigns. But it is equally true that they First, Because they will give every have done so in days gone by; and as pledge and guarantee for their obedience.” Popery is the same as it ever was, “unSo Mr. H. says. But do the Irish Papists changed and unchangeable,” should they say so? the O'Connels and M‘Donalds, ever possess their former power, we have and other leading men in the Irish parlia. not, nor can we have, any security against ment? They say the direct contrary, and a repetition of such absolutions and interquarrel with the duke of Norfolk, and other dicts. Popery, in its spirit and principles, English Catholics, for so much as hinting is what it ever was,- but its strength is at securities. Besides, I should be very enfeebled ; and he who would do any glad to know what securities those can give thing to renew its strength, is, in this parwho hold the impious decree of the coun. ticular, the friend of Antichrist, and the cil of Constance, that "no faith is to be enemy of God. kept with heretics--that the Pope has the Mr. H. declaims with great warmth on power to dispense with the obligation of the “shameless outrage on all good and an oath—and that every Popish priest has honourable feeling,” in doubting whether power to forgive sin, whether perjury, or Papists will keep faith with Protestants. rebellion, or any other sin."

But why all this declamation? Does not bind these people with an oath? No, Mr. H. know the history of Huss, and the their oaths in such a case are mere cob-decree of the council of Constance? Has webs, which priestly absolution can sweep this decree ever been repealed? When, away in a moment. And,

and by whom? But if unrepealed to this Secondly, Mr. H. argues from the Papists day, then it remains to this day the docin Ireland and England being only the trine of the Papists. In the ordinary affairs spiritual subjects of the Pope, that they of life, we may place the same confidence may with great safety be admitted to in them as in others. Were they in these power. Alas for his simplicity! He is to prove themselves unworthy of confitheir spiritual ruler ; and, in all things dence, they would be shamed and excomwhich this infallible head of the church municated. As to their “trust-worthiness," commands for the good of this church, they founded upon their refusing to take oaths are bound implicitly to obey, on pain of which require their abjuration of Popery, excommunication from its bosom. Sup- and which Mr. H. thinks triumphantly pose our present most gracious king' to fall proves that they greatly reverence an oath, under the displeasure of his holiness, and and therefore would never violate it, there

123.-VOL. XI.

Can you


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