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rantable attempts have been made to many historical facts, equally curious excite prejudices against the contem. and interesting. This department of plated work, we have obtained a brief the work, the author supposes, will statement of the plan of it, and the “ require as much labour, as Johnson objects intended to be accomplished bestowed on his whole work." by this arduous undertaking.

III. Another principal object with 1. The proposed dictionary is in the compiler, is, “to lessen the tax tended to supply the defects of the upon men of letters, imposed by the ne.. English dictionaries. The great im- cessity of purchasing several dictionaprovements which have been made in ries, and especially of purchasing a many branches of knowledge, within great deal of useless matter in John. the last thirty or forty years, and par- son's large work.” It is believed to be ticularly in the various departments practicable to unite the advantages of of natural history, as in chemistry, all the present dictionaries, and digest botany, zoology, mineralogy, &c. have the whole work into a form and size, introduced into our language many which shall be much less expensive, new terms, and essentially varied the than even the single dictionary of Johnapplication of others ;' by which son, either in quarto or octavo. The means the dictionaries now in use are plan of the work, now executing, has rendered extremely imperfect. been laid before the Connecticut acad.

II. Another object is to correct the emy, and received their approbation. errors of the present dictionaries. It is intended to render this work These are far more in number than as accurate and complete as possible. men of letters suppose. In orthog. For this purpose the manuscript is raphy, the errors are but few, but read to the gentlemen of the Connectsome of them too palpable to be over icut Academy of Arts and Sciences, looked. In definitions, the errors are among whom are professors, classical numerous and important. These scholars, and professional men of dishave proceeded, Mr. Webster sup- tinction, whose criticisms cannot fail poses, from Johnson's “ mistaking to be very useful, and to render the the sense of words used in his author work, what every such work ought to ities, or from his ignorance of ety- be, minutely accurate. mology. A want of nice discrimina. This great work, which requires tion between the senses of words the incessant labour of at least ten which are apparently synonymous, or years, we are sorry, for our country's which have something common in honour, to say, is undertaken as Johntheir signification, has contributed to son's dictionary was written, “ with introduce or perpetuate a misapplica- little assistance of the learned, and tion of terms, and much confusion of without any patronage of the great." ideas.”

So incompetent are the author's reIn etymology, Johnson and Bailey, sources to the expenses of the under. as well as all the other English authors taking, that we understand he has not of dictionaries, exhibit, in the view of been able to procure all the books, Mr. Webster, little less than “ a tis. which he wishes to consult. But his sue of mistakes and imperfections ; persuasion of the utility of the work, while the origin and history of our lan- and his confidence of success, buoy guage lie buried in obscurity.” In him above despondence ; while almost this unexplored field, Mr. Webster daily discoveries of something interlabours with great and very com- esting in the history and progress of mendable diligence ; tracing words nations, contribute to smooth the rugto their radicals through five, six, ged path of investigation. and in some cases even ten and twelve different languages. By this means, he is usually enabled to arrive at the

CONNECTICUT ACADEMY OF ARTS primitive idea annexed to a word, and to trace its several applications. This institution originated at New This process we consider of great Haven in the spring of 1799. About use in ascertaining both orthography twenty gentlemen, among whom were and definition ; and in explaining dif. the President of Yale College, and ficulties which have embarrassed for the principal literary characters in mer lexicographers. It unfolds also the town, associated, formed a plan





of the Academy, and a Constitution. published in the ensuing spring. In October of the same year, an act The Academy have a small collec. of the legislature was obtained, in. tion of papers on other subjects, corporating them and their associates which will probably be published by the name of “ The Connecticut during the present year. Academy of Arts and Sciences," with the powers usually granted to similar bodies. Their stated meet.

SCOTT'S COMMENTARY ings are on the fourth Tuesday of every second month, and their annual The fourth volume of Scott's Com. meeting on the fourth Tuesday of mentary on the Bible, embracing the October, for the choice of officers, at N. Testament, publishing by W. w.. which time an oration is pronounced Woodward of Philadelphia, is printed by one of the members. Each mem as far as the sixteenth chapter of St. ber pays a small fee on admission, John's gospel. The English revised and one dollar annually, to the funds edition, which the American editor of the Academy,

copies, is not yet completed, which The objects of the Academy are occasions the delay. The remainder the promotion of every branch of sci. of the English copy is expected early ence and all useful arts; but their at

in the spring: tention has been principally directed Mr. Woodward is about issuing to procure a statistical account of proposals for publishing the works of Connecticut. Some progress has Dr. Scoti, consisting of sermons, es. been made in the collection of mate says, treatises, &c. in three or four rials. A specimen of this work, handsome 8vo. volumes, to be copied comprehending a statistical account froin an elegant edition just printed of the town of New Haven, from ma. in London. These volumes, from the terials collected by the members be pen of so eminent a divine, we doubt longing to that town, is now preparing not will be higlily acceptable to the for the press, and will probably be American religious public.

Since 1780, the following lines of Couper emphatically apply to Massachusetts :

"Slaves cannot breathe in Massachusetts ; if their lungs
Receive our air, that moment they are free ;
They touch our country, and their shackles fall.
That's noble ! and bespeaks a nation proud
And jealous of the blessing. Spread it, then,
And let it circulate through ev'ry vein
Of our republic: That where Columbia's pow'r
Is felt, mankind may feel her mercy too !”

TO CORRESPONDENTS. ALPHA, Xenos, C. D. and H. are received and o: our files for publication. The request of Simeon, whose cominunication is received, shall be faithfully attended to, as soon as prior engagements are fulfilled.

We regret the necessity of deferring till the next month, the review of Mr. Griffin's sermon, which shall then certainly appear, together with one of Rev. Mr. Taggart's sermon before the Hampshire Missionary Sociсty, and obituary notices of Deacon John Larkin, Rev. Dr. Livn, and several others, prepared for this number.

The request of Candidus in respect to his Prolegamena and Prize Questions shall be attended to next month. The delay is unavoidable.

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Taken from the Religious Monitor, with the addition of several extracts of & communication received from a learned and ingenious Correspondent.

Continued from page 345.

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"The time at length arriv- sion' to

sion to political controversies ed,” says Beza, “ when the Lord and tumultuous assemblies, and was to shew favour to the church from a persuasion of his 'being at Geneva.” The syndics who eminently useful to the church had given authority and effect; as at Strasburg. Their solicitawell as secretly instigated, to the tions, however, becoming daily decree of banishment, were re more unanimous and urgent, moved from the government Calvin feared to resist what might either by death or by exile. be a call from God; and having The people, also, who had never stipulated for the recal of his colwholly forgotten their injured league Viret, returned to Genepastors, afraid of continuing ex va on the 13th September, 1541,. posed to the infamy to which and was cordially received by their unchristian conduct sub- every order of the citizens.

Rejected them among their Protest- stored to his importunate people, ant brethren, and, perhaps, ex and remembering the fatal effects pecting to derive even political of their former irregularities, he advantages from the presence immediately established a form of and counsels of Calvin, began to discipline, and an ecclesiastical feel their loss, and earnestly so consistory, with power to cenlicited his return. This illustri sure the disorderly, the vicious, ous exile had resolved to live and the profane, and to punish and die at Strasburg ; and, there. them if incorrigible or contumafore, at first refused the invita- cious, even to the length of extion of the Senate and people ; communication and imprisona not from any diminution of his ment. The people professed to affection to them, but from aver submit to this new arrangement, Vol. III. No. 9.

A Aa

and he voluntarily resigned his 1550 by the opposition which academic chair, most probably as was made to the abolition of evethe only way of avoiding the dis ry holiday, except the Sabbath, grace of expulsion.

and by the revival of the controHe did more, however, than versy concerning the jurisdicmerely express his disapproba- tion of the church. But the tion of the licentious doctrines of most interesting contest in which the Libertines, a sect that arose in Calvin during this period engag. Flanders about the year 1525, and ed, respected the truth and tenwas afterwards countenanced by dency of the doctrine of absothe queen of Navarre, from mis lute predestination. It was betaken notions of the piety of some gun by Bolsec, originally a Carof its leaders. Their tenets were

melite friar, who had embraced impious in the extreme, and sub the reformed religion, and who versive of every principle of in 1551 openly avowed, and pubmorality; for they did not hesi- licly preached at Geneva, the tate to ascribe to the secret agen

sentiments afterwards adopted by cy of the Spirit of God, all the Arminius, that the decree of thoughts, and purposes, and ac

predestination had a respect to tions of men, sinful as well as faith and good works, foreseen holy. Calvin not only refuted as its conditions. He charged their opinions in a particular

Calvin with making God the autreatise, but wrote to the queen

thor of sin ; with encouraging of Navarre, importunately soli- sinners in security, and believers citing her to withdraw her pat

in licentiousness; with misrepronage from these enemies of resenting the opinions of Augusthe gospel. Though he offend- tine, and with leading the people ed the queen by this spirited con

blindfold to destruction. Calvin, duct, his authority, connected who was present on one of the with the force of argument dis occasions when Bolsec accused played in his treatise, had the

him of these dangerous sentidesired effect of checking the ments, immediately ascended progress of these fanatical and

the pulpit, and replied to every dangerous principles.t

article with such precision and During the plague at Geneva energy, as effectually silenced in 1546, violent commotions the objections of his enemies, were excited by disputes about and confirmed the faith of his the right of succession to many

friends. The whole tenor of who were suddenly carried off his “ warning against the Libero before they had nominated their tines,” and the explicit manner heirs. The confusion thus oc

in which, in all his writings, be casioned by the fluctuating state uniformly guards his readers of property, was increased in against the perversion or abuse

of the doctrine of unconditional * Spon. histoire de Genere, tom. ii. decrees, furnish innumerable and

unequivocal proofs that these ac# For a particular account of the cusations were altogether unhistory and opinions of this sect, viil.

founded:“ Paul," says he, “teachCE Instruct. adv. Libertinos passim oper. tom. viii. p. 374. ed.

es us, that to this end we are elect, Amist. 1667, and Mosheim ut supra. ed, that we may lead holy and un

P. 57.

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blameable lives. If then sanctity I shall rather suffer myself to be of life is the very end of election, slain, than that this hand shall this doctrine ought rather to administer the holy bread of our awaken and urge us to the attain. Lord to condemned contemners ment of holiness, than serve as of God.” Berthelier, with his a plea for indolence."* Bolsec associates, absented themselves was imprisoned by authority of from the Lord's supper ; but the Senate, and afterwards with Calvin urged this point with the approbation of the Swiss such vehemence, threatening to churches, banished from Geneva leave Geneva, yea, taking his for sedition and pelagianism. farewell from his congregation,

The contentions about predes.' ihat he obtained from the council tination were renewed after of two hundred the suspension Bolsec's exile. Calvin had op- of this obnoxious decree, till ponents among the Roman the opinion of the four Helvetic Catholics, and among the Pro- cantons upon this subject was testants. Even Melancthon was obtained. When after the vioone. Many of them invidiously lent death of Michael Servetus, repeated the suggestion, that the question arose, in 1554, how Calvin made God the author of heretics were to be punished, sin, and introduced a stoic faith. some being of opinion, that the Berthelier, a man of consum cause of heresy ought to be left mate impudence, and a principal exclusively to God ; Calvin publeader of the faction against Cal- lished his refutation of the docvin, being removed from the trine of Servetus, with his reaeldership for misconduct, raised sons why and how far heretics a hue and cry in his complaints ought to be punished by the to the Senate, which were soon magistrate. He was answered followed by the clamours of ma- under the fictitious name of Marny others. They pretended tin Bell, by either Castalio or that the presbytery assumed the Lælius Socinus, to which a reply authority of the magistrates. was written by Beza. Upon which the council of two It must be acknowledged, canhundred decreed, that the final dour being our guide, that both act of excommunication proper. erred with sincerity, and that ly belonged to the Senate. This Beza, in particular, 'was induced act incensed Calvin to such a de- by his warm attachment to Calgree, that after inveighing a vin, to patronize his cause. If gainst those who partook of the such misteps were not so many Lord's supper unworthily, he warnings to us, we might wish broke sorth, with uplifted hand that Beza had remained silent, and voice, in these words ; " but and that this fact might be blot• In hunc finem electos esse nos

ted out of Calvin's history. But Paulos admonet, ut sanctam ac incul- notwithstanding his accomplishpatam vitam traducamus. Si elec- ments, gigantic learning, and tionis scopus est vitæ sanctimonia, solid piety, Calvin was a man. magis ad cam alacriter meditandam He could not brook opposition, expergefascere et stimulare debet, quam ad desidiæ prætextum

and many of his antagonists were valere. Intitut. lib. iii. cap. 23. haughty and violent : while to his objec. 4.

favourers the purity of his life


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