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BOTANICAL NOTES.

Dairymen's associations. The secretary is THE AMERICAN BREEDERS' ASSOCIATION. Professor W. M. Hays (assistant secretary of A COUPLE of years ago, a number of botan- agriculture), Washington, D. C. ists and zoologists joined interests with a number of practical growers of plants and

METHODS IN PLANT HISTOLOGY. animals and effected an organization of a A LITTLE more than four years ago, the first new society under the name of The American edition of Dr. Chamberlain's 'Methods in Breeders' Association. The purpose, as set Plant Histology' was noticed in these columns forth in the constitution, adopted at St. Louis, (SCIENCE, August 16, 1901). Now a second December 29, 1903, is 'to study the laws of edition has appeared, much improved and conbreeding and to promote the improvement siderably enlarged. In it so much new matof plants and animals by the development of ter has been incorporated that the book is in expert methods of breeding. With this ob- fact a new one and must wholly replace the ject in view, about seven hundred members first edition. The extent of the enlargement have been enrolled. These are, naturally, may be estimated from the fact that, while the quite largely drawn from the ranks of prac- first edition contained 159 pages and 74 figtical breeders, but there are many scientific ures, the second contains 262 pages and 88 men also, and it is notable that the officers figures. Many new methods of work are of the association have been very largely described in this edition which were but briefly chosen from the professors in universities and referred to, or were wholly omitted from the colleges, and the scientific experts in the ser- first. In the systematic part of the book vice of the United States Department of many more suggestions as to collecting and Agriculture.

growing material are given, thus greatly inTwo meetings have been held, the first in creasing its practical value. This edition St. Louis, December, 1903, and the second in must prove to be even more useful to botanChampaign, Illinois, February, 1905. In the ical workers in high school, college and uni-. first, seventeen papers were read, fully half of versity laboratories than its predecessor. which possess more or less interest to the . botanist. In the second meeting, twenty

FERNS OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. eight papers were presented, with a still larger Dr. E. B. COPELAND has recently made an preponderance of papers relating to plant important addition to our knowledge of the breeding. Among the papers of especial inter- flora of the Philippines by the publication of est to botanists may be noted one by Professor a descriptive list of the orders of ferns DeVries on ‘Investigations into the Heredity (Polypodiaceae) occurring in the islands. It of Sporting Varieties,' another by Doctor appears as Bulletin 28 of the government Webber on Cotton Breeding,' one by W. A. laboratories at Manila, bearing date of July, Orton on ‘Plant Breeding as a Factor in Con- 1905, and covers 139 octavo pages. The gentrolling Plant Diseases,' one by Professor eral nature of the fern flora as far as repreHansen on ‘Breeding Mildew-resistant Sand sented in this booklet may be understood from Cherries and Roses' and one by Dr. George the following analysis. There are eight T. Moore on 'Breeding Bacteria. Other families represented, as follows: Woodsieae titles equally suggestive to the botanist might (with 1 genus, and 1 species); Aspidieae (9 be cited, but these will show what the ap- genera, 117 species); Davallieae (12 genera, 72 proaching meeting in Lincoln, January 17, species); Asplenieae (12 genera, 91 species); 18 and 19, is likely to include. The program Plerideae (11 genera, 44 species); Vittarieae for this meeting is now being made out. It (3 genera, 14 species); Polypodieae (10 is understood that, in addition to general ses- genera, 99 species); Achrostichieae (4 genera, sions of the association, there will be joint 7 species). The largest genera are Nephrodsessions with the State IIorticultural Society, ium (with 60 species), Lindsaya (with 22 Corn Growers' Association, Live Stock and species), Asplenium (with 36 species), and

Polypodium (with 73 species). Two species Bulletin 28 of the Bureau of Soils, B. E. of the interesting and curious staghorn Livingston, J. C. Britton and F. R. Reid give ferns' (Platycerium grande and P. biforme) the results of their · Studies on the Properties occur on the islands.

of an Unproductive Soil,' and reach the rather

startling conclusion that the particular soil SOME NOTEWORTITY BULLETINS.

studied (at Takoma Park, Md.) 'contains a PROFESSOR B. M. Duggar's paper on · The water-soluble, non-volatile substance or subPrinciples of Mushroom Growing and Mush- stances, probably organic in nature, which are room Spawn Making' has been issued as Bul- toxic to wheat plants, causing a stunting of letin 85 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, of their growth.'—From the United States Nathe United States Department of Agriculture. tional Herbarium we have (Vol. VIII., pt. 4) It covers sixty pages and includes seven half- the fourth of a series of 'Studies of Mexican tone plates. It will be useful to botanists and and Central American Plants' by Dr. J. N. especially so to the growers of mushrooms.- Rose, the result of a fourth journey to Bulletin 84 of the Bureau of Plant Industry, Mexico, made by the author. It contains entitled “The Seeds of the Bluegrasses, con- many descriptions of new species, and critical tains a paper by Edgar Brown on the germi- notes upon old ones. It is illustrated by ten nation, growing, handling and adulteration of plates and six text figures. bluegrass seeds, and another by F. H. Hill

CHARLES E. BESSEY. man, consisting of descriptions of the seeds THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. of the commercial bluegrasses, and their impurities. Illustrations in the text add much

CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY. to the value of the bulletin. 0. F. Cook and KITE-FLYING OVER THE TROPICAL OCEANS. W. T. Swingle discuss the · Evolution of Cel REFERENCE has frequently been made in lular Structures' in Bulletin 81 of the Bureau SCIENCE during the past two or three years of Plant Industry. It is a discussion of the to the project for exploring the atmosphere mode of evolution, and lays particular em- over the tropical oceans by means of kites, phasis upon symbasis, that is, diversity of suggested by Mr. A. Lawrence Rotch, of Blue descent with normal interbreeding. They say Ilill Observatory, in 1901. It is pleasant to 'species are sexual phenomena; they have be able to chronicle, in these notes, the succome where they are only through symbasis; cessful ending of a preliminary expedition that is, as groups of interbreeding individuals, undertaken during the past summer under the traveling together along the evolutionary path- joint auspices of Mr. Rotch and of Mons. L. way.'-From the same bureau, we have in Teisserenc de Bort. Preliminary reports have Bulletin 90, part II., a short paper by G. G. appeared in the Comptes Rendus, October 9, Hedgcock on 'The Crown-Gall and Hairy- 1905, 'Sur les Preuves de l’Existence du root Diseases of the Apple Tree,' in which Contre-Alizé,' by Rotch and de Bort, and in the author separates the two, establishes the Nature, November 16, 1905, 'The Exploration non-contagious nature of the first, says that of the Atmosphere over the Tropical Oceans,' there is no proof that the second is contagious, by the same authors. One of the chief oband shows by experiments that the first affects jects of the expedition was to study the antithe growth of the tree little if any. The trade winds from the southwest, which, ,acpaper is in the nature of a report of progress cording to a report by Dr. Hergesell, based on and is very suggestive to plant pathologists his observations in 1904, do not exist. The and practical orchardists.-Bulletin 64 of the work last summer was done on board the Forest Service, by Raphael Zon, deals with Otaria, a steamer equipped with an electric the characteristics, growth, distribution and kite-reel already used by de Bort for kiteuses of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in flying at sea. Messrs. Clayton, of Blue Hill, eastern Texas. Especial attention is given to and Maurice, assistant at the observatory at its use in the production of railway ties.-In Trappes, carried out the exploration.

Paper pilot balloons, to show wind direc- the true wind direction and velocity on a tions and not carrying instruments, were moving vessel at sea, an observation which sent up and their height was obtained by has always been difficult and troublesome. simultaneous angular measurements at the The theory of this instrument is based on the end of a base-line on shore. Soundings of triangle of forces. It consists of two movable this kind were made at Madeira, Teneriffe and discs, graduated into 360° each, and three the Cape Verde Islands in particular, and also rulers, hinged so that they may be adjusted over the open ocean. Observations were also to different angles. One of these rulers indimade on the peaks of Teneriffe and Togo, and cates the direction in which the vessel moves; included the drift of clouds above these peaks. a second shows the apparent, and the third Tabulations of these observations, and a chart the true wind direction. To set the instrushowing the tracks of three balloons, make it ment the direction of movement and the speed evident that the winds blowing equatorward of the vessel; the apparent wind direction, vary in direction between northeast and north- shown by the smoke from the funnel, and the west. The latter are usually above the north- true wind direction shown by the waves, are east stratum, the thickness of this layer of the needed. When the rulers are set to accord trades near Teneriffe being about 3,000 or with these conditions, the true wind direction, 5,000 meters. Above this there are southeast, in degrees, and the true wind velocity, in south and southwest currents—the anti-trades miles an hour, are shown by means of the -of great thickness, probably, but of small discs above referred to. density. The east wind near the thermal Casella, of London, is the maker of the equator extends very high, as had previously instrument, the price of which is approxibeen inferred from the carriage of volcanic mately £3. dust and the movements of lofty clouds. The

BRITISH RAINFALL, 1904. southeast wind was observed by a balloon at the Cape Verde Islands up as far as 6.8 miles.

The forty-fourth annual volume on 'British The results obtained during the past sum

Rainfall,' compiled by Dr. H. R. Mill, inmer, therefore, confirm the accepted theory of

cludes the records of 3,982 rain gauges. In trades and anti-trades, and are not in accord his preface the compiler regrets that he can with the view advanced by Dr. Hergesell. not visit more of the stations, and notes that North of Madeira and towards the Azores the the chief difficulty is the inadequate train upper winds, as already shown by cloud ob- service in the rural districts. The effect of servations, are prevailingly from west and the automobile's advent is noted in the statenorthwest, this region being usually north of ment that ' a few years ago the bicycle supthe oceanic high pressure area and outside plied a quick and easy means of overcoming the trade wind zone. The anti-trades, with the difficulty, but now, except for the fact their southerly component, are generally that it is not prohibited by law, cycling on southwest in the latitude of the Canary the high roads of England scarcely differs in Islands and southeast near the Cape Verde point of danger from walking on the railways.' Islands, corresponding to the effects of the The volume contains an appreciative mention earth’s rotation. Upper cloud observations at of the valuable work done at Ben Nevis ObHavana and in the Antilles further prove the servatory since 1883, and now unfortunately existence of these winds.

given up, and the frontispiece shows the sum

mit of the mountain in winter. There are AN INSTRUMENT FOR DETERMINING TRUE WIND other papers on subjects of more local British

DIRECTIONS AND VELOCITIES AT SEA. interest, but we call attention with special In the “Report of the Imperial Academy satisfaction to the charts showing the tracks of Sciences of St. Petersburg' for August, of cyclones which produced exceptionally 1905, Mr. Rotch describes an instrument of heavy rainfalls during the year 1904, the same his own invention which is designed to give charts showing also the distribution of the

rainfall. This is an emphasis on the cyclonic unit which we have long hoped to see.

R. DEC. WARD.

SOVE STATE CENSUS FIGURES FOR 1905.

The state censuses for 1905 are showing some instructive returns. Iowa, for instance, shows a loss of 15,000 persons since 1900. The cities of 5,000 population and over gained 77,000 people in all; the towns under 5,000 and the rural districts together report a loss of 92,000. In Minnesota, where the gain during the decade, 1890 to 1899, inclusive, was 33.7 per cent., there has apparently been a slowing up. The decennial rate was 3,37 per cent. a year; but for the past five years, 1900 to 1905, there was a gain of only 13 per cent., or 2.6 per cent. a year. As the basis broadens the rate of accretion necessarily becomes slower, while in Iowa the rate indicates even retrogression. The indications are that, either from urban migration or from other causes, or from all combined, the farming population even in the most prosperous portions of the west has practically ceased to grow.

One reason for this, if the view of arrested growth be accepted, is to be found in the rapidly rising price of farming land. For the past several years or more the trend of prices of land has gone upward with the prices of farm produce. Iowa, being a dairying and stock-growing state, has come to put such values upon her farm lands as to dislodge the old style of farming for a family home, in favor of the capitalistic farmer--the farmer who puts surplus income back into land, into better methods of cultivation, better stock and better facilities. The old-style farmer moves off to Canada for frontier lands, or to the southwest or northwest, where land is cheaper, after having reaped the reward of waiting, in the form of the unearned increment.

Kansas took her fifth decennial census on March 1, 1905, and found the insignificant increase of 8,658 persons in one year, the total population being 1,543,868. This gives an average of 14,703 people for each of the 105 counties. Of these counties 58 report an increase, and 47 a decrease, compared with

March 1, 1904. The highest increase is 2,987 persons out of a total of 48,058, or 6.6 per cent. gain in one year. The largest decline is one of 2,087 persons, leaving a population of 24,907, or 9.1 per cent. less than a year earlier. These are marked changes to occur in so small a population in the course of twelve months from ordinary causes in times of prosperity in city and country alike.

Turning from country to city, we see that in Kansas towns the same shifting is going on. One might think that towns have been the gainers of country losses; but this is not always the case. The changes are due to a wider range of influences than urban attraction. Of 119 cities of a thousand inhabitants and over, 61 gained in the last year and 58 lost in numbers. Only four gained over one thousand each, and five of the cities lost each a thousand or over; but none so much as two thousand. While these are small numbers, they indicate the presence of some active influences which are responsible for a great deal of readjustment. Kansas is eminently the commonwealth of comparatively small towns. How emphatically this is the case is apparent from the following table of towns of 1,000 people and over, which may or may not suggest some explanation of the gain and loss account within its borders:

No. of
Towns.

Range of Population. 4 have each from 20,924 to 67,613 inhabitants. 8 have each from 11,190 to 18,257 inhabitants. 12 have each from 5,188 to 9,899 inhabitants. 40 have each from 2,013 to 4,427 inhabitants. 55 have each from 1,009 to 1,998 inhabitants.

Any attempt to trace these evidences of arrest in increase, or of decrease, to unfavorable agricultural conditions must fail; because the same tendency appears in manufacturing states. For instance, Massachusetts, which is more than half cities or towns of over 5,000, has a disappointing return in its census for 1905. Taking into account the increase in the previous decade, a growth in population of 375,000 was expected and predicted. The actual increase is 193,612, barely half the expected gain.

The rate of increase, 6.9 per cent., is half organization in America of a Museums Assothat for twenty years back. It was 7.9 per ciation somewhat analogous to that which cent., 1875 to 1880; and 8.9 per cent., 1880 to exists in Great Britain. It was finally unan1885; but this is the only time it has ever been imously decided that the gentlemen repreas low; and of the earlier decade, the first five sented in this informal gathering should over years, 1875 to 1880, were years of great finan- their names issue a call to the representatives cial depression.

of a number of the larger and more important The past five years have been years of over- museums of the United States to convene for flowing prosperity. Yet the increase in popu- the purpose of organizing The Museums Assolation in Massachusetts drops to one half the ciation of America. earlier rate. The addition to population in In the informal discussion which took place the latest five years is no larger than it was it was decided that the movement should not thirty years ago, when the inhabitants of the be restricted to natural history museums, but states numbered only half as many as now. that museums representing art, as well as the

“This same arrest of population,” says the sciences, should be included in the call, and Philadelphia Press. “is in progress all over the that the invitations should be made to cover country. No state is likely to show in this the institutions of America, using the word decade the increase of the past. Our national in its widest sense, so as to include all of increase, which has been jogging along at North America and South America and the about 25 per cent., in ten years, is about to various insular possessions of the United make a drop to 12 or 15 per cent. in ten years,

States and Great Britain in the western hemia little above the average of thriving European sphere. countries like Germany and England."

In accordance with a resolution adopted JOHN FRANKLIN CROWELL.

invitations to attend a preliminary gathering WASHINGTON, D. C.

for the purpose of organizing The Museums

Association of America will shortly be issued THE MUSEUMS ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA. to a number of institutions and individuals

An informal meeting of a few of the ad- who are thought to be likely to be interested in ministrative heads of some of the greater such a movement. This conference will be museums of America was held at the United held at the American Museum of Natural States National Museum in Washington on History in New York on May 15, 1906. December 21. There were present Dr. Rich PITTSBURGH, PA., ard Rathbun, the director of the National December 23, 1905. Museum, Dr. H. C. Bumpus, director of the American Museum of Natural History, New

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS.
York, Dr. N. L. Britton, the director of the
New York Botanical Garden, Dr. F. A. Lucas,

The New Orleans meeting of the American the curator-in-chief of the Brooklyn Institute,

Association for the Advancement of Science Dr. WJ McGee, the director of the St. Louis

and the societies affiliated with it begins toPublic Museum, Dr. W. P. Wilson, the di

day. This evening Professor W. G. Farlow, of rector of the Philadelphia Museums, and Dr.

Harvard University, will give the presidential W. J. Holland, the director of the Carnegie

address, his subject being · The Popular ConMuseum. Dr. Samuel Henshaw, the curator

ception of the Scientific Man at the Present

Day. We hope to publish this address next of the Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Dr. F. J. V. Skiff, of the Field

week. Museum of Natural History in Chicago, were The Paris Academy of Sciences has awarded not present, but were represented by letter. the Lalande prize to Professor William Henry

The meeting had been called for the purpose Pickering, of Harvard University, for his disof considering whether it might be advisable covery of the ninth and tenth satellites of to take preliminary steps looking toward the Saturn.

Dr. H. Op of Natuihe director. Lucas,

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