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of tale. Purification of titanic acid. Some ical Industries of Niagara Falls.' The subnon-aqueous concentration cells.
ject was treated from an evolutionary point Ohio State University.-Synthesis of of view, and the effects of the struggle for ortho-oxyazo compounds. Action of phos- existence and the influence of environment phoric and related acids in the production considered. In the Hall process for maof esters. Gibbs's method for precipitat- king aluminium the raw material bauxite ing magnesium ammonium phosphate. is now purified by an electric furnace procSeparation of calcium and magnesium. ess, and the carbon electrodes baked in an Apparatus for determining moisture in electric furnace. The severe competition samples. Electrolytic separation of bis- brought on in the abrasives market by carmuth.
borundum has stimulated the production University of Chicago.– Dissociation of other artificial abrasives such as ‘alunphenomena in the sugar group. Constitu- dum,' an artificial corundum made by tion of dibromacetylidene. The various fusing bauxite in the electric furnace. The forms of liquids and amorphous sulphur. production of artificial graphite was de Catalytic action. Stereoisomeric nitrogen veloped by the demand for graphite elecderivatives. Radioactivity of uranium trodes in the electrolytic processes for the compounds. Affinity constants of dibasic production of chlorine, caustic soda, etc. acids. The chlorides of manganese. While the problem of making nitric acid Phenylmalonic nitrile.
from the air has not yet reached the comVerbal reports were also made by repre- mercial stage, the spark discharge is used sentatives of Cornell University, University industrially for the production of ozonized of Toronto, University of North Carolina, air for the production of vanillin from oil Columbia University, and the New York of cloves. The manufacture of chlorine and Testing Laboratory.
caustic alkalies has grown greatly in the The local committee, of which John C.
last ten years, consequently competition is Miller was chairman, made ample provision
severe and results in the invention of procfor the entertainment of the society, and
esses using chlorine gas for the manufactheir services and those of the Buffalo So- ture of carbon tetrachloride, tin tetraciety of Natural Sciences (in whose rooms chloride, etc. Seeking an outlet for sodium the chemical meetings were held), as well and sodium peroxide, the makers are putas the courtesies of several other local or ting new commercial products on the ganizations, were recognized in a rising market, such as ‘oxone' a fused form of vote of thanks. Carriages were provided sodium peroxide which generates oxygen on Thursday afternoon for a drive about when put in water, and various compounds the city, and many members visited the such as magnesium peroxide, calcium perGratwick Research Laboratory, where a oxide, zinc peroxide and sodium perborate. paper was presented entitled, “On the Samples of many of the products mentioned Chemical Composition of a Series of Mouse in the address were exhibited, and oxygen Tumors,' by G. H. A. Clowes and W. S. was generated from oxone by a simple apFrisbie.
paratus. The chemical plants both in Buffalo and This address was given at the Iroquois in Niagara Falls refused admittance, but Hotel, the headquarters of the meeting, and Mr. Francis A. J. Fitzgerald delivered an was followed by an informal luncheon interesting address on “The Electrochem- served with the compliments of the hotel. On Friday afternoon a large number of subject falls into four main divisions: Part I., members availed themselves of a boat trip “The Content of Consciousness,' starting from in the harbor on the city fire tugs, while the standpoint, assumed by the author to be others visited the soap plant of the Larkin that of psychology, of a world of experiences Company. In the evening about eighty
primarily given as states of the individual attended a subscription dinner at the Hotel
consciousness, aims at showing the unsatis
factory nature of such a general conception Iroquois.
of the real, and the need for some more funThe whole of Saturday was devoted to
damental metaphysical interpretation of exan excursion to Niagara Falls. A visit to
perience. Part II. discusses the external the Power House was followed by a
world’ in a series of chapters devoted mainly luncheon given by the Natural Food Com to the doctrine of space and time, and conpany, and this by a trip over the Gorge cluding with a rather perfunctory defense of Route.
the conception of existence as a perfect mechThe total registration at the meeting was anism against the 'descriptive' view of 178. The secretary, Dr. W. A. Noyes, an- mechanical science championed by Kirchhof, nounced that as the result of a mail vote
Mach, James Ward and others. Part III., with reference to the establishment of an
Mind and Matter,' deals at length, and with
much acuteness, with the problem of the relaabstract journal in cooperation with the
tion of mind and body, and contains, besides Chemical Society of London and the So
a very vigorous and damaging attack upon the ciety of Chemical Industry, seventy-nine
subjective idealism which denies the reality of adverse votes had been cast out of a total
any knowledge of things as distinct from our of about 700 so far received. Four eminent
inent own mental states, Professor Fullerton's own scientists were elected honorary members ingenious version of the doctrine of psychoof the society: Svanté Arrhenius, Walther physical parallelism. Finally in Part IV., Nernst, H. W. B. Roozeboom and Julius Other Minds and the Realm of Minds, the Thomsen.
author deals with the traditional problems of The next meeting will be held at New the old rational psychology and natural theolOrleans, December 29 to January 1, 1905-6. ogy. Speaking summarily, it may be said AUSTIN M. PATTERSON. that Professor Fullerton's position in meta
physics is that of a critical realist. He holds, SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.
that is, that there is a real physical world of A System of Metaphysics. By GEORGE STUART extra-mental objects, and that of that world FULLERTON. New York, The Macmillan we have a direct, and not merely a symbolic Company, 1904. Pp. x + 627. Price, $4. or representative, perception. Further, he
Professor Fullerton makes in the work be- maintains that the whole world of minds and fore us a very creditable attempt to be true bodies alike forms a complete and perfect to the promise of his title-page; he constantly mechanism, the relation between the bodily bears in mind that he has set himself not and mental aspects of it being a purely logical merely to produce a series of essays on meta- parallelism,' and consequently adopts a purely physical subjects, but to set forth the whole determinist view of moral action. Finally scheme of his science in a complete and he so far follows in the footsteps of Kant as orderly manner. Only a reader who, like the to regard the existence of God and the reality present reviewer, has himself had occasion to of a future life as matters beyond the limits do the same thing can fully appreciate the of demonstrative science, but as affording difficulties of such a task and the recognition scope for a legitimate exercise of faith. fairly due to even a partially successful execu- It is hardly to be expected that the execution of it. Under Mr. Fullerton's hands the tion of so extensive a work should be equally
satisfactory in all its parts, and, speaking for point is ignored by the author, who prefers to myself, I can not but think the last two divi- furbish up old difficulties about motion which sions of the book much superior to the two may puzzle the non-mathematical reader, but which precede them. The reason for the dif- will be seen at once by those acquainted with ference in value seems to be that the author the mere outlines of modern investigations is much more at home in the psychological into infinity and continuity to be idle fallacies, problems with which these sections mainly and that of a kind which, if sustained at all, deal than in the realm of pure logic and must be fatal not merely to the special theories epistemology. Indeed, the very presence of of Kant, but to the whole spatial and temPart I. might, perhaps, be regarded as an poral scheme of mathematical physics. Mr. unfortunate mistake. The conception of the Fullerton himself attempts to find a way out esperienced world as consisting of states of of his own self-created difficulties by adopting consciousness' is not only in itself an absurd- Berkeley's analysis of space and time as perity, as Professor Fullerton himself shows con- ceived by the senses, but with the mental clusively, and not without humor, in the chap- reservation that the space and time which are ters of Part III. which deal with the doctrines conditions of the existence of the real extraof Clifford and Karl Pearson, but is an ab- mental world are just what the mathematical surdity not likely to be entertained by the physicist declares them to be. He forgets student except as the result of misguidance that according to Berkeley there is no extraat the hands of a psychologizing metaphysi- mental world and, therefore, no such 'real' cian. Hence it seems a pity to start the space or time, and that according to himself reader off on a false scent for the purpose of the infinitely divisible and continuous space afterwards demonstrating his error to him. and time of the physicist are full of logical Surely it would have been better to make a contradictions and must, therefore, be purely beginning with the naïve realism' which is unreal. habitual to all of us in our every-day life, Even in the latter half of the work the and to assume from the first as a working writer does not seem to be by any means as hypothesis that we have a direct perception of successful on the constructive as on the deobjects which, whatever their nature, are to be structive side. Thus, ingenious as his defense carefully distinguished from the processes by of parallelism' is, he nowhere seems to have which they are cognized.
given any more cogent reason for adopting a The author's second part is, perhaps, the parallelistic rather than an interactionist posileast satisfactory portion of the whole work. tion than the obvious reflection that interacMr. Fullerton is apparently quite unfamiliar tion is inconsistent with a purely mechanical with the indispensable foundation of any interpretation of the universe. But that any satisfactory doctrine of space and time, viz., science really demands our acceptance of abthe modern mathematical theory of infinity solute mechanism as the truth about things and continuity. Hence his attack upon the is a statement which he makes no attempt to Kantian · Aesthetik' inevitably becomes a prove, nor does he show any real comprehenvery grave ignoratio elenchi. The real ob- sion of the meaning of anti-mechanistic phijection to the "Aesthetik' is, of course, that losophers, or of the gravity of the difficulties no analysis of mathematical conceptes can be which have to be faced by a relentless and adequate which fails to recognize that their consistent theory of pure mechanism. A application to space and time is logically a reader who should take his notions on the subsecondary affair, and requires to be preceded ject from Mr. Fullerton's fifteenth chapter by the logical investigation of relations of would, indeed, probably go away with the nonumber and order considered in complete ab- tion that Dr. Ward (and? Mach) is an unstraction from the special nature of the terms scientific and credulous person who thinks numbered and ordered. This fundamental that after all there is nothing in’ modern mechanical science. There is, in fact, noth- propiolic acid was discovered by the writer. ing that I for one desiderate more in Pro- Formerly it was prepared from cinnamic acid fessor Fullerton's metaphysical structure than by esterifying and brominating, and then boila serious and thorough discussion of the ques- ing the cinnamic ethyl ester dibromide with tion, what are the real logical postulates of alcoholic potash for eight hours. It was mechanical science, as distinguished from the found that this long boiling was unnecessary mechanistic philosophy professed by some, and that as good a yield was obtained if the but by no means all, men of science, and how alcohol was distilled off immediately after disfar those postulates imply the belief that the solving the cinnamic ethyl ester dibromide. actual course of any real process is through- The a phenyl-naphthalene-dicarboxylic anand-through mechanical.
hydride can be condensed with resorcin in the But the adequate discussion of this problem presence of zinc chloride, to form a compound presupposes a much more searching critical analogous to fluorescein. This fluorescein analysis of the logical character of knowledge analogue, when treated with the theoretical than Professor Fullerton has seen fit to under- quantity of bromine in glacial acetic acid take. One very important issue which such forms a tetra bromo substitution product, analan analysis would raise would be the question ogous to eosin. Both of these compounds are whether an empirical realism, such as that direct dyes for animal fibers. The fluorescent successfully upheld by Professor Fullerton analogue also forms iodine and chlorine subagainst the subjective idealist, does not admit stitution products. or possibly even demand, as its complement a The a phenyl-naphthalene-dicarboxylic anfurther doctrine of critical or transcendental hydride can also be condensed with most other idealism.
A. E. TAYLOR. phenols to form condensation produ
ogous to those formed by phthalic anhydride. SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
On the Preparation of Hydrobromic and THE NEW YORK SECTION OF THE AMERICAN
Hydriodic Acids: L. H. FRIEDBURG.
Bromine is allowed to trickle into paraffin The last regular meeting of the New York which is kept in a molten condition by placing Section of the American Chemical Society was the flask containing it in a shallow steam-bath. held in the Assembly Hall of the Chemists' The bromine vapors which will pass over along Club, 108 West 55th St., Friday, June 9, at with the hydrobromic acid, are partly absorbed 8:15 P.M. The chairman, Dr. Wm. J. Schief- by a second paraffin-containing flask, joined to felin, presided.
the first and standing together with it in the The reports of the secretary and treasurer water-bath. for the year 1904–1905 were read and approved. The fact that iodine and paraffin, or better The secretary's report showed a net gain in still, iodine and vaseline, will allow the promembership of the section of sixteen.
duction of hydriodic acid was a further The program of the evening was as follows: novelty. Here the gas produced is not washed Some Condensation Products of 1 Phenyl
but simply passed through a big empty bulbnaphthalene-2-3-Dicarboxylic Anhydride:
tube before allowing it to be absorbed by NORMAN A. Du Bois.
water. It was shown by Michael and Bucher that Præseodymium Tetroxide: CHARLES BASKERacetic anhydride and phenylpropiolic acid act VILLE and J. B. THORPE. upon each other to form a new compound, That which has been regarded as the tetroxa phenylnaphthalene-dicarboxylic anhydride. ide, Pr,O, is a brownish-black substance reThe reaction is said to be practically quantita- sembling manganese dioxide in appearance tive. In preparing quantities of this com- and conduct with hydrochloric acid. It pound for experimentation, a modification in should rather be called the dioxide. By fusthe usual method for the preparation of phenyl. ing this dioxide with sodium dioxide a yellowish substance has been obtained which on anal- on the 6-nitro-acyl-anthranil. The second by ysis shows the formula Pr,0, 1,0. This heating the alkyl-hydrogen-quinazoline with tetroxide is insoluble in water, but readily potassium hydroxide and alkyl iodide in a decomposed by acids, giving the normal salts bomb tube to 150° C. Both are crystalline of præseodymium.
solids soluble in hot alcohol. The ether melts On the Simplicity of Præseodymium : CHARLES
at ten degrees lower than its isomeric quinazoBASKERVILLE and G. M. MacNIDER.
line. ['nsuccessful efforts were made to fraction Acyl Derivatives of 4 Amino-methyl-phthalate: præseodymium by fractional precipitation at R. R. RENSIIAW and M. T. BOGERT. different temperatures with oxalic acid, fusion 4 Amino-methyl-phthalate is readily obwith sodium dioxide, fractional solution of tained by the reduction of 4-nitro-methylthe dioxide and tetroxide in hydrochloric acid. phthalate. It crystallizes from alcohol and The fractionation was followed by an examin- benzine in glistening plates. Acyl derivatives ation of solutions of uniform strength, acidity of this were prepared with mono and dibasic and amount by means of a Zeiss comparison fatty acids, aromatic acids and substituted spectrometer.
carbonic acids. These substances are well-deArtificial Willemite: CHARLES BASKERVILLE
fined, crystalline bodies, soluble in most orand A. BOURGOUGNON.
ganic solvents, nearly insoluble in water, Artificial zinc ortho-silicate made of pure higrome and petroleum ethers. material neither fluoresces nor phosphoresces
The following officers were then elected for under the influence of the ultra-violet light.
the year 1905–1906: On the introduction of small amounts of President-F. D. Dodge. manganese, bismuth and thorium various re
Vice-President-A. A. Breneman. sults were obtained. All of these bodies are
Secretary-Treasurer-F. H. Pough. phosphorescent; only that one containing the
Executive Committee-Wm. J. Schieffelin, H.
C. Sherman, Charles Baskerville and G. C. Stone. manganese is fluorescent.
F. H. Pough, The Production of Boron Carbide from Boric
Secretary. Oride in the Electric Furnace: H. J. Bliss and S. A. TUCKER.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. The extreme hardness of this substance
ON THE SPELLING OF 'CLON.' might give it certain uses as an abrasive. The authors showed that it could be prepared di
It is over two years since Mr. H. J. Webber rectly from boric acid and coke in large quan
first proposed the word clon as the designation tities, whereas hitherto boron has been used
of horticultural groups of plants which are for the preparation. The existence of Mupl
propagated exclusively by vegetative means. hauser's BC was shown to be extremely doubt
During this period of probation, as it were, ful and is probably a mixture of graphite and
the need for such a word has been amply BC.
demonstrated, and its formal adoption by the
Association of Agricultural Colleges and ExIsomeric Ethers in the Qinazoline Group: H.
periment Stations has placed it within the A. Seil and M. T. BOGERT.
cognizance of lexicographers. No other word The isomerism in this group depends on the
apparently exists which can properly be exmigration of an imide hydrogen in the ortho
tended in meaning to cover the idea expressed position to a ketonic oxygen.. The isomers are
by clon; and the purpose of the present writer is merely to suggest an improvement in orth
ography which seems to be demanded by both NO, Y
phonetic and philological considerations. One * OR
of the few definite indications of quantity in The first was prepared by the action of NHR SCIENCE, N. S., 18: 501-503, 1903.