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investigate a series of soils, keeping constantly our problem in mind, we shall find that the essential characteristics—such as moisture supply, retention of plant food and consequent extensive root growth-are all enhanced as the subsoil becomes heavier in texture until the stage is reached where the roots find their progress somewhat hindered mechanically. Beyond this stage of fineness in texture it is ill-advised to go, for diminished returns from the orchard will be sure to follow in proportion as this limit is exceeded. While this point of texture might be fixed theoretically, it is obvious that it may not be so decided from a practical working standpoint, and even if it could be there are probably too few soils of this exact nature in regions possessing the other favorable attributes to supply the apple trade. There are a great many soils, however, whose subsoils are sufficiently near this ideal to bring satisfactory results. Such subsoils range from very heavy sandy loams to clay loams, limited only as already mentioned, thus including the broad class of loams which increase in desirability as they approach the clay loams.
Inasmuch as the subsoils described can be depended upon largely to contain the optimum, or at least favorable, supply of moisture, and to maintain until needed a corresponding concentration of all available plant food, it follows that with them the conditions are supplied to produce a satisfactory growth of tree for a long term of years, provided a sufficient supply of plant food exists in the soil. If the surface soil be too heavy, however, any one or more of several unfavorable results might follow. When the young tree is transplanted from the nursery a great deal depends upon its ability to establish a healthy, normal and extensive root system the first year. This must be done at first within the limits of the surface soil, and is impossible of realization unless that medium is so mellow and non-resisting that the tiny roots and fibrils may be free to develop in all directions. These conditions. are manifestly best obtained in soils not heavier than a medium loam nor lighter than a medium sandy loam. Ready drainage of the surface soil, which is also imperative,
would be impaired if the soil were too heavy, and the detrimental effect would be apparent not only in the limited growth of tree and its ability to resist disease, but also when the tree should reach its bearing stage, in the coloring of its fruit.
The influence of the character of the soil is again felt, especially in the more northern districts, in the opportune time of the maturity of the fruit. Apples grown on light sandy soil are often ready for picking before the weather is suitable to place them in ordinary storage, while if placed in cold storage the attending expense is much greater than for fruit which matures later. On the other hand, trees grown on clay, or the heaviest clay loams, may continue their growth so late in the season that the fruit does not reach the most desirable state of maturity before it must be gathered, and the trees themselves are not so well prepared to withstand the severities of the winter climate.
The color of the fruit when harvested, furthermore, can be best only when the fruit has reached the proper stage of maturity before it must be picked. It is understood, of course, that no soil can produce highly colored fruit unless the trees are so trimmed and trained as to admit sunlight freely. Assuming that this has been done on all soils alike, and holding our comparison to data gathered under identical, or at least very similar, climatic conditions, then it may be stated that highly colored fruit may be best obtained on soils not heavier than the limit already given. Fruit of excellent color, nevertheless, may be grown on very sandy soils, as was said in connection with that class of soils, but unsatisfactory tree growth more than offsets this desirable characteristic and so eliminates such soils from serious consideration. It is thus seen that the most desirable soils from the color standpoint fall within the range of texture most desirable from the other points of view already considered.
The fact that unsuccessful orchards are frequently seen on the classes of soils already designated as desirable for apple culture most often indicates some form of neglect in methods of culture, including the mechanical conpresent available, but a field of investigation is opened which will become steadily more important as the already noticeable demand for a higher quality of apples increases.
HENRY J. WILDER.
dition of the soil, failure to rotate crops where clean cultivation is not followed, lack of proper trimming, failure to control injurious insects, fungus diseases, etc., or that there is insufficient plant food available. Orchards are sometimes seen, however, in which all these external conditions have been carefully attended to, the trees are thrifty, and still the fruit lacks color and quality. This condition involves a chemical problem and usually indicates, as proved in numerous instances, that the supply of available potash is insufficient for the tree's needs—a lack which must be supplied by rendering available the unavailable potash already in the soil, or by the application of further material in an available form.
Another important problem arises at this point, that is, the relation, if any, which exists between diseases of various kinds to which the apple tree or its fruit is subject and the conditions, as related to the soil, under which the trees are grown. Mr. G. H. Powell, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, stated in an address to the Western New York Horticultural Society, in 1903, that ‘at the present time we would say that the practical control of the scald is primarily an orchard problem and depends on cultural conditions that develop the best and most highly colored fruit. This being the case, it appears that this mal
1 ady may be avoided, in some measure at least, by selecting soils which, with other things equal, tend to produce the best and most highly colored fruit.' It thus seems possible, and indeed probable, that soils in themselves may have a most direct influence upon the character of the tree growth and fruit growth which shall the better enable these to resist certain forces of disease besides the scald.
That the highest quality of fruit should be obtained on a soil which produces a tree neither stunted nor too rank in growth, but normal, well developed and hardy, and consequently productive of fruit the most attractive in appearance, is a natural inference. Sufficient proof of this point, however, is not at
3 See Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Western New York Horticultural Society, 1903.
A CORRECTION OF THE GENERIC NAME (DINOCHERUS) GIVEN TO CERTAIN FOSSIL REMAINS FROM THE LOUP FORK MIOCENE OF
NEBRASKA. While in the field during the past summer (1905) the writer sent to Dr. W. J. Holland (director, Carnegie Museum) a preliminary note on certain fossil remains of the family Suidæ from the Loup Fork Miocene of Sioux County, Nebraska. I proposed Dinohyus hollandi as the name and asked Dr. Holland if he would kindly look to see if that generic name was preoccupied before publishing the note. In reply Dr. Holland wrote me that Dinochærus' appears to be a better word,' and that it was not preoccupied. I agreed to the change, but find that the name Dinochærus has been used by Gloger, for a South African hog (Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturgeschichte, I., pp. xxxii, 131, 1841), and, therefore, propose my original name Dinohyus hollandi for the fossil remains, which was published in SCIENCE, N. S., Vol. XXII., No. 555, pp. 211– 212, August 18, 1905.
0. A. PETERSON. CARNEGIE MUSEUM,
October 24, 1905.
QUOTATIONS. ACADEMIC FREEDOM IN JAPAN. PROFESSOR TOMIZU, most eminent of Japanese authorities on Roman law and professor in the Imperial University, Tokio, has lost his chair, arbitrarily removed by the minister of education, owing to his passionate denunciation of the ministry for the terms which it authorized Japan's representatives at Portsmouth to accept. He is one of a group of seven professors in the university who have been critical of the ministry ever since the war with Russia began. .
Professor Tomizu's eminence together with the radical nature of the government's conduct, have stirred twenty professors in the university and not a few other teachers to memorialize the minister of state for education. They insist that the competency of Professor Tomizu to hold his chair and his personal character and general conduct are the main points for a minister of education to consider, and not his political opinions from which the ministry and many others may differ. They contend, moreover, that there is nothing in the rules laid down for civil officials, which authorizes the treatment of a man with a university professor's status in such a way.
This appeal represents the convictions of some of the most eminent names in Japan's list of pedagogues and scientists, who, however much they wish a renewal of Professor Tomizu's right status, care even more for the principle involved and the precedent established, a precedent contrary, they believe, to the best educational and political interests of the land. They realize that if Professor Tomizu can be summarily discharged by a minister of education on this issue, they may be discharged at any time on other issues.
In this country academic opinion usually is favorable to peace and hostile to war and extreme measures. In Japan, during the recent conflict with Russia, academic opinion has been conspicuous for a belligerency of spirit.
Japan's surviving autocracy and absolutism under parliamentary forms, has enabled the ministry in its dealing with journalists to be as severe and peremptory as public welfare seemed to make necessary. Professor Tomizu has felt the same iron hand, conserving the interests of peace, at a time when popular feeling has run high and strong.–The Boston Transcript.
Fascicle 23 deals with the Crioceridæ, a group of chrysomelid beetles. M. Jacoby and H. Clavareau are the authors, and the paper contains 40 pages and 5 colored plates. Most of these forms are exotic.
Fascicle 24 is on the subfamily Scutellering of the family Pentatomidae. It is by H. Schouteden, and occupies 98 pages and 5 colored plates. Most of the species are from the tropies.
Fascicle 25 is by J. Desneux on the Termitidæ or white ants. There are 52 pages and 2 colored plates. He has given a very complete catalogue of the family. His sinking of the many new genera recently created at the expense of the old genus Termes is to be highly commended, although he admits that the genus may be divided into six subgenera.
Fascicle 26 is devoted to the Culicidæ, or mosquitoes; F. W. Theobald is the author. There are 50 pages and 2 colored plates. One notices the omission of several species described by Miss Ludlow, and other American entomologists. Apparently ignorant of their identity, Mr. Theobald retains both Pelorempis and Eucorethra as distinct genera, and even finds characters to separate them in the table.
A USEFUL article is that by Mr. M. T. Cook on the insect galls of Indiana.' It includes a general treatment of galls, a catalogue of the Indiana species, with a brief description, and often figure, of the gall, ending with a bibliography. The insects are not described. The enthusiastic author appears, unfortunately, to have but a slight acquaintance with the European literature on cecidii.
MAJOR T. L. CASEY has revised another large group of American beetles; the tribe Pæderini of the family Staphylinidæ. The generic synopses include all American genera, but the specific tables include only the species from the United States. Many of the genera are described as new, and there are many notes on the position of genera, and suggested improvements in the accepted classification.
16 The Insect Galls of Indiana,' 29th Ann. Rept. Dept. Geol. Indiana, 1904, pp. 801-867, 52 figs.
?•A Revision of the American Pæderini,' Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, XV., pp. 17–248, 1905.
VOTES OV ENTOMOLOGY. SEVERAL fascicles of Wytsman's Genera Insectorum’have recently been issued; some of much interest to American entomologists. Fascicle 22 treats of the Braconidæ; it is in two parts, of 253 pages and 3 colored plates ; it is written by Gy. V. Szépligeti. His classification is, in the main, that of Dr. Ashmead, but he has added several new genera.
Several of our species, previously considered identical with European forms, he finds, upon comparison, are distinct therefrom. Over two hundred species are described as new.
It is not often that catalogues of exotic insects are issued by Americans; therefore, Mr. Levi W. Mengels catalogue of the Erycinidæ is all the more noteworthy. It is printed in double columns; necessary references, with dates, and synonymy are given; the species are numbered in the genera; there is a full index; in short it is a very useful work to the student of butterflies the world over.
MR. Lewis's catalogue of the Histeridæ, a family of beetles, will be a great boon to all who wish to study the group. It is a pamphlet of 81 pages, and lists 2,306 species. It appears to be complete, but, unfortunately, there are a few errors in localities and references. Mr. Lewis's collection of these insects is by far the most valuable in the world.
A LARGE treatise on mosquitoes has been published by Professor R. Blanchard. It at once reminds one of Giles's English work, but is not as technical. Part I. treats of the morphology, anatomy, habits, metamorphoses and parasites of mosquitoes. Part II. is a systematic synopsis and list of all the known species. He decides that the proper name of the yellow fever mosquito is Stegomyia calopus Meigen, 1818. Part III. relates to the medical phase of the subject. Mosquitoes are considered as agents in malaria, yellow fever, filariasis, and in their probable relation to other diseases. There are chapters on methods of destroying larvæ and adults, of abolishing their breeding-places, of curing the diseases, and finally on rearing and preparing specimens. An appendix includes a list of recentlydescribed species, and a long bibliography. Photographs of Ross, Finlay, Manson and Grassi adorn the pages. Many of the text figures are from Dr. Howard's works.
35A Catalogue of the Erycinidæ,' Reading, Pa., May, 1905, pp. 161.
+A Systematic Catalogue of Histeridæ,' by George Lewis; Taylor and Francis, London, 1905.
5'Les moustiques, histoire naturelle et médi. cale, Paris, 1905, pp. 673, figs. 316.
An elaborate book on the Anopheles mosquitoes of India is that by Messrs. S. P. James and W. G. Liston. Part I. treats of the habits, external anatomy, breeding-places and methods of studying this genus of mosquitoes. Part II. consists of technical descriptions of 23 species, arranged in 10 groups. Very sensibly he neglects to make new genera for these groups. A number of larvæ are described and figured, with details. There are many plates, 15 of which are colored and printed on a green background, quite a novel feature in entomology.
An interesting arrangement of the genera of Vespidæ, or true wasps, is that by A. Ducke." He believes that the nesting-habits is the clew to the natural classification, and tabulates the South American forms on this basis. Some of the older genera are divided, and he has added descriptions of a few new forms. The plate represents the nests of two species of Charterginus, showing the opening on the upper side.
Dr. W. A. Schulz has issued a separate publication under the title 'HymenopterenStudien.' It consists of three parts: First, a list of Hymenoptera collected in various parts of North Africa, with notes and descriptions of new forms; second, new genera and species of Trigonalidæ, describing, at great length, several new types from South America; and third, a list of some Vespide and Apidæ from the Amazon region, with descriptions of a few new species.
BOTANICAL NOTES. INDEX OF NORTH AMERICA FUNGI. For many years, Professor Dr. Farlow, of Harvard University, has had under preparation an index of the species of North American fungi which should serve as a guide to the more important systematic literature. The
"A Monograph of the Anopheles Mosquitoes of India, Calcutta, 1904, 132 pp., many plates.
Nouvelles contributions a la connaissance, des Vespides sociaux de l'Amerique du Sud,' Rev. d'Entom., 1905, pp. 5-24, 1 plate.
Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1905; 147 pp., 13 text figs.
are to be regarded as fixed and exempt from further changes on the grounds of priority.
From remarks in the preface, we infer that the successive parts may be expected to appear without much delay, although it must necessarily take a good deal of time to revise the manuscript and see it through the press. When completed, it will be invaluable to the working botanist, and it is to be hoped that it can be pushed through the press with all possible speed.
results of these labors are now shown in the first fascicle (Vol. I., part 1) of the ‘ Bibliographical Index of North American Fungi' which appears as “Publication No. 8' of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The author does not include references to merely economic papers, such as those 'on fungicides and other technical and agricultural subjects, although even these are cited when they contain notes of interest to the systematist. Likewise, papers relating to the physiology and cytology of the fungi are not included (with some exceptions) nor is the literature of the bacteria and saccharomycetes cited.
The arrangement of the genera is alphabetical, with an alphabetical arrangement of the species under each genus. Under each species, the literature is cited in chronological order. As to classification and nomenclature, the author has been conservative, having 'tried as far as possible to avoid changing names in common use for many years. The ‘Sylloge Fungorum’ of Saccardo, and the ‘Pflanzenfamilien' of Engler and Prantl have been followed as far as possible. While admitting that 'the present classification of fungi is not one which can be called more than temporary, the author feels that our knowledge of the fungi of the world is not yet sufficient to make it possible' to form a really natural and scientific system.'
While following the law of priority in regard to specific names, the author has no scruples in declining to accept many of the names of older writers which have of late been substituted for more modern names, since, from the vagueness of the descriptions and the crudeness of the illustrations, it is impossible, in the absence of original specimens, to be sure that the species were the same as those to which they have since been applied.'
In this connection, the significant and pertinent remark is made that “it is best not to make too violent attempts to interpret the older mycologists, but to be content with letting the dead bury their dead. The business of reviving corpses has been carried alto. gether too far in mycology. Incidentally, he hopes that the next botanical congress will make a list of names of cryptogams which
THE FERN ALLIES OF NORTH AMERICA. PROFESSOR WILLARD N. CLUTE has earned the thanks of naturalists of all kinds, from amateurs to professional botanists by bringing out his book, “ The Fern Allies’ (Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York), in which, by means of illustrations and non-technical descriptions, he gives a popular account of the plants which are related to the ferns. They include seven families, namely; Equisetaceae (14 species), Lycopodiaceae (13 species), Psilotaceae (1 species), Selaginellaceae (12 species), Salviniaceae (3 species), Marsiliaceae (5 species) and Isoetaceae (21 species). There are thus sixtynine species described in this book, and, since every species is figured at least once, it is easy to see how useful a book this will be for the general reader and the amateur, while at the same time it is likely to prove handy for the professional botanist also. Good keys to the species are given in each family. At the end of the volume is an alphabetical checklist of North American Fern Allies, including many varieties, and this is followed by a simple glossary. The book is well printed and neatly bound, and deserves a wide sale among all classes of plant lovers.
THE GRASSES OF IOWA. Four years ago, the first volume of “The Grasses of Iowa' appeared as Bulletin No. 1 of the Iowa Geological Survey. That volume was prepared under the joint authorship of Professors Pammel and Weems, of the Iowa Agricultural College, and F. Lamson-Scribner, of the United States Department of Agriculture, and was devoted to a general discussion of the structure, pathology and economic uses