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function, within certain limits, I believe the leadership in certain departments, but must state university combined with the normal look to the non-state institution for leaderschools can perform. The department of ship in others. It should be as universal education in the state university organizing as the American democracy-as broad, as the resources of the state university for liberal, as sympathetic, as comprehensive this particular purpose may bring to bear ready to take up into itself all the educaupon the educational problems and upon tional forces of the state, giving recognition the educational needs of the state, an expert for good work wherever done, and unifyopinion which it is not possible to find in ing, tying together all the multiform any other department of the state admin- strands of educational activity into one istration.
great cable whose future strength no man This function, it may be said, is not per- may measure. formed by the university in its capacity as
EDMUND JANES JAMES. a civil service academy, preparing teachers UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. for the educational service of the state. It is larger and wider than this. It is a
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. recognition of the university as one of the Structural and Field Geology, for Students organs created by the state for determin- in Pure and Applied Science. By JAMES ing, within certain limits, the policy of the
GEIKIE, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., etc., Murchistate in the great field of education. .
son Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in And thus I might proceed with a sum
the University of Edinburgh, formerly of H.
M. Geological Survey, author of 'The Great mary of other great things that are waiting
Ice Age, “Prehistoric Europe,' 'Earth for the state university if it only knows
Sculpture,' etc. New York, D. Van Nosthe day of its visitation; if it only measures
trand Company. 1905. itself up to its opportunities; if it only
This is a well-made and attractive volume performs faithfully and simply the duties of just the maximum size which long experiwhich the state thrusts upon it.
ence has shown to be the largest permissible But time presses and I must draw these for a handbook. It is of exactly the same considerations to a close. I have left un- dimensions as the first volume of Chambertouched many things you may have ex- lin and Salisbury, and although by the choice pected me to discuss, not because I do not of a thinner paper the American book numbers consider them as important, but either two hundred more pages, it contains so many because I regard them as so fundamental more figures that the text of the two is of that we should all agree upon them or be about the same length. ' cause the limitation of time does not per
Although the two books take opposite points mit even their mention. You will have of view, the one describing structures with gathered from what I have said my con
little explanation, the other discussing proc
little explanation ception in general of the function and
esses with brief illustration, it is interesting future of the state university.
to compare them. The Scotch book is as conIt may be defined in brief as supplemen
servative as Edinburgh, the American as
radical as Chicago. The former proceeds tary to the great system of higher education
along the ancient ways with a leisurely fullwhich private beneficence and church ac
ness that is very attractive to a veteran, and tivity have reared, and it is to be hoped
recalls the time when he devoured Jukés or will continue to rear. tinue to rear. It is corrective It is corrective
Nauman. The rock-forming minerals are derather than directive; it is cooperative scribed in detail, and the rocks with even rather than monopolistic; it is adapted for greater fullness. The word petrography, with
all its synonyms, is omitted with much of the complex nomenclature and special doctrines of this new and aspiring science, while the American authors present a grand chapter on the Origin and Descent of Rocks,' starting with a molten magma (but discrediting a molten globe), and presenting the new quantitative classification of Iddings and Washing
Fossils are next treated with great brevity in an excellent chapter of twelve pages. Much is omitted here that appears in Pennell, Cole and Keilhack and might have been expected in a manual of field geology. The book is rather' planned for an advanced course in geology in Scotland with some field work, and it is interesting to note the classes for which it is intended according to the enumeration in the preface, viz., mining engineers, civil engineers, architects, agriculturists and public health officers.
There follow chapters written with great fullness and clearness upon the main geological structures, stratification, concretions, folding, joints and faults, the structure of eruptive rocks, and ore formations. The book is here at its best. The illustrations are abundant, well chosen and clear and the plan of printing many of the important figures as separate plates is used with especially good effect and several of the landscapes combine the highest artistic beauty with the greatest illustrative value. Several companion plates are very effective, for instance the field data of a complex area are presented on one plate and the completed map on an opposite plate. Again the tracings of thrust planes are given on a photograph of a mountainside and a section of the intricate geology of the mountain is given on a plate facing the first.
The chapter on metamorphism is brief. The Archæan is dismissed with a half page, and the line of treatment is not greatly influenced by the remarkable attempts to apply the laws of physical chemistry to the problem made by Van Hise, Grubenmann and Becke.
Then follows a chapter of fifty-four pages on geological surveying, which, as it is largely given up to the description of structural features, and, indeed, contains the only discus
sion of the glacial formation, offers only rather brief and general directions for field work."
T he economic aspects of geological structure are then taken up in a very detailed and interesting way, full of practical suggestions for the application of the ideas developed in the preceding chapters.
The book closes with a brief chapter of thirty pages covering the whole subject of denudation and the evolution of all the surface features of the earth, and there is no suggestion of the survey or special field study of these subjects. The contrast between the two books comes out strongly here. The American book devotes 355 pages to the work on air and water and 38 to structural geology. The other gives 30 pages to erosion and 166 to structure. The author shows a great and, in the main, wise conservatism in the employment of new terms. Peneplain does not appear, nor any of the superabundant and largely anthropomorphic terms used especially in America in the description of topographic forms and the cycle of their growth. At the same time he gives with brevity a clear description of the river cycle. The author is, perhaps, not quite consistent as he uses the new or rare word 'phacoids' for 'augen,' which is fully as bad as phenocryst. He seems to wish here to avoid the German, but in another connection uses lee-seite and stossseite, when lee-side and stoss-side are good English. In still another connection the word hornfelses has an unattractive look.
In this large book, given up almost entirely to the presentation of facts, the reviewer has wished to criticize only one minor statement. It is said (p. 51) “ Tachylite is altered to a yellowish or reddish substance known as Palagonite.” Palagonite is certainly an original volcanic glass which has cooled with its present large content of water. A certain uncertainty inherent in the subject may be noted in the treatment of amphibolite and hornblende schist. The two volumes thus supplement each other in a valuable way, the one being a full and well-considered hand-book for use in the sober work of geological surveying or economic investigation, in a country like Scotland, where there are no active volcanoes, earthquakes or glaciers; the other a bold and stimulating guide in every branch of research concerning the evolution of the earth.
B. K. EMERSON. AMHERST, Mass.
The Students' Laboratory Manual of Physical Geography. By ALBERT PERRY BRIGIAM. New York, Appleton. 1904.
This is an expansion of the ‘Teachers' Guide and Laboratory Exercises’ published in 1903, and like it designed to accompany Gilbert and Brigham’s ‘Introduction to Physical Geography,' to which it is very closely adjusted. It is about half as large again as the Teachers' Guide,' but omits the lists of books. It is purely for the student and implies the additional use of the guide by the instructor.
Any one using the text referred to will find this an admirable guide for its illustration by map and exercise. It contains many suggest ive questions that must help the inexperienced teacher toward modern points of view. This is particularly true of the questions on map reading, which are good and abundant, as they ought to be. For class use they may need some selection apart from selection of exercises, if thorough work by the student himself is to be done. Thus the exercise numbered 13, contoured maps, has material for three one hour exercises with pupils in the 'early stages of the high-school course, if the reviewer's experience is to be trusted. Drawing a section for the first time, for instance, is no side issue, but quite a task in itself. Alongside this exercise 263b, C. S. Chart No. 3,089 is wonderfully short and easy, though for students well advanced toward the end of their course. The practical exercises are still further from definite form. It would be a hardship to put this book into the hands of the ordinary teacher of the subject, who is almost invariably too crowded for time and too incompetent in the subject matter to rearrange the exercises in practical form, and require her to use it with her classes. No doubt the class would get advantage of it.
It might be supposed that the wide use of laboratory manuals for physics and chemistry
might guide us in some measure in preparing one for physical geography. Many of these are models in their clear statement of what materials to use, what to do with them and how to do it. This definiteness is of great importance. First-year pupils in a high school will find the latitude exercise in this volume, with its generalities, its principle, its geometry and trigonometry, very discouraging.
The description of field exercises for use in unknown localities has generality and vagueness imposed on it by necessity. It is difficult to conceive of satisfactory accounts being written for such work: Professor Brigham has gathered together some excellent suggestions, and that is all that can be done. The variety of the local fields forbids adequate general treatment. The point of view of the work is modern and scientific, as would be expected of its author. Teachers will find it a safe guide to open their eyes and those of their pupils to the real world about them. Altogether we are left still awaiting an adequate laboratory manual for physical geography, but in the present volume is much material that ought to figure in the book when it is written, much material that ought to be in the hands of teachers attempting laboratory work or wishing to know how to do it.
Mark S. W. JEFFERSON. YPSILANTI, Mich.,
September 19, 1905.
Elements of Applied Microscopy. A Text
book for Beginners. By CHARLES-EDWARD Amory Winslow, Instructor in Industrial Microscopy and Sanitary Biology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pp. 183, with 60 text figures. New York, John Wiley and Sons. 1905.
This manual is an excellent example of a book prepared for a definite purpose and as the result of experience in an institution where independent work and special ideas have a prominent place.
As the author states in his preface the book does not profess to compete, on the one hand, with monographs or on the other with the popular works on microscopy. It is, however, specifically intended for the class in industrial
easily remedied by the teacher and will be naturally righted in a new edition.
It is a source for congratulation that books of this kind are originating from the laboratories of our country, and it is hoped that the number will increase.
S. H. G.
microscopy for second year students in chemistry and biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The object of the course is to give facility in the manipulation of the microscope and an acquaintance with the scope of its practical application.
The first four chapters consider the microscope and its accessories, and the other eight chapters deal with the starches, adulterations of food and drugs, textile fibers, paper, medicine and sanitation, forensic microscopy, microchemistry, petrology and metallurgy.
Each subject is dealt with in a general manner to give the student the principles and the point of view. Exercises are then given to illustrate the methods necessary for the elucidation of the questions which arise in actual practise.
The book is well conceived and satisfactorily worked out. The statements are usually clear and concise. As planned by the author, it is an introduction to the subject, and was designed for use by a teacher possessing knowledge of the more elaborate books, and the monographs bearing upon the various subjects. For the student, excellent references to good sources for further information are given with each chapter so that those espe, cially interested can follow out the subject.
It is not particularly adapted for private learners, as the directions are frequently too brief without the supplementary instruction which naturally goes with a laboratory course. Two directions would prove unsatisfactory in practise: On page 41 the student is told to transfer cover-glasses from the potassium dichromate, sulfuric acid cleaning mixture to fifty per cent. alcohol. After a thorough rinsing in clean water, should have been added. On page 28 under the directions for using the Abbe condenser, it is said: 'In general an opening [of the diaphragm] about the size of the front lens of the objective will yield good results. While this applies to lighting, when no condenser is used it would lead one to light with a less aperture when using an oil immersion objective than when using a low power dry objective. It contravenes the principles given in the preceding chapter. These and a few other slips will be
The Structure and Development of Mosses
and Ferns (Archegoniates). By DOUGLAS HOUGHTON CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Professor of Botany in the Leland Stanford Junior University. New York, The Macmillan Company; London, Macmillan & Co., Ltd. 1905. All rights reserved. Pp. vii + 657. 8vo.
It is but a little more than ten years since the first edition of this book appeared, and now we have a second and considerably revised edition, in which much new matter has been added. By an odd oversight, the fact that this is a second edition is not indicated on the title page, although it is clearly stated in the ‘Preface to the Second Edition' with which the volume opens. In this revision, the whole book has been printed from new type, none of the old stereotype plates having been used. This has given the author as much freedom in the preparation of the present book as though it were wholly new, and he has not been obliged to confine his changes to such as could be made to conform to the limitations of the old plates. The result is that this is a new book, and while it resembles the earlier one, and contains much matter which was in that edition, there is scarcely a page or paragraph in which the author has not made some changes of greater or less importance.
The new book follows the same general sequence as the old one, and, on a cursory glance, the reader sees little difference, yet a closer examination shows many changes and additions. The more important changes are those in the treatment of Marattiales, Isoetaceae and Lycopodinae. In the old edition, the Isoetaceae were discussed in connection with the Marattiales, to which they were regarded as related, but in the new book we find them taken up after the Lycopodinae, being regarded as "sufficiently distinct to warrant the establishment of a separate order, Isoetales.'.
Two wholly new chapters have been added, who wish to obtain a clear notion of the strucviz., the ‘Nature of the Alternation of Genera- ture and relationship of higher plants. tions,' and ' Fossil Archegoniates.' The whole
CHARLES E. BESSEY. number of pages in the earlier book is 544. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. while in the present volume it is 657. So, too, there are 266 figures in the old book, and 322
SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. in the new. The amount of enlargement of The first article in the September number the bibliography may be estimated from the of the American Geologist – Pleistocene Feafact that it covers 13 pages in the first edi- tures in the Syracuse (N. Y.] Region, by tion, and more than 23 in the second.
Professor H. L. Fairchild-was prepared for In his closing chapter, the author presents a
the field program of the meeting of Section revision of the summary and conclusions of
E of the American Association for the Adhis earlier book. Briefly, he now holds that
vancement of Science at Syracuse last sumthe archegoniate series began in the green
mer and is illustrated by two plates. ProAlgae near Coleochaete; that the Liverworts
fessor Charles S. Prosser contributes a paper are the most primitive of existing arche
entitled “Notes on the Permian Formations goniates, and that other groups have descended
of Kansas. The recent investigations confrom them.
cerning the age of the upper Paleozoic formaThe peculiar chromatophore of
tions of Kansas are reviewed and it is shown Anthocerotaceae possibly suggests the inde
that the European and American geologists pendent origin of this group, and this with
who have studied the subject most carefully other structural facts requires that they be
in recent years correlate them with the Peraccorded higher rank than heretofore, possibly
mian. "The Atlantic Highlands Section of that of a class coordinate with ‘Liverworts on
the New Jersey Cretacic' is described by Mr. the one hand and the Mosses on the other.'
J. K. Prather and is illustrated by three Pteridophytes still consist of three classes, all
plates. Professor William H. Hobbs pubevidently related to the Anthocerotes, but rep- lishes Contributions from the Mineralogical resenting entirely different lines of develop- Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin.' ment. The eusporangiate ferns are regarded It consists of a description of minerals from as the lowest of the Filicinae; Hymenophyl- various localities, illustrated by one plate of laceae, while of pretty ancient origin, are re metallic copper from Soudan, Minn., and figgarded as an aberrant group; and the Poly- ures of other minerals. podiaceae constitute the modern fern type. “ That heterospory arose in a number of THE leading article in the Septemberwidely remote groups is unquestionable.” October number of the Journal of Geology This suggests the possibility of a multiple is by Professor Rollin D. Salisbury on “The origin of the spermatophytes. “Except for
Mineral Matter of the Sea, with some Specutheir siphonogamic fertilization, Gymno- lations as to the Changes which have been sperms are much nearer the Pteridophytes involved in its Production. Dr. Reginald A. than they are to the Angiosperms.” “The Daly contributes a paper on 'The Classificaclose resemblance between the Conifers and tion of Igneous Intrusive Bodies,' which is the Lycopods, especially Selaginella, probably illustrated by nine figures. Mr. J. K. Prather points to a real relationship." Cycads are re- describes Glauconite' from the (Cretaceous) garded as descended from fern-like ancestors. Greensands of New Jersey and gives a plate While the position of Isoetales is still in of photomicrographs. “The Mesozoic of doubt, it is regarded as possible that the Southwestern Oregon' is described by Mr. Angiosperms may have arisen from them. George D. Louderback. The rocks are called
This edition without question must prove the Myrtle group or series and the Dillard to be as helpful and suggestive as the one it series. Their lithologic characters, economic supplants, and will be used by all students relations and areal distribution are well de