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By this requirement of a liberal prepara- school, is to train him to be an independent tory training, the university is differ- investigator in the domain appropriate to entiated from the technical school or trade the profession. Thus, from this point of school of secondary grade. By the scien- view, the best way to prepare a man for tific character of its training, it is differ- a professorship in mathematics would be entiated from a mere preparatory 'cram' to train him in mathematics in such a way school for public examinations: such as and to such a point that he might have a were so many of our private professional power of independent judgment in the schools down to a recent date.

domain of mathematical problems; that in There are certain things, then, which an independent way he might discover the must mark this institution in order to possible mathematical problems for himself make it a true university. The most strik- and be equipped to handle them one after ing peculiarity is the scientific character of the other as he might have occasion or the training which it affords. A consid- opportunity to take them up. In the same eration of this feature—for to my mind it way the best training for a lawyer or a is the fundamental and distinguishing judge would be such a training in the sciquality of the university-may properly ence of the law as would enable him to delay us for a moment. There are many have a power of independent judgment on ways in which a man may be prepared for any legal question he might meet, such as a profession. He may have no school would qualify him to take up with entire training whatever of a special or profes- freedom and with a feeling of ability the sional kind. Having acquired a knowledge investigation of any topic which might of the elements of learning, he may be come before him. thrust directly into the practise of a pro- It is this latter idea which underlies the fession in order to learn ‘by doing.' This German university and the German prohas been characteristic of most of our pro- fessional school. According to the idea of fessional work in this country down to the Germans the way to prepare a man to within a recent date. But even when become a professional chemist is not to schools have been organized to afford such load him down with all the knowledge of training, they may still be of very different chemistry which the world has thus far kinds. Thus they may be merely institu- accumulated, though such an acquisition tions to purvey what is already known in under certain circumstances may be valuthe profession, their purpose being to fill able, but to train him in the field of chemthe minds of their pupils with knowledge istry in such a way as to make him an inof what at present is known about the sub- dependent investigator-one who will be ject in hand; perhaps to enable them to qualified to meet any chemical problem pass a state examination which may be coming up in the course of chemical work. prescribed in this particular field, or to In the same way, to prepare a man to be pass a university examination set for the a professor. of history is not, according to purpose of testing one's knowledge rather the German idea, to fill him up with the than one's power.

knowledge of all historical facts, for such A school may, on the other hand, be facts have already passed, in their multiorganized on the theory that the best way tude and magnitude, beyond the power of to prepare a man for the practical duties any man to grasp, even that of a von of a profession, so far as it can be done in Ranke; but to give to the man a historic

sense, or at least to awaken it in him (for ulty will consist of men and women who if he has it not it would be difficult to will have developed this quality of scholarcreate it entirely anew), to develop his ship, this idea of learning, this notion of critical spirit, to qualify him to take up productive work in the field of scientific the investigation of any particular historic investigation and research. It can not be problem in such a way that when he has anything else and accomplish the ends we finished his investigation the last word will have in view. Now, of course, there is a have been said, so far as the existing ma- long road to travel between our present terial will permit.

situation in this respect and that time In addition to this, the purpose of the when, judged from this point of view, we professional school should be not merely to shall be a true university. I say a long qualify the student to do this kind of re- road, but it will be covered, I fully believe, search, but to inspire him with an ambition in a comparatively short time; for the idea actually to do this kind of work to the of this advance has already permeated this extent of his ability, whatever the position body of instructors, has touched with its to which he should be called.

dynamic force every aspiring soul in the I do not know to what extent this pe- group and will in the long run leave no culiarity in the conception of a true pro- individual untouched, and will leave no fessional school may explain the leadership person unaspiring. which Germany enjoys to-day in the world W hat this spirit, if it could become genof science and scholarship, that is to what eral, would mean for our scientific advance extent this peculiarity in their educational as a nation, what it would mean for our system has produced this thirst for scholar industrial improvement, surpasses almost ship and learning, or to what extent their the power of the human mind to conceive. natural thirst for scholarship and learning Suppose every one of our high school teachhas worked out this peculiar device for ers in this country had had a university stimulating such a spirit. Whichever may training in the sense in which I am using be true, I think we must allow that in this the term, so that when he goes into a comparticular quality the German university munity and begins his work of instruction surpasses those of the rest of the world. there also goes into that community a

They carry this thought much further in new power, a new force, being itself first Germany than in any other country. No of all productive, and then aiming to select man is allowed to teach, even in a second- from that community the young minds ary school of the first grade, who has not which may have it in them to add to the come under the influence of the theory and power and resources, to the wealth, moral, practise of this sort of a professional school. intellectual and material, of their communiAnd while the German universities, judged ties, and kindle in them the sacred flame from an American point of view, have of aspiration, as only the genuine fire of many defects, this is certainly one of their scientific enthusiasm can kindle it. Sup. strongest points, and one which, if we can pose every student who goes forth from in any way secure for ourselves, in our this chemical laboratory should carry with own institutions, would be a great advan- him the power and the determination to tage to us.

add something to our knowledge of chemIt goes without the saying that in such istry, what an addition to the industrial an institution as we are outlining the fac- resources of this country! It would mean more than the annexation of many fertile sity. But we have already reached the islands beyond the sea, and would cost far time when the subject matter relating to less.

the world of business has a content which In brief, then, this institution must be- is susceptible of scientific treatment, the come, in all departments of professional study of which, under proper conditions, life, a great center of scientific research may become a valuable element in the and investigation, and must become so, if preparation for business. The time has for, no other reason, because the professional come, therefore, when the college of comtraining itself can not be of the highest merce should be one of the constituent coltype unless it be given by men who are leges of the university. qualified for, and eager of, scientific effort. So I expect to see this institution increase

This university will include within itself the number and quality of its professional not merely the old professions-law, medic schools as the years go on, until it will cine, teaching, but it will include scientific have developed into a full-fledged univerpreparation for any department of our sity of the broadest scope, capable of ancommunity life, for the successful prose- swering to the multiform needs of a great cution of which an extensive scientific commonwealth. training of this kind is desirable or neces- In a word, this institution will most fully sary. We shall add, therefore, from time perform its duty to the people of this state to time schools or colleges which will take if it will stand simply, plainly, unequivocare of these new professions as they may cally and uncompromisingly for training appear. We have already begun with the for vocation, not training for leisureprofession of engineering in all its various not even for scholarship per se, except as forms-mechanical, civil, electrical, sani- scholarship is a necessary incident to all tary, chemical, etc., the profession of archi- proper training of a higher sort for votecture and the profession of farming. cation, or may be a vocation itself, but The next to be entered upon in a large and training to perform an efficient service for satisfactory way is the profession of busi- society in and through some calling in ness. Some of these newer callings are, of which a man expresses himself and through course, quite different in their character, which he works out some lasting good to and will call for quite a different kind of society. Such training for vocation should training from that of the old so-called naturally, and would inevitably, if the learned professions. It will hardly be pos- training were of the proper sort, result in sible to turn through the halls of our uni- the awakening of such ideals of service as versities, even though they be multiplied would permeate, refine and elevate the many fold, all those who expect to enter. character of the student. It would make in one capacity or another the great world him a scholar and investigator, a thinker, of business. And for many a long day to a patriot-an educated gentleman. come the great geniuses in this department It is apparent to any one who knows the will probably be men who have had no present condition of the university, and for university training; for the 'wind bloweth that matter of any of our American uniwhere it listeth' and many a genius will versities, that such a conception as this sprout and bud and flower in this domain calls for a continued growth at the top who has not seen even the outside walls of and a lopping off at the bottom. In other a preparatory school or college or, univer- words, it requires an increasing standard

of admission to the university, and an ex- instruction. And this adequate provision tension of the scientific character and qual- need not be very expensive. There comes ity of the work done inside of the univer- a time, in the growth of attendance at any sity. And this development I consider institution, when it reaches its maximum will be as inevitable as the ebb and flow of efficiency. I have no doubt myself that in the tides. My own idea is that the uni- another. ten years, unless we should have versity ought not to be engaged in second- some great economic backset, there will be ary work at all; and by secondary work I ten thousand students in the state of Illimean work which is necessary as a pre- nois, who will want the kind of work and liminary preparation for the proper pur- the grade of work offered in the freshman suit of special, professional, that is scien- and sophomore years of the University of tific, study. Consequently, our secondary Illinois. Now it is to my mind perfectly schools, our high schools and our colleges apparent that it would be undesirable to will be expected to take more and more of have ten thousand freshman and sophothe work which is done in the lower classes mores in the State University at Urbana. of the various departments of the univer- It would be far better to have them scatsity as at present constituted, until we shall tered over the state at fifty other instituhave reached a point where every student tions, provided we can get these institucoming into the university will have a suit- tions to take care of them properly, and able preliminary training to enable him to then send those of them who may desire take up, with profit and advantage, univer- the more advanced work up to the unisity studies, in a university spirit and by versity. university methods.

So then, the institution must be lopped Every community in this country ought off at the bottom and expand at the top in to furnish the possibility of securing this order to become that true university of secondary training as near as possible to the state of Illinois which will render the the heart of the community itself. Cer- largest service to the people of this comtainly every town of fifty thousand inhabit munity. We have, in the development of ants, and, perhaps, every town of twenty our college of agriculture a very excellent thousand in the United States-surely illustration of how, with the growing standevery county in this state--should be ard of this state, an individual professional able, through the activity either of public school will gradually change its entire charagencies or. of private beneficence, to offer acter, by the continued raising of its standthe facilities for acquiring this secondary ards. Thus far, we have been practically grade of education which is appropriate accepting in the college of agriculture any to the high school and the college. Surely young man who desires to avail himself of it is true that the work done at present in the advantages for instruction offered here, the freshman and sophomore years at the and who seemed to the faculty likely to be University of Illinois, and for that matter able to do the work, without reference to in any of our. American universities, may his formal preparation. At the present just as well be done, so far as the quality rate of growth, in another ten or fifteen of the work is concerned, at any one of years there will be five thousand young fifty or one hundred centers in the state of people in this state who will want to purIllinois, as at Urbana; provided only that sue these studies. It would not be possible adequate provision be made for giving this or desirable to take care of these five thousand people in the college of agricul- nosticate for it. The old traditional uniture at Urbana. I expect to see secondary versity of the middle ages and later times schools of agriculture established at dif- consisted primarily of the three faculties ferent points in the state where those who of law, medicine and theology. The philowish technical work of secondary grade sophical faculty was later added and in a can secure it near home, and from these the few instances still another faculty was best trained and the best fitted will be sent added, making usually four and sometimes up to the college of agriculture at the five in the typical university. University of Illinois for their advanced The theological faculty was thus from training.

the beginning an essential part of the uniOne may ask, at what point will you versity. It was an element of the univercease to raise these standards of admission ? sity idea. A university without the theoI think the answer to that question is very logical faculty can hardly be looked upon, simple, namely, when we shall have suc- from a theoretical or historical point of ceeded in requiring from the young men view, as a complete university. Certainly and women who enter the university that the vast majority of thinkers would say degree and kind of preliminary education that the absence of a theological faculty which, from a pedagogical and a social is a serious defect in an institution which point of view, best qualifies them for the aims to be a complete university. From beginning of special, i. e., scientific, train the standpoint of the church I have always ing.

felt that it was a great disadvantage for it You will see from the above sketch that to educate its priests or clergymen in theoI look upon the university as an institution logical seminaries isolated and monastic infor the training of men and women, not of stead of in theological faculties forming boys and girls. The latter, I think, is dis- part and parcel of a great university which tinctly the work of the high school and the is itself in many respects a microcosm and college, and the sooner it can be relegated life in which prepares for the great life of to them, the better for the young people the world outside. themselves, for the schools and colleges, But in this country, of course, the state for the universities and for the community. university can not undertake to establish I have no doubt myself that when our edu- a theological faculty for a long time to cational system is as fully developed as is come, if ever; in fact, not until there is a our commerce and our manufacturing, we substantial agreement on the question of shall see this differentiation of function. religious beliefs and practises, at least so

But this institution will be and become far as fundamentals are concerned. This not only a university in general, but it will day is certainly far in the future, and unperforce be a particular kind of a univer- til it comes, the state universities in this sity. It is and will remain a state univer- country will certainly not organize or supsity, and certain consequences for its port theological faculties. future flow from this fact.

But we have gone somewhat further in The first thought in this connection is our actual practise than our theory of one of limitation. As a state university in separation of church and state might call America, there are certain things which it for and we have cut from our curriculum can not undertake, at least within any of studies all courses bearing upon reperiod which is worth our while to prog- ligion, even upon the history of religion.

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