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special reference to military needs, and the result is a collection which, while it would be invaluable in the event of another military campaign, will also be highly useful in the peaceful development of the islands through the medium of modern roads, bridges and other improvements. These maps will probably do as much to promote the agricultural and industrial development of the Philippines as any single act of the civil government, and for them the authorities are indebted entirely to the patient, painstaking, courageous labors of the army. The council of the Royal Meteorological
he Royal Meteorological Society has now appointed a lecturer who is prepared to deliver lectures on meteorological subjects, e. g., How to observe the Weather; Weather Forecasting; Climate; Rainfall; Thunderstorms; Meteorology in relation to Agriculture. Health, etc. The lectures will be illustrated by lantern slides from the large collection in the possession of the society. The council is willing to arrange for exhibiting at the gatherings of local scientific societies, institutions or schools, a collection 01 photographs, diagrams and charts illustrating meteorological phenomena and various patterns of instruments used for meteorological observations.
The following appointments have been made in the faculties of the George Washington University:
Faculty of Graduate Studies. General Henry L. Abbott, U.S.A., retired, member of the Board of Consulting Engineers of the Panama (anal, professor of hydraulic engineering.
Edward B. Rosa, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins), professor of physics.
Brigadier-General George M. Sternberg, U.S.A., retired, former surgeon-general of the War Department, professor of preventive medicine.
Faculty of Columbian College. Edwin A. Hill, A.B., M.A. (Yale), Ph.D. (Columbian), assistant professor of chemistry,
Thomas M. Price, B.S. (Md. Agricultural), Ph.D. (Columbian), assistant professor of chemistry.
Timothy W. Stanton, B.S., M.S. (Colorado), Ph.D. (Columbian), assistant professor of paleontology.
Philander Betts, B.S., M.S. (Rutgers), E.E. (Columbian), assistant professor of electrical engineering.
Paul N. Peck, A.B., A.M. (George Washington), instructor in mathematics.
Department of Medicine. Arthur M. Tasker, B.A. (Wesleyan), assistant in chemistry.
Ernest W. Brown, Ph.D. (Yale), assistant in chemistry.
DR. ALEXANDER MCKENZIE, lecturer in the l'niversity of Birmingham, has been appointed head of the chemical department at the Birkbeck College in succession to Dr. John E. Mackenzie, who has become principal of the Technical Institute, Bombay.
APPOINTMENTS at King's College, London, have been made as follows: Mr. E. P. Harrison, Ph.D., and Mr. H. S. Allen, M.A., assistant lecturers in physics; Mr. C. F. Russell, B.A., assistant lecturer in mathematics; Mr. L. Hinkel, assistant demonstrator in chemistry; Mr. W. Woodland, demonstrator in zoology; Mr. O, S. Sinnatt, B.Sc., and Mr. R. Wolfenden, B.Sc., demonstrators in engineering; Mr. J. E. S. Frazer, F.R.C.S., demonstrator in anatomy.
Dr. G. N. WOLDRICH has retired from the chair of geology in the Bohemian University at Prague, and is succeeded by Dr. Pocta.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIOVAL VEWS.
MR. ANDREW CARNEGIE recently offered $20,000 to Hope College, Holland, Mich., for a gymnasium, on condition that a like sum be raised by the institution. The condition has been met and the gymnasium is now being erected.
MR. RALPH VORHEES, of Clinton, N. J., has given Huron College, a Presbyterian institution in South Dakota, a hundred thousand dollars, subject to a life annuity of five per cent.
The University of Melbourne will celebrate its jubilee in April, 1906.
Dr. Austin Scott has resigned the presidency of Rutgers College, but retains the chair of history and political science.
A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 17, 1905.
THE FUNCTION OF THE STATE
THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS owes its The Function of the State University: PRESI
foundation to the initiative of the federal DEXT EDMUND JANES JAMES............. 609 government of the United States. Scientific Books :
The celebrated Morrill Land Grant Act Geikie's Structural and Field Geology for
of July 2, 1862, provided that each state Students: PROFESSOR B. K. EMERSON. Brigham's Student's Laboratory Manual of in the union should be granted thirty Physical Geography: DR. MARK S. W. JEFFERSON. Winslow's Applied Micro
thousand acres of land for each senator scopy: S. H. G. Campbell's Structure and and representative to which the state was Development of Mosses and Ferns: PROFESSOR CHARLES E. BESSEY.............. 628
entitled in the federal congress, for the Scientific Journals and Articles ............ 632
establishment and support 'of at least one Societies and Academies :
college, whose leading object shall be (withThe Philosophical Society of Washington: out excluding other scientific and classical CHARLES K. WEAD. The Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine: PRO
studies, and including military tactics) to FESSOR WILLIAM J. GIES................ 633 teach such branches of learning as are reDiscussion and Correspondence:
lated to agriculture and the mechanic arts, The Geographical Distribution of Students : JEROME D. GREENE. The Making of Lan
*** in order to promote the liberal and tern Slides : PROFESSOR W. S. FRANKLIN.. 637 practical education of the industrial classes Special Articles :
in the several pursuits and professions of Orthogenetic Variation: PROFESSOR H. GADOW. Note on Vector Symbols: H.
life.' SCHAPPER. The Occurrence of Ichthyosaur
This has turned out to be one of the most like Remains in the Upper Cretaceous of Wyoming: PROFESSOR JOHN C. MERBIAM.: 637 magnificent endowments of higher educaQuotations :
tion ever made by any government, church Trustees and Faculties...... ......... 641 or individual, whether we have regard to The Rhodes Scholarships................... 641 its immediate effects in leading to the esThe Research Laboratory of Physical Chem tablishment of the particular institutions
istry of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ...............
contemplated in the act, or. to its remoter The American Society of Naturalists and
effects in further increasing and stimula
............. 643 ting state benevolence for this same general The American Association for the Advance purpose. ment of Science. ......
As the result of the said grant, at least Scientific Notes and News.......
one institution corresponding to the above University and Educational News...........
description has been established in each state and territory in the union. There
* Inaugural address of Dr. Edmund Janes MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended tor review should be sent to the Editor of SCIENCE, Garri.
James on the occasion of his installation as presison-on-Hudson, N. Y.
dent of the University of Illinois, October 18, 1905.
are now more than forty-nine in all! The eral government, about seventy-three thoustates have in nearly every instance con- sand dollars a year, to be applied in the tributed to the further endowment of these maintenance of an agricultural experiment colleges in the form of permanent funds station, and the colleges of agriculture and or what is practically the same thing, in mechanic arts. the form of permanent annual appropria- The state of Illinois has added largely to tions, exceeding, and in some cases far ex- this sum of seventy-three thousand dollars ceeding, the amount given by the federal for the support of these two enterprises. government itself.
The last legislature, for example, approIn some instances the new college was priated four hundred thousand dollars per incorporated in, or annexed to, some exist- annum for the support of these departing institution. In others it was made an ments, or more than five times as much as entirely independent institution limited to the federal government. In addition it instruction in agriculture and the mechanic also appropriated considerable sums for the arts. In still others it became the nucleus support of other departments which, alof a great state university, with all the though not mentioned specifically in the departments properly belonging to an in- Land Grant Act of 1862, were contemplated stitution which may justly lay claim to by the words 'not excluding other scientific that time-honored name.
and classical subjects.' This was the case in Illinois. The pro. In other words, the state of Illinois has ceeds of the sale of this original land grant not only applied conscientiously to the purconstitute an endowment fund providing poses of the federal act all the funds which about thirty-two thousand dollars a year the congress has provided, but it has actufor the support of the institution.
ally appropriated five times as much for In 1887 the federal government passed these same purposes as the federal governan act known as the Hatch Act, providing ment itself. In addition it has provided an appropriation of fifteen thousand dol for the other departments necessary to lars a year, to each state in the union, for transform the original college of agriculthe establishment and support of an agri- ture and the mechanic arts into a fullcultural experiment station. This, in the fledged university of the modern type. state of Illinois, was made a department of The comparatively small sum thus apthe state university.
propriated by the federal government has In 1890, hy what is known as the second led in the sequel to the expenditure of ten Morrill Act, the federal government appro- times as much for higher education by the priated an additional sum of fifteen thou- state of Illinois. The other states have sand dollars a year, to be increased by one followed in the same general path, so that thousand dollars annually until it reached it is doubtful whether a similar expendithe sum of twenty-five thousand dollars a ture of funds to that made by the federal year, for the further endowment of colleges government on this occasion ever. led to of agriculture and mechanic arts, founded proportionately greater returns for higher on the act of 1862. This sum, in Illinois, education, in the history of any time or was naturally also turned over to the state country. university, so that, by these various federal The University of Illinois has become the acts, the University of Illinois now receives, largest of the institutions which owe their either directly or indirectly from the fed- origin to this federal grant. Opened for.
work on March 2, 1868, with fewer than result of that marvelous increase of pop-
matriculants in all departments for the
To the original colleges of agriculture What is in a name? Sometimes much, and mechanic arts, contemplated in the and so it was here. Giving this name— first act (including engineering and archithe University of Illinois—to the institu- tecture), have been added the colleges of tion, if not at that time an indication liberal arts, of science, of law, of medicine of a conscious change of purpose on the and dentistry, and the schools of music, part of the people of this state, powerfully of library science, of pharmacy and of helped, at any rate, in working out this education. change of purpose and bringing it to the In the college of liberal arts and the public consciousness.
graduate school connected with it, are inIt did not, of course, immediately pro- cluded the ordinary subjects of instruction duce large results, and even so late as 1890 embraced in the modern university so far the faculty of the school numbered only as they are not included in the other schools thirty-five, and the student body, four hun- and colleges mentioned, except those bedred and eighteen. Since that time, partly longing to a theological school. as a result of the impetus given by the Associated with the university are, besecond Morrill Act of 1890; partly as a sides the agricultural experiment station result of the changed attitude on the part already mentioned, the engineering experiof the state toward the institution, evi- ment station (the first of the kind in the denced, even though unconsciously, in this country); the state geological survey; the change of name; still more, perhaps, as a state laboratory of natural history; the state entomologist's office and the state Men of different nations and different water survey.
times would give different answers to this Such is the university now. What is question. Nay, men of the same nation to be its future? At the risk of incurring and of the same time would give different the fate of a prophet I will undertake to answers. In fact so different would be forecast the future of this institution to a the answer given by different men in the limited extent; and I do it with more United States at the present time to this confidence because the history of other question, that one might well wonder state institutions has already indicated whether there is any common agreement some of the things in store for us-institu- as to what a university really is. tions in whose footsteps we are sure to fol- I must, therefore, answer this question low, and if at first longo intervallo yet for myself, for this time, and this place, with increasing determination to press and this institution without, however, rethem ever harder in all those things which flecting in any way upon what other insti. pertain to a true university.
tutions bearing this name are or may beI take it first of all, then, that this insti- come. I believe that the system of institutution is to be and to become in an ever tions which shall satisfy the educational truer sense, a university. That, I pre- demands of a nation like this must embrace sume, has been settled once for all by the higher institutions-universities if you people of this state. It was settled, even will-of many different types. In sketchthough unconsciously, when the word “in- ing out the future of the University of dustrial' was stricken out of the title, leav- Illinois, therefore, I do so with due regard ing it simply “The University of Illinois'- to the fact that we have in this state imby no means the first time that the sub- portant and valuable institutions of an traction of a word from an expression has entirely different type whose work the Uniindicated an addition to the meaning. versity of Illinois will thus supplement and
It has been settled anew at each succes- complete. sive session of the legislature, as by one in- I should define a university briefly as crease after another in the appropriations that institution of the community which the representatives of the people in the affords the ultimate institutional training general assembly have set the seal of their of the youth of the country for all the approval on the large and wise policy of various callings for which an extensive scithe trustees.
entific training, based upon adequate libIt has been settled by the ever-increasing eral preparation, is valuable and necessary. purpose of the great mass of the people of You will note the elements in this definithis state, the plain people of the farm and tion. By virtue of the function thus asthe mill, of the country, the village and signed to it, it is in a certain sense the the city, to build here a monument which highest educational institution of the comwill be to them and their children an honor munity. It is the institution which furand a glory forever, an evidence which all nishes a special, professional, technical the world can see and understand, of their training for some particular calling. This corporate appreciation of the things of the special, technical, professional training spirit.
must, however, be scientific in character, What then is a university-that which and must be based upon adequate prelimthis institution is to be and become ? inary preparation of a liberal sort.