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cuit with the current of injury, but in an the results obtained by men who had no pracopposite direction, so much of the current tical application in view. He who finds out from the cell as will exactly balance the cur- merely for the sake of finding out everything rent of injury, i. e., so much as will keep the that can be known about a given subject has meniscus of the electrometer from moving in so far contributed to laying the foundations either a positive or a negative direction when of advance as it is understood by the practical connected with the circuit.

man. Without the discoveries thus made the Numerous advantages are presented by the practical man finds himself balked at every form of electrometer here shown. It fits turn. For practical applications depend upon the stage of the microscope. The microscope the combination of a great many factors, and need not be tilted very far, and the observer demand a power of selection from a vast body is therefore in a comfortable position. The of ascertained facts which are supplied only position of the electrometer on the stage may by the seeker after knowledge for its own sake. readily be changed. All the parts near the Of the knowledge thus acquired no man can acid are of hard rubber, thus excluding cur- say what part will be first utilized, or how rents that might arise from acid touching long any portion may remain useless for pracmetal parts. The acid tube is flanged so that tical purpose. That depends very much upon the acid can not creep out along the capillary the progress made by research in other directube. The capillary can easily be brought tions, hence many important results have been against the wall of the acid tube. The tube lost to sight merely because some link was from which the capillary springs descends missing in the chain connecting them with within the acid tube. thus protecting the cap- other known facts. In that case they have illary against breakage. Either tube may at to be rediscovered, otherwise they in turn beonce be removed from its holder. The pla

come the missing links, and for want of them tinum wires extend to the binding post, and

other knowledge remains sterile. are not simply short pieces soldered to copper

Now it is too true that in this country, as wire. The wire to the capillary tube extends Professor Nuttall complains, research is not a to the bottom of the tube, thus maintaining

career. Pure science does not bring bread the contact until all the mercury in the tube and butter. This country has often been foris used.

tunate in having men of means who devoted About one cubic centimeter of paraffin oil themselves to research for the love of truth, should be placed above the piston. Only ab- and it has had men like Faraday, of great solutely clean double-distilled mercury should simplicity of life, who were not merely conbe used.


tent, but glad, to live on the income of a clerk HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL.

while making discoveries that subsequently changed the face of society. But we can not

depend upon a constant and adequate supply QUOTATIONS.

of either type. The field is now very large RESEARCH WORK IN GREAT BRITAIN. and very costly to work. There are many EXPLAIN some remarkable discovery of pure temptations to turn aside which we must exscience to the ordinary man and he instantly pect to be too much for most men who do not wants to know what is the use of it or casts possess compelling genius. Hence, if we do about for some way of utilizing it for profit. not provide a living wage and adequate equipHe neither understands very clearly how the ment for a sufficient number of seekers after discovery was arrived at nor the importance knowledge, we must expect to be beaten in it possesses apart from immediate application practical affairs by nations which better underto the meeting of daily wants. Yet nothing is stand their true interests. The London school more certain than that the applications of sci- loses promising men who go into practice. ence which most fully subserve the wants of In one way or another every branch of reman depend in every considerable case upon search loses promising men, who either go into

practical affairs with what knowledge they have or make research itself subservient to money-getting by selling crude inventions, by self-advertisement, or by cooperation with financiers. We have no hierarchy of students on a living wage basis; and as a consequence we are very short of real teachers even for * practical purposes. For the real teacher must be an advanced student, not a mere parrot reciting other men's work. The London Times.


VOLOGY AND HARVARD UNIVERSITY. We learn from the Boston Transcript that Harvard University has now formally abandoned all plans for a merger with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This action was taken at a meeting of the president and fellows on October 30, when the following letter was presented:

My dear President Eliot:

I am directed by the Corporation of the Institute of Technology to communicate to you the fact that, in view of the recent decision of the Supreme Court of the State in the case of John Wilson et al. us. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the ('orporation of the Institute finds it impossible to proceed with the plan of cooperation which was considered at its meeting of June 9.

In communicating this fact the corporation desires at the same time to express its appreciation of the fairness and courtesy of the Corporation of Harvard l'niversity in our common effort to solve H a difficult question.

I am, .

Very sincerely yours, [Signed]

HENRY S. PRITCHETT, October 11. 1905.


FILLS OF YETEORS. DR. EDWARD S. IIOLDEN, of the U. S. Military Academy, has kindly sent us the following letters for publication:

A large meteor appeared at Leoti, Kans., between the hours of nine and ten the night of September 2. The sky was clear and the air cool. The meteor, or fire ball, appeared in the west at an angle of about forty-five degrees, crossed the heavens with a hissing

hissing sound and was lost in the east, about ten degrees above the sky line. It seemed large as a full moon, with ragged edges. For a moment everything was flooded with light. I think a full minute passed before thundering began in the east and following the path of the meteor across the heavens slowly died out in the west. I have seen meteors in this country at different times, but none as large or followed by thunder. October 9, 1905.

M. A. MARSTON. A meteor is said to have fallen some years ago about fifty miles from here beside White Whale Lake. It is near an Indian reservation, and the Indians profess to have seen it fall, and hold it in a good deal of reverence. I have not yet seen the object, * * * I drove out to see the stone this summer, but found that it meant a long row up the lake in a very indifferent boat, so I put the excursion off till the ice comes, when it will be possible to drive right to the spot. Are there any observations that I could make upon this meteor, if it proves to be such, that you would care to have? If so, kindly let me know.


October 5, 1905.

Thereupon it was voted that the committee of conference appointed by the Harvard board on May 16, 1904, at the instance of the corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, be discharged, and that the president be requested to express to the members of the two committees of conference the high appreciation by the president and fellows of the foresight com the foresight, good judgment and public spirit of which the committees' project for a close affiliation between the institute and the university gives evidence, and the regret of the president and fellows that the project has been brought to naught by the recent decision of the supreme court, which makes it impossible for the institute to place itself beside the university.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. The Bolyai prize of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of which some account was recently given here, has been awarded to M. Poincaré.

The eightieth birthday of Dr. F. A. March, field, where during the past summer he has professor of English and comparative philol- been making a geologic reconnaissance beogy at Lafayette College, was celebrated on tween the International Boundary and FairOctober 25, when Professor W. B. Owen made banks. an address of congratulation. The trustees of Dr. Chas. H. Shaw, professor of botany at the college have offered to retire Professor the Medico-Chirurgical College of PhiladelMarch with full salary, but he prefers to con- phia, has returned recently from a second extinue his usual duties.

pedition to the Selkirk Mountains, in British DR. ARTHUR STÄHLER, assistant in the chem- Columbia. The region of the big bend of the ical laboratory of the University of Berlin, Columbia River, a large tract of country behas been sent by the minister of education to tween the 51st and 52d degrees of N. Lat. and Harvard University to pursue studies in in- embracing the Selkirks has hitherto been organic chemistry under Professor T. W. almost unknown botanically and very imperRichards.

fectly so geographically. Dr. Shaw's expediMR. HENRY S. DRINKER, recently installed as

tion, under the auspices of the Medicopresident of Lehigh University, was given the

Chirurgical College and including a number degree of Doctor of Laws by Lafayette College

of students of botany and zoology mainly on October 25.

from the vicinity of Philadelphia, this year, as

last, visited the big-bend region and collected DR. EDWARD Martin, director of the Depart

some 25,000 sheets of specimens representing ment of Public Health and Charities of the

its flora, besides gathering data by photographs city of Philadelphia, has resigned this position.

and weather readings bearing on the ecological DR. WILHELM WUNSTORF has been appointed

features of this little-known mountain range. district geologist in the Berlin Geological

At a meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society Bureau.

of Great Britain on November 7 Sir George · MAJOR LACHLAN FORBES has been appointed

Watt delivered a lecture on shellac, and Mr. J. secretary of the Royal Scottish Geographical

C. Umney, F.C.S., contributed a paper on the Society in succession to Major Lindsay Forbes.

chemistry and analysis of shellac. The special board for biology and geology A SERIES of addresses on educational probhas nominated Mr. F. A. Potts, B.A., of Trin- lems will be given under the auspices of the ity Hall, Cambridge University, to use the

Department of Education of the City of New university table at Naples for six months.

York, in Cooper Union on Wednesday evenDr. Theodor Preuss, of the Berlin Museum ings from November 8 to December 27. of Ethnology, has been sent on a scientific Among those who will lecture are Dr. Andrew mission to Mexico.

S. Draper, New York state commissioner of MR. EINAR MIKKELSEN, a Dane, proposes to education; Dr. W. H. Maxwell, superintendent make an expedition to the Arctic regions, the of schools; Professor L. H. Bailey, director of objective being that part of the Polar Ocean the Cornell College of Agriculture; President which lies immediately to the west of the Parry Carroll D. Wright, of Clark College; Dr. L. Archipelago, north of Canada.

II. Gulick, director of physical training in Mr. S. P. Jones, formerly assistant state the city schools; Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, the geologist of Georgia, has been pursuing special banker, and Dr. James H. Canfield, librarian studies in petrography for the past six months, of Columbia University. first at the University of Wisconsin and dur. Under the auspices of the Ethical Society ing the summer at Cambridge, Massachusetts, of St. Louis, W J McGee, director of the St. working on material loaned him by the geolog- Louis Public Museum, is giving a course of ical department of Harvard University.

weekly lectures on anthropology to a class of Mr. Louis M. PRINDLE, of the U. S. Geolog- twenty-five or thirty. The course presents a ical Survey, has returned from the Alaskan systematic outline of human development,

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with special attention to the view that prog- A CITIZEN of Denmark has given sufficient ress in culture is in accordance with definite money to provide for a biological station in natural laws. The class meets on Thursdays Greenland, and it is expected that the Danish at four P.m. in the Museum of Fine Arts, government will defray current expenses. Nineteenth and Locust streets; the first meet

Britisil journals state that the Heriot trust ing occurred November 2. The details were

governors have decided to establish a laboarranged by Mrs. D. W. Knefler, secretary of

ratory at the Heriot Watt College, Edinburgh, the class.

for the study of bacteriology in its relation to A MONUMENT in honor of Z. Gramme, known various industries. The laboratory has been for his discoveries in electricity, will be erected fitted with the best appliances, and the services at Liège, near which city he was born.

of Dr. Westergaard have been retained to Major GENERAL Sir CHARLES Wilson, supervise it. The laboratory was formally K.C.B., F.R.S., director-general of the British opened by a lecture by Professor Hansen, on Ordnance Survey and of military education, October 18. known for his work on topography, died on The Physico-Chemical Club of Boston and October 25 at the age of sixty-nine years. Cambridge held the first meeting this autumn

The death, in his eighty-first year, is an- on November 1 in the Harvard Union. Pronounced from Alsfeld, in Oberhessen, of Karl fessor Wilhelm Ostwald was present and was Müller, author of works on natural history, elected an honorary member. Professor T. written conjointly with his brother.

W. Richards and Professor A. A. Noyes were DR. KOSTLING, vice-director of the Meteoro

reelected, respectively, president and vicelogical Bureau at Vienna, died on October 7.

president, and Dr. G. S. Forbes was elected The inaugural meeting of the British Sci secretary and treasurer. Sixty-three members ence Guild formed in April, 1904, was held on were present, who listened to a paper by ProOctober 30, at the Mansion House. The ob- fessor Noyes on the ‘Hydrolysis of Ammojects of the guild are (1) to bring together as 'nium Acetate and the Ionization of Water at members of the guild all those throughout the 1000 1560 and 2130, gs well as one by Proempire interested in science and scientific

fessor Richards on compressibility in relation method, in order, by joint action, to convince

to atomic volume and structure. Each paper the people, by means of publications and meet

was based upon entirely new data, and was ings, of the necessity of applying the methods

followed by lively discussion. of science to all branches of human endeavor, and thus to further the progress and increase

ACCORDING to a telegram received by the the welfare of the empire: (2) to bring before Japanese consul-general in Copenhagen, the the government the scientific aspects of all Japanese government will shortly send a spematters affecting the national welfare; (3) to cial expert to Copenhagen and to the Baltic promote and extend the application of scien- and North Sea waters in order to study the tific principles to industrial and general pur- methods of carrying out international sea exposes; (4) to promote scientific education by ploration. encouraging the support of universities and The removal of the Heidelberg University other institutions where the bounds of science library, containing more than 700,000 volumes, are extended, or where new applications of into a new sandstone library building has just science are devised.

been completed. Each separate book was A CONFERENCE of delegates from the corre freed from dust by a cleaner operated by an sponding societies affiliated with the British electric motor, of the form used in house and Association was held in the rooms of the Lin- carpet cleaning, the back and edges of each nean Society, London, on October 30 and 31, book being subjected to the powerful suction under the presidency of Dr. A. Smith Wood- of the cleaner. The library requires about ward, F.R.S.

21 miles of shelf room.

The geological department of the British general superintendent motive power, C. B. Museum has recently purchased and placed & Q. R. R.; Mr. Robert Quayle, superintenon exhibition a fine specimen of Ichthyosaurus dent motive power and machinery, C. & N. W. acutirostris Owen, from the Upper Lias of Railway; Mr. A. W. Gibbs, general superinHolzmaden, Wurtemberg. The specimen is tendent motive power, Pennsylvania Railroad; remarkable as containing between its ribs the Mr. W. F. M. Goss, Purdue University; Mr. skeletons of no less than six fætal young, as G. M. Basford, American Locomotive Comin the cases described by E. Fraas. It is sup- pany. posed that these skeletons have been displaced

The first course of lectures for the season from their natural position by crushing dur

1905-1906 to members of the American Muing the process of fossilization. On the other

seum of Natural History will be given achand, it may be suggested that they in their

cording to the following program. The lecstruggles forced a way into the body cavity,

tures will be delivered on Thursday evenings and were thus, perhaps, the cause of their

at 8:15 o'clock, by members of the scientific mother's death. Beddard has lately described

staff of the museum and will be, fully illussuch an instance in the recent skink, Chalcides

trated by stereopticon: lineatus (Proc. Zool. Soc., London, 1904, II., p. 145); he, however, admits the possibility

November 9, Mr. Frank M. Chapman, 'The Bird

Life of Florida.' that extra-oviducal fætation may be normal

November 16, Mr. Louis P. Gratacap, 'Newin some reptiles, and may be in part respon

foundland: Its Scenery and People.' sible for some of the legends concerning the

November 23, Dr. Edmund Otis Hovey, 'Northswallowing of their young by various reptiles ern Mexico: Its Deserts, Plateaux and Canyons.' for protection's sake.

December 7, Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn, The experimental locomotive of Purdue

* The Museum's Rocky Mountain Explorations of

1905. University, Schenectady No. 2, which has re

December 14, Professor Albert S. Bickmore, cently served in an important study designed "The Philippines_Manila.' to determine the value of very high steam December 21, Professor Albert S. Bickmore, pressures, is to be sent to the Schenectady “The Philippines—Luzon.' works of the American Locomotive Company The Army and Navy Journal calls attenearly in November for the purpose of being tion to the fact that among the most valuable fitted with a Cole superheater. It is expected results of the American military occupation that the engine will be returned with its new

of the Philippines is the large and growing equipment early in January. During the ab- collection of maps of the islands prepared by sence of Schenectady No. 2 from the testing officers of the army. These maps show in plant, a New York Central Atlantic type en detail the roads, trails, rivers and mountain gine is to be installed upon the plant for use passes in nearly every part of the archipelago, under the direction of the Master Mechanics and had they been in existence when the army committee on front-ends. It is the purpose began its campaign of pacification in the terriof this committee to repeat upon an engine of tory the difficulties of that undertaking would large size the experiments made under the have been greatly lessened. During the dompatronage of the American Engineer upon ination of the Spanish little or nothing was Schenectady No. 2, for the purpose of deter- done in that line, and they never had an acmining the constants in such equations as curate map, even of the larger islands. Nearly may be necessary to the logical design of all all the maps, such as they were, were prepared portions of the front-end mechanism. The by the friars, whose work was performed withMaster Mechanics' committee having the mat- out regard for its usefulness in military operater in charge consists of H. H. Vaughan, tions. But when the United States Army superintendent motive power, Canadian Pa- entered the territory it immediately instituted cific Railway, chairman; Mr. F. H. Clark, a comprehensive system of map making, with

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