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facilitation of administrative measures. Naturally, when stated thus baldly the charge seems exaggerated and in many quarters wholly inappropriate; yet, as a tendency, it has real existence and unusual power to make or mar the academic career. Analogies from the business world have wrought havoc with educational standards, and, unless signs fail, this is to be one of the foremost of educational questions; and it may be that the formal raising of this query will come to be regarded as the memorable feature of the Illinois conferences.—The Outlook.
dangers inherent in the further development of the presidential office in its present temper. With unexpected corroboration of many men of many minds, the autocracy of the college president-to which President Pritchett has called timely attention was deplored, not alone as undemocratic in principle and harsh in practise, but as tending to undermine the stability of the academic career, and as taking from it its proper dignity, honor and station. It is certainly notable that an occasion that was convened to glorify the president—though in some part only as the representative of his university—the dominant theme of discussion should take as its text the menace and evils of this office. The inquiry was most amicably and fairly conducted; no disturbing factor of personal criticism intruded itself. It was admitted that the needs of the past-closely associated with pioneering crudities and exacting conditions—demanded dictatorial powers, central responsibility, efficient and compromising direction. Yet it was questioned whether this type of government is at all promising for present and future situations. Our universities have been built up too largely at the sacrifice of the academic career; and with material success and the ambition to be big has come a neglect of quality and of the true ends for which universities are maintained. The faculty has paid all too heavily for the progress which it has, with unacknowledged sacrifice, made possible. The issue is thus nothing less than the rehabilitation of the academic career; the restoration of the faculty to a truly direct. ive authority of the educational affairs of the university; the withdrawal of the president to the more modest office of the leading interpreter of faculty opinion, and the interpretation of the function of the board in a more cooperative, less managerial tone. That intense and hampering sense of accountability, which President Pritchett has likewise emphasized-robs the professorial career of its essential worth; and this accountability directly results from the autocratic government by presidents and boards, that imposes policy upon the faculty, and distributes with both a grudging and an unjust hand rewards for
THE BIRD LIFE OF CENTRAL ILLINOIS.
TIE Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History is making a qualitative and quantitative survey of the bird life of a typical grain and cattle form of central Illinois, with the intention of continuing and extending statistical studies of this description until average results are arrived at good for the various crops and regions of the state and for the different seasons of the year. This is taken up mainly as a study in ornithological ecology, but it will nevertheless have an economic value as helping to determine the real significance of birds in relation to agriculture.
The data are obtained by an expert field ornithologist who, with a single companion, crosses a four-hundred-acre farm in various directions and at intervals of about four days, the two observers traveling always fifty yards apart and noting the species and numbers of birds flushed on this strip between them. They carry each time a copy of a plot of that part of the farm covered by their trip, drawn to a scale and showing the distribution and areas of each of the crops. On this plot the position of each bird observed is noted, the series of diagrams thus giving a means of determining the average bird population per acre for each crop as well as for the entire area covered.
This work has been in progress since last June, during which time the birds of something over 1,100 acres have thus been accurately recognized and numbered for three summer months. The average was 2.5 birds per acre, omitting English sparrows, or 3.8 per acre if the sparrows are included. The total number of species observed was 38, and the number of birds identified was 4,257. Fifty-nine per cent. of the individuals seen were bronzed grackles, 13.3 per cent. were English sparrows, 12.5 per cent. were cowbirds, 2.5 per cent. were mourning-doves, and 2.3 per cent. were meadow-larks. Nearly 90 per cent. of all the birds on the farm thus belonged to these five species, and to them was due virtually all the impression which was being made by birds on the plant and insect life of this tract.
THE INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF
AMERICANISTS. We have already called attention to the fact that the fifteenth International Congress of Americanists will be held at Quebec from September 10 to 16 of next year. The regulations adopted by the committee of organization are as follows:
Papers will be listed on receipt of title.
Papers will not be assigned a place on the preliminary daily program unless an abstract has been received, as required by the rules and regulations of the congress. Papers to be read will be arranged according to
to subject-matter, in a number of divisions corresponding to those of the general program; and papers belonging to the same division will be presented, so far as feasible, on the same day.
Papers in each division will take precedence in the order of the receipt of abstracts.
Authors who intend to submit more than one paper to the congress are requested to designate the paper they desire to read first. The rest of their papers will be placed at the end of the preliminary program of the respective divisions.
In order to insure the prompt publication of the proceedings of the congress, the committee recommends to the congress to set the latest date for the receipt of completed manuscripts and of notes of discussions, October 1, 1906.
. PROFESSOR EMIL FISCHER, of Berlin, has been elected an honorary member of the Society of German Chemists.
PROFESSOR ROBERT Koch, who has been at Amaris in West Usambara and at Uganda to complete his researches on trypanosomes and sleeping sickness, expected to reach Berlin on October 23.
Dr. FORREST SHREVE, Bruce fellow in the Johns Hopkins University, sailed for Jamaica on October 13, to spend a year in physiological and ecological work at the Cinchona station of the New York Botanical Garden.
DR. R. M. WENLEY, professor of philosophy in the University of Michigan, has leave of absence for the year, which he is spending in Scotland.
PROFESSOR A. B. STEVENS, who has been studying in Switzerland for two years, has returned to the University of Michigan and will continue his researches upon the composition of poison ivy.
Miss FANNY COOK GATES, who has been engaged in research work in the Cavendish laboratory since last April, has resumed her duties as head of the physics department in the Woman's College of Baltimore.
Dr. G. R. HOLDEN and Dr. H. M. Little, respectively resident gynecologist and obstetrician of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, have resigned, and Dr. Stephen Rushmore and Dr. F. C. Goldsborough succeed them. Dr. Little will take charge of a department in the hospital connected with McGill University, Canada.
DR. J. C. R. LAFLAME, formerly rector of Laval University and president of the Royal Society of Canada, has been appointed by the International Waterways Commission as geological expert to make a report upon the recession of the Canadian side of Niagara Falls..
Baron K. TAKAKI, of Tokyo, has accepted an invitation to deliver the Cartwright lectures on surgery in Columbia University. Surgeon-General Takaki will sail for America towards the end of December.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. BRIGADIER GENERAL A. W. GREELY, chief of the U. S. Signal Service, has been elected the first president of the Explorers' Club, an organization recently founded in New York City,
Among the lectures to be given before the ness. Tuesday and the following days will Royal Institution of London during the cur- be for the presentation and discussion of scirent session are the following: • The Origin entific papers, and will be open to the public. of the Elephant,' Professor E. Ray Lankester, The tenth International Geological ConF.R.S.; 'Submarines, Sir W. H. White, gress will meet in the City of Mexico at the K.C.B., F.R.S.; 'Geographical Botany inter
beginning of September, 1906. Extended expreted by Direct Response to the Conditions cursions have already been arranged to precede of Life,' Rev. George Henslow; 'The Upper and follow the congress. Nile, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G.; 'Varia
At a joint meeting of the Royal Society tion in Man and Woman,' Professor Karl
and the Royal Astronomical Society, held on Pearson, F.R.S.; 'Our Atmosphere and its
October 19 at Burlington House, the following Wonders,' Professor Vivian B. Lewes.
reports were presented on the subject of the The Traill-Taylor memorial lecture of the total eclipse of the sun on August 30: “PreRoyal Photographic Society of Great Britain liminary Account of the Observations made was delivered at the New Gallery, Regent at Sfax, Tunisia,' by Sir William Christie, Street, London, on October 24 by Mr. Chap-. the astronomer royal; Preliminary Report man Jones, F.I.C., F.C.S. The subject was of the Observations made at Guelma, Algeria,' * Photography, the Servant of Science. by Mr. H. F. Newall; “Report of the Eclipse
Ar the meeting of the Institution of Civil Expedition to Pineda de la Sierra, Spain,' by Engineers on November 7, Sir Alexander R. Mr. J. Evershed; and 'Expedition to Aswan,' Binnie, the president, will deliver an in- by Professor H. H. Turner. A report was also augural address, and the presentation will presented by Professor H. L. Callendar, F.R.S. take place of the council's awards.
FRANCE, following the example of England, BEFORE the Pupil's Physical Society of Germany and other countries, has decided to Guy's Hospital, on October 12, Dr. William create an Order of Merit. The new decoraOsler, the regius professor of medicine of tion is intended for Frenchmen who shall Oxford University, delivered an address upon have distinguished themselves at home or 'Sir Thomas Browne, who was born on Oc abroad, but whose services would not entitle tober 19, 1605.
them to the Legion of Honor. There are to DR. SYLVESTER DWIGHT JUDD, formerly as be three grades-chevalier, officer and comsistant biologist in the U. S. Department mander—and the ribbon is to be dark blue. of Agriculture and professor of biology in
The new order is intended to take the place Georgetown University, committed suicide on of the medals and decorations now conferred October 22, two weeks after his discharge for special services. from the insane asylum. Dr. Judd, who was By the will of the late Benjamin P. Davis, thirty-four years of age, graduated from Har- a civil engineer of New York City, $250,000 vard University in 1894. He had made val- is bequeathed for public purposes, including uable contributions to economic ornithology. $50,000 to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, The annual meeting of the American Physio
$50,000 to the Phillips Exeter Academy of
New IIampshire and $25,000 to the American logical Society will be held at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, December 27 and 28.
Museum of Natural History The twenty-third annual congress of the
The Royal College of Surgeons has pre
sented to the medical department of CamAmerican Ornithologists' Union will be held at the American Museum of Natural History,
bridge University a-number of portrait enNew York City, beginning on the evening of
gravings of eminent physicians and surgeons Monday, November 13. The evening session
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. will be for the election of officers and mem- The valuable collection of succulent plants bers, and for the transaction of routine busi- made during his travels abroad by the late
Rev. H. G. Torre, of Norton Curlieu, Warwickshire, has been presented to the Royal Botanic Society. It comprises some 1,600 specimens of the most ornamental of the class, such as agaves, aloes, echeverias, crassulas and mesembryanthemums. The rockery in the large conservatory has been reconstructed for their accommodation and display.
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS.
The late George W. Catt, a civil engineer, has bequeathed his engineering books and half the residuary interest in his estate, which in all is estimated at $110,000, to the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts.
The trustees of Smith College, at a meeting in Northampton on October 20, voted to use the money donated by Mr. John D. Rockefeller for the erection of an assembly hall and a dormitory. The college register shows the freshman class to be the largest in the history of the college, having 404 members, an increase of 46 over that of last year.
: The statement of the president of the University of Chicago for the quarter ending September 1 contains the following report of receipts and expenditures during the past eight years:
ACCORDING to the New York Evening Post the registration of the University of Pennsylvania is as follows:
1904-5. 1905-6. College Department ........... 946 1,089 Wharton School ..
226 271 Teachers' Course ....... 181 208 Evening School ..
298 Summer School ...
131 214 Philosophy ......
287 Law .........
315 Veterinary .....
79 100 Dental ........
322 Medical ........
546 Spring Medical...
17 19 Total .....................3,096 3,703 The first Servian University was opened on October 15 by the king in presence of the crown prince, the members of the ministry, invited guests and Servian delegates.
MR. ELLSWORTH GAGE LANCASTER has been installed as president of Olivet (Michigan) College.
The chair of philosophy in Miami University, which was from 1888 to 1905 in charge of Dr. R. B. C. Johnson, now at Princeton, has been filled by the appointment of Elmer E. Powell, Ph.D. (Bonn).
DR. ARTHUR GRAHAM Hall, formerly instructor in mathematics at the University of Michigan and associate professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois, has accepted the professorship of mathematics in Miami University resigned by Edward P. Thompson.
PROFESSOR WALTER M. BOEHM will have charge of the work in physics at Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Ia., during the coming year, Dr. A. Collin having been granted a leave of absence. Mr. Boehm is a graduate of the State University of Iowa, where for three years he served as assistant in physics.
DR. OSCAR VEBLEN, of the University of Chicago, has been appointed preceptor in mathematics in Princeton University.
Dr. William FOSTER, Jr., has been advanced to an assistant professorship of chemistry in Princeton University.
Å WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE,
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 1905.
= CONTENTS. Irrigation : Col. Sir C. Scott MONCRIEFF... 577 The American Anthropological Association:
DR. GEORGE GRANT MACCURDY............ 591 Scientific Books :Gulick on Evolution, Racial and Habitudinal: PROFESSOR W. H. DALL. Marcelli Nencki Opera Omnia : PROFESSOR LAFAYETTE B. MENDEL. Prost's Applied Chemical Analysis: PROFESSOR JOSEPH W. RICHARDS. Bourdeau on L'Histoire de l'habillement et
de la parure: 0. T. M................... i 93 Scientific Journals and Articles ............ 596 Societies and Academies:
The Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society:
ALVIN S. WHEELER.............
The Method of Elimination in Fixing
IRRIGATION. · SCIENCE has been defined as the medium through which the knowledge of the few can be rendered available to the many; and among the first to avail himself of this knowledge is the engineer. He has created a young science, the offspring, as it were, of the older sciences, for without them engineering could have no existence.
The astronomer, gazing through long ages at the heavens and laying down the courses of the stars, has taught the engineer, where to find his place on the earth's surface.
The geologist has taught him where he may find the stones and the minerals which he requires, where he may count on firm rock beneath the soil to build on, where he may be certain he will find none.
The chemist has taught him of the subtle gases and fluids which fill all space, and has shown him how they may be transformed and transfused for his purposes.
The botanist has taught him the properties of all trees and plants, 'from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall.'
And all this knowledge would be as nothing to the engineer had he not reaped the fruits of that most severe of all pure and noble sciences, the science of numbers and dimensions, of lines and curves and spaces, of surfaces and solids—the science of mathematics.
Were I to attempt in the course of a single address to touch on all the many
1 Address of the president to the Engineering Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, South Africa, 1905.