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we may look forward with confidence to we think these rules are arbitrary or whimhis success in whatever he undertakes. I sical we may question their wisdom, but mention it at this moment as indicating the we can never for a moment question his kind of public work which makes the mod right to make them. The case is different ern university something more than a mere with a public institution. If a place like group of schools and elevates it to its high- Yale, honored by the presence of the highest possible rank—that of a public servant. est officers of the commonwealth in its cor
Besides its function in maintaining these poration, and exempt by law from many public collections and lectures, a university of the taxes which are paid by others, should also be governed by a sense of public should choose to make its rules arbitrary, obligation in arranging its courses of study. the public would have a grievance. It
I have in a previous report spoken of would say, and say justly, that Yale had this public duty as affecting the freedom exceeded its rights. of a university in determining the require Yale is charged with the public duty of ments for admission to its professional educating a large number of boys who, schools. However convenient it might be having reached the age of seventeen or to insist on the possession of a bachelor's eighteen years, and having acquired the degree by all pupils in the schools of law freedom which naturally goes with that and medicine, I feel that it would be a vio- age, desire to spend time in the acquisition lation of our duty to these professions to of general culture and broad points of view hedge ourselves about by any such artificial before narrowing themselves down to the limitations. We should make the standard work of the office or the shop. She will of admission to our law and medical schools err if she makes her requirements so lax as higher than it is at present; but we should to encourage the coming of idlers, who will base it upon qualifications for professional waste their own time and interfere with study which we could test by an examina- the seriousness of purpose of their fellows. tion, rather than upon previous residence But she will also err in the opposite direcat an institution entitled to give a bach- tion if for her own convenience she makes elor's degree. If a man is really fit to those requirements so narrow that hardstudy law or medicine we should encourage working boys in the high schools and acadhim to study law or medicine with us, with emies of different parts of the country can out making arbitrary restrictions.
not get the teaching which is needed in Considerations of public duty have an order to enable them to enter Yale. important bearing in determining what we It is wrong to say that whatever Yale shall require for entrance to our under requires the schools will furnish. Some graduate courses also.
schools doubtless will; others will not. If The whole question of entrance require the Yale requirements should get so far out ments is often discussed as though these of the line of work furnished by the better were things which the college had a right kind of high schools in the country that we to fix for itself. This is an error. There could not expect to get boys from those is a great difference in this matter between schools, we should soon become a local inthe position of a public institution, such as stitution. Yale would be a school for boys we think Yale to be, and a purely private of one kind of antecedents, instead of for one. If a man keeps a private school he boys of all kinds of antecedents; and as can make any rules which he pleases re- soon as it became a school for boys of one garding the admission of his pupils. If kind of antecedents only, it would lose its value as a broadening influence to its stu- these other subjects taught in the schools. dents and as a factor in the life of the In this respect our policy has differed radwhole nation.
ically from that of Harvard. When the Our policy with regard to entrance re- question has come up of introducing music quirements is thus governed by two sepa- or wood-working among the entrance rerate considerations: our duty to ourselves quirements, the question with Harvard has of not admitting boys except those who are been mainly, How far does the college deable to do the kind of work which will be sire to encourage the teaching of music and required of them, and our duty to the pub- of wood-working in our high schools? The lic of admitting all kinds of boys who can question with Yale, on the other hand, has do this, on as equal terms as possible. Our. been, Can a student who is deficient in student body must be at once hard working grammar be properly admitted to the coland national.
lege because he knows music? Can a stuIn order to make ourselves national we dent who is deficient in certain parts of admit boys to our undergraduate courses his algebra properly be admitted to the by examination only and not by certificate. scientific school because he understands We believe that the examination method is wood-working? Every new subject introfairer to boys who come from distant duced as an alternative to the entrance places. The certificate system is the nat requirements means not simply that we are ural one for a state university, which ready to cooperate with the schools in draws its pupils chiefly from the schools teaching that subject, but that we value it of one locality and can inspect and examine sufficiently to be content to get on with less those schools; but if a national university than we formerly required of the things tries to apply this system it gives either an which were once considered essential. unfair preference to the boys from schools On account of this difference in view near at hand, or an inadequate test to the Harvard has gone rapidly in the introducboys from remote ones. We believe also tion of alternative entrance requirements, that the examination system brings us the while we have gone slowly. Our scientific kind of boys who can take the best advan school has not found that the submission tage of the opportunities we offer. By of notebooks and experiments, or the examrefusing to admit on certificate we lose some ination which could be given in various good boys who are afraid of an examina- forms of descriptive science, could well be tion; but as a rule, the boy who is afraid made a substitute for mathematical theory. to stand an examination on a subject where It has indeed encouraged pupils from he has been well taught is better fitted for schools where there were good laboratories the protection of a small college than the to pass a supplementary examination on liberty of a large one.
laboratory practise and has admitted them The subjects of our examination must be to advanced sections; but it has insisted such as to prove whether the student can that these examinations should be regarded or can not pursue our courses to advantage. as supplementary to the regular requireWe must have enough mathematics to test ments instead of excusing the student therethe power of precise thought and enough from. Our academic department has inlanguage to test the power of precise ex- troduced modern languages as substitutes pression. We can not allow other, subjects for ancient languages only when they could to be substituted for these merely because be made real substitutes. We accept we believe that it is a good thing to have French instead of Greek only when it is a
real equivalent to Greek. Whatever lan- Harvard examinations have been conductguage a boy presents, we insist that his ed. We recognize also the value of that knowledge of it should be precise. We do cooperation between schools and colleges not let general information take the place which is exemplified in the management of of a knowledge of grammar.
the Middle States' Examination Board. It has been charged by critics of the old Under proper restrictions, we can accept system of classical study that Greek has some of the results of these examinations been a college fetich. This certainly has in determining the fitness of the pupil to not been the view at Yale. We required enter Yale. But there is enough difference Greek in the past not because we wor- of purpose between us and Harvard to shipped Greek, but because in times past make a strong argument for those who the Greek teachers in the schools were the wish our separate examinations continued ones who were best able to insist on certain and the demand for their continuance, kinds of training which we thought our by the way, comes even more strongly from students needed. Some schools now have the schools than it does from the members French teachers who can give this same of our own faculty. The Harvard paper kind of training in French. We are ready seeks to test knowledge; the Yale paper to accept the boys from those schools with seeks to test accuracy. The Harvard exFrench instead of Greek. To do this is not amination tries to find how well a boy has a departure from our old principles, but a done his work in school; the Yale examinacontinuation of it. The majority of French tion tries to find how well the boy is going teachers are as yet unable to meet our re- to be able to do his work in college. The quirements regarding French. Hence the Middle States' system is intermediate bemajority of pupils who try to substitute tween the Harvard and the Yale systems French for Greek fail. Professor. Wright's in these respects, and it is possible that in report shows that it is considered fully as the near future we may all come together hard to enter Yale without Greek as with on this median line. We shall certainly it. This proves that the widening of the do it whenever the great majority of the requirements has not been accompanied by secondary school teachers demand it. But a lowering of the standards.
the results of the correspondence in the It is probable that as more teachers of report of the Dean of Yale College indicate modern languages become acquainted with that the demand for separate papers is the requirements of the Yale examination stronger than the demand for one consoliwe shall get a larger number of freshmen dated paper. There is a large number of who prepare in modern languages instead school teachers who find the accuracy inciof Greek. But this will not prove that we dent to the Yale method of examination a have changed our standard. It will prove great help in resisting certain evils which that the schools have changed theirs. By the widening of school courses during late adapting our choice of subjects to the needs years has brought with it. of the schools we can make the schools
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. adapt their method of teaching to our
Outlines of Industrial Chemistry, A Textneeds.
book for Students. By FRANK Hall THORP, In order to do this we shall probably con
Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Industrial tinue to hold separate examinations instead
Chemistry in the Massachusetts Institute of joining with other colleges. We recog of Technology. Second edition. New nize the high degree of skill with which the York, The Macmillan Co. Price $3,50.
This is a revised and enlarged edition of the way, are also very well presented and dethe work first published by Professor Thorp scribed. in 1898. While the earlier edition noted the The account of the manufacture of nitric most important inorganic and organic indus- acid is equally good, embodying as it does tries, the subject of metallurgy was entirely recent improvements like Guttmann's and passed by because, as the author stated, in- Hart's and the experimental work at Niagara struction in it is generally given independ- Falls on the production of nitrogen oxides ently of that relating to technical chemistry, from the action of high-tension electricity on In this newer edition, however, he has thought
edition however he has thought the atmosphere. it best to include an outline of elementary
We note similarly satisfactory sections on metallurgy and this, therefore, covers 54 pages
the fertilizer manufacture, and mineral colors and constitutes Part III. of the book.
or pigments, which latter is quite full and is Thorp's Chemistry' is too well known to
supplemented by a list of well-selected refer
ences. need an introduction to teachers of chemistry,
With these many points of excellence it and its well-merited success has brought about
may be allowed to note one or two cases in a revision that can not but help to make it
which the presentation of the subject is not more generally acceptable for purposes of in
quite up to the general standard. The statestruction. While it is obviously impossible
ment on page 41 that 'the price of the foreign for any one man to write with the authority
sulphur brought into this country is too low of personal acquaintance with the dozens of to allow profitable working of the deposits in distinct industries and hundreds of special this country' was true a few years back, but manufacturing methods now in active use in in 1904 the Union Sulphur Co. of Louisiana this country and abroad, Professor Thorp has produced 200,000 tons of a native sulphur of made diligent use of the literature, references exceptional purity and began the invasion of to which are found at the end of each section, the European markets. To prevent the seriand he has, in his capacity as a teacher, made ous crippling of the Sicilian sulphur indusnumerous visits with his classes to industrial try, the Anglo-Sicilian Sulphur Co. has just plants and witnessed the actual working of made a compact with the American Company, many chemical processes. Indeed, the evi- by which they give the latter the undisturbed dence of this is found so unmistakably in his field of the United States and a part of frequent use of workmen's factory terms, given Europe in return for the maintenance of in quotation marks, that it has the effect, not prices. Similarly the statement of the Ameralways to be desired, of localizing the partic- ican bromine production methods on page ular process described.
227 is hardly an adequate picture of the In general, the accounts of the individual industry which within the last two or three chemical industries are clearly given, accurate years has had a great development in Michand brought up to date. We note in this con- igan, in consequence of the use of electrolytic nection the account of the sulphuric acid methods for liberating chlorine. manufacture, in which both the older chamber Part II., devoted to the ‘Organic Industries,' method and the newer contact processes are covers exactly the same number of pages in very satisfactorily explained and illustrated the treatment as the Inorganic portion, and is The chlorine industry also is very fully treated, also in the main very satisfactorily dealt with. although some of the methods described will This is especially true of the section on ' Exprobably only have an historical interest be- plosives and on Textile Industries.' The same fore many years with the rapid development is true of other sections, although in the acof the electrolytic methods for chlorine and count of petroleum we do not find much mencaustic soda, in which the chlorine is the tion of the radical differences in composition, product for which sufficient utilization has to and consequent differences in practical value, be sought. These electrolytic processes, by in the American petroleums, such as Pennsylvania, Ohio, California and Texas crudes, questioned, and the work in its present form that we might expect. In the section on should win new friends. L. B. Hall.
Fermentation also we find no mention of HAVERFORD COLLEGE.
Cements, Limes and Plasters, their materials, which is now considered as the greatest ad
manufacture and properties. By Edwin C. vance in our knowledge of the action of the
ECKEL, C.E., Associate, American Society of yeast plant since the time of Pasteur.
Civil Engineers, etc.; Assistant Geologist, Part III., written for this edition by Charles
U. S. Geological Survey. New York, John D. Demond, S.B., in the space of 54 pages,
Wiley & Sons. 1905. gives a very excellent survey of metallurgical
This is an exceedingly valuable and wellmethods, covering all the technically impor
nigh exhaustive work. It is by far the most tant methods.
valuable work on the several subjects that it The book is undoubtedly the best book of treats that we have met, and in our judgment its kind in the English language, covering
may be rightly considered a masterpiece of in one volume of moderate size an outline
compilation. In the orderly and systematic of the manufacturing methods of technical
arrangement of sub-subjects in the several
parts and chapters the author's mastery of his chemistry. SAMUEL P. SADTLER.
general subject is exhibited not only to his Inorganic Chemistry, with the Elements of
own credit, but to the great pleasure and profit
of his readers; for next to the enlightening Physical and Theoretical Chemistry. By
information conveyed by an author comes the J. I. D. Hinds, PH.D. Second Edition.
proper unfolding of a subject through sysNew York, John Wiley & Sons. 1905.
tematic arrangement. Large 8vo. Pp. viii + 651.
It is, however, as an engineer, of broad atThis work, on its first appearance, was care
tainments outside the field of engineering, fully reviewed in this journal; it seems neces
that Mr. Eckel addresses engineers. He does sary, now, only to show in what respects the
not profess to be a chemist, the chemistry of present edition differs from the former.
cements, limes and plasters is not mentioned in The plan of the book remains essentially the his title, therefore he may be pardoned if in same, but there has been an increase of eighty- the small space he devotes to the chemistry five pages, and the text has been revised. Sev- of these substances he follows the well worn eral chapters have been enlarged or rewritten, path made by Mr. S. B. Newberry and Mr. and new chapters have been added. These Clifford Richardson's committee, which for changes affect mainly “Theoretical and Phys- some reason not clear to the general reader ical Chemistry. The treatment of these sub- leads direct to the manufacturers of cement, jects is much better and fuller than in the leaving the interests of the users of cement earlier edition, but unnecessary rules and completely uncared for. Nothing else could questionable statements may still be noticed. be expected, as Mr. Richardson's committee Is it well that a student should write struc- has the floor, and that committee recommends tural formulas of acids by the following rule: a method of chemical analysis that is ultimate • Connect each hydrogen atom by an oxygen and that, so far as chemical analysis is conatom to the negative, then connect the remain- cerned, destroys the differences that exist in ing oxygen atoms, which are saturating, to very unlike cements. A cement that conthe negative by both points'? Is it correct tained five per cent. of uncombined silica and to say that the reaction of a salt is neutral'? fifteen per cent. of combined silica would show
Although blemishes like the above are still twenty per cent. of silica on analysis by the too numerous, they are noticeably less than method recommended by Mr. Richardson's they were in the first edition. The excellence committee, while a cement containing twenty of the descriptive portion of the text is un- per cent. of combined silica would on ultimate