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SCIENCE

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 27, 1905.

.... 513

CONTENTS.
Dell'itt Bristol Brace: PROFESSOR ELLERY W.

DAVIS ..................................
Educational Problems at Yale University:

PRESIDENT ARTHUR T. HADLEY........... 514 Scientific Books :

Thorp's Outlines of Industrial Chemistry: SAMUEL P. SADTLER. Hinds's Inorganic Chemistry: PROFESSOR L. B. Hall. Eckel on Cements, Limes and Plasters, A Treatise on Concrete: DR. S. F. PECKHAM. Technique de psychologie expérimentale: PRO

FESSOR R. S. WOODWORTH ............... 520 Scientific Journals and Articles ............ 5:24 Societies and Academies :

The New York Section of the American
Chemical Society: DR. F. H. Pough. The
San Francisco Section of the American
Mathematical Society: PROFESSOR G. A.
MILLER .................

.............. 525 Discussion and Correspondence :

Stegomyia and Yellow Fever-a Contrast:
DR. L. 0. HOWARD. The Possibility of
Absorption by Human Beings of Nitrogen
from the Atmosphere: Dr. G. S. FRAPS. A
Tree's Limb without Bark : PROFESSOR

JAS. LEWIS HOWE...................... 526 Special Articles :

Physical Characters and History of Some
New York Formations : PROFESSOR AMADEUS
W. GRABAU. Extirpation and Replantation
of the Thyroid Gland with Reversal of the
Circulation: ALEXIS CARRELL and C. C.
GUTHRIE ...........

.............. 528 Exhibition of Early Works on Natural History .........

........ 535 Statistics of Eastern, State and Foreign Uni

tersit 108 ............................... The Eighteenth Season of the Marine Biolog.

ical Laboratory: PROFESSOR FRANK R. LILLIE ...

.............. 537 The levo Orleans Meeting of the American

Association for the Advancement of Science 540 Scientific Notes and News................. 511 University and Educational Neus........... 513

DeWITT BRISTOL BRACE. MARKED ability in devising experiments, in minutely observing phenomena, and in correctly interpreting the same, are of themselves sufficient to make a physicist of note. Add mathematical power and, unless circumstances are untoward, our physicist will come to stand among the very few. Such a one was Professor Brace. Nay, he was even more; for with him circumstances were most untoward. The battle was long and arduous before he could build up his department and make his work tell.

When he came to Nebraska the university was poor indeed, the equipment meager. The period when one man taught all the sciences had barely passed. That hither had come a man who could set up his apparatus and spend precious time in investigation was astounding. No wonder the chancellor, who caused to be torn down the shed that sheltered the apparatus, should have thought he did God service.

With the growth of the university came not a parallel growth of the means to carry on the work. The demands of the classroom grew more rather than less exacting. Nor was any work slighted. Those who have served with him on committees know how high were his ideals, how conscientious his purposes, how sane his judgments. Yet for his investigations he was able here and there to snatch a moment; so that, during term time, he was at least able to determine and plan the lines his work should follow during vacation. Gradually he gathered about himself enthusiastic students whom

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he trained up as co-workers. Moreover, he has done so much to create may be these would work with him through the named in his honor; and it is more that the vacations. Thus, all last summer, fre- band of devoted workers he had gathered quently till late at night, one could find, about him will therein have the opporin the old basement laboratory, professors tunity, as they have the absorbing purpose, and students immersed in work.

to carry to complete and perfect fruition More than once he had attractive calls to his pregnant ideas. the east. Yet, because he felt that on going Cut short in the beginning of his trielsewhere he would have to begin all over umphs he will, nevertheless, be ranked again with great loss of time, these calls among our physicists along with Gibbs and were refused. Had he known how long he Rowland.

ELLERY W. DAVIS. have to wait for the promised new THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA. laboratory; had he known that he was

. EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS AT YALE never to work in it: even then, I believe

UNIVERSITY. he would have stood by the work he had

THE recent history of our large universientered upon here.

ties shows the growing importance of proIn spite of all difficulties he was turning

8 viding land for museums and bureaus of out several papers yearly. This summer

research. he was just able to finish and send to A university has to deal with two classes The Philosophical Magazine a paper on of problems-those which arise out of its ‘Fizeau's Method in Ether Drift.' This relations to its students, and those which will probably rank with a former paper arise out of its relations to the general ‘On the Resolution of Light into Circular public. Most discussions of university Components in the Faraday Effect.' In work concern themselves chiefly with the the November number of The Physical relations of the institution to the student Review he will have a paper ‘On Anoma body. We try to arrange a course which lous Dispersion and Achromatic Systems shall meet the needs of the students; we of Various Types.'

organize the work of the professors with Thus did he work to the very end, 'with the same end in view. Three quarters of out haste, yet without rest.' Need it sur- the time of the corporation and more than prise us then that those with him caught nine tenths of the time of the faculties is his inspiration and that the publications occupied with the consideration of probof the department, mostly prepared during lems involving the welfare of the students vacations, should number some forty or primarily or exclusively. more papers ?

But this is not the whole work of a uniWhen can we Americans learn that 'in versity. It must care for its students in universities truly worthy of the name,' this way; but it must do something far place should be made for investigation more than this. Its relations to the general throughout the year; that those fitted for public are, I believe, quite as important as investigation should be untrammeled, per- its relations to its students. It is somehaps even encouraged to engage therein. thing more than a large school or group of Might it not be better to reserve for vaca- schools. Its professors can be occupied tions solely the command 'thou shalt not with something better than the discussion investigate'?

of student discipline. The noble definition But it is something that the laboratory From the annual report of President Hadley. of President Wilson, that a university is a Simply because this whole important moveplace where many are trained to the love of ment was in its initial stages carried on so science and letters and a few to their suc- quietly that its importance never properly cessful pursuit, may, I think, be given a impressed itself upon our graduates or broader application than its author had in upon the public; and those universities mind. A university should be a place reaped the benefit which, seeing the real which promotes the love of science and importance of the work Yale was doing, letters and the understanding of the liberal gave it the recognition which we had witharts not only among the few thousands who held. may happen to be its pupils, but among the We are in danger of repeating the same many thousands with whom it comes less kind of error to-day. We are in danger closely in contact. The work of a univer- of ignoring the existence and usefulness of sity is to maintain standards. It can hardly some of the things among us which are succeed in that work if it confines its in- most important for our public influence. spiration to the relatively small number Whenever a reception is held in the galwho have had the good fortune to live leries of the Yale Art School many men within its walls. It must appeal at once speak with wonder of the fact that they to its smaller constituency within its walls have neglected for years a means of enand to its much larger possible constituency joyment and culture which stood ready to without them.

their hand. Scarcely one in ten among Yale men have always recognized this the Yale students or graduates knows the responsibility and have done a great deal extraordinary value and interest of our art of work for the community. But Yale has collections. If our own students do not taken less credit and less advantage from realize seriously what we have in the way this than it might wisely have done. The of art treasures and what we might do relations of this public work to the univer- with them for our own culture, we can sity have been unnoticed. Its status here hardly expect the outside public to realize was so far undefined that it has been taken it more fully. Our various scientific colout of our hands the moment it has achieved lections are somewhat better known than public recognition. I suppose that Yale our art collections, both to the students and University may fairly claim to be a start to the public; but even these fall far short ing point of modern scientific agriculture. of having the usefulness which they might Certainly the development of agricultural well attain in stimulating scientific interest experiment stations, which have proved so among the students and throughout the important in revolutionizing the practise city. of our farmers, and have done so much The means which we can use to bring our to increase the productivity of our soil, work more fully into contact with the pubstarted from Sheffield Scientific School. lic may be grouped under five heads: This movement has extended all over the 1. The natural history collections in the world. Its cardinal importance in theory Peabody Museum. Of these the most and in practise is everywhere recognized. widely known are the fossil vertebrates But nobody gives the credit to Yale. We originally collected by Professor Marsh. hear of what Wisconsin does for agricul- Going out as he did at the time when the ture; we hear of what half a dozen other fossil beds of the Rocky Mountain region, universities do. Of Yale, we hear chiefly were first opened, Professor Marsh had of what she has failed to do. Why? exceptional opportunities for obtaining

material, and in his own particular line of scarcely inferior prominence. Of even discovery our museum has ranked as the more interest to the general public is our first in the world. Since Mr. Marsh's collection of modern pictures, of which the death his work has been ably carried on, Trumbull collection formed the nucleus. first by Professor Beecher and now by Pro- Viewed simply from the standpoint of the fessor Schuchert. Both of these gentle- student of history, the battle pictures by men have done a great deal in making the Colonel Trumbull and the contemporary collections accessible to the public; and they portraits of Washington, Hamilton and would have done a great deal more had other leaders of the American Revolution, they not been handicapped by lack of are exactly what a university needs to crefunds. For the Peabody Museum has ate the right kind of atmosphere within practically no endowment for its support, and the right kind of influence outside. and is dependent upon the small sums No other American university owns art which the university can furnish out of its collections approximating ours in value, if current income. Of scarcely less attrac- we would but avail ourselves of the advantion to the casual visitor are the mineral tage which they give us. The failure to collections, under the charge of Professor do this is not the fault of the art school. Dana; while we have important material This school is doing active work in regular for study both in zoology and in anthro- classes and evening classes, public lectures pology. It is exceedingly desirable that and loan exhibitions. It renders us more these different collections should be better public service than we appreciate; and it known to the citizens of New Haven and only needs proper recognition in order to their children. A most important connec- make that service many times greater than tion between university work and public- it is at present. school work can be made on this line, which 3. The public work of our music school would help to give us our proper place in is somewhat better known. Indeed, this the educational system of the city. The department of the university may serve as little which has already been done in bring- an example of what can be done in the way ing high school pupils into the museum is of public service with somewhat small maproving valuable, both to the children and terials, provided men like Professor Parker to us. It is, I hope, only a beginning; an and Professor Sanford are in charge. indication of the possibilities which we have With relatively small means at command before us when we are ready for more or- this school has developed a symphony ganized cooperation with the schools. orchestra which serves at once as a labora

2. In the art school we have two unique tory for the students of music and a means collections; the Jarves collection of Italian of enjoyment and education to the public. paintings in the north gallery, and the It has repeatedly brought audiences of Trumbull collection of early American three thousand people to Woolsey Hall to paintings in the south gallery. The Jarves. hear music of the very highest class. Becollection, apart from its value to the stu- sides these concerts of our own, we have dent of art history, has a number of pic- the benefit of visits by great artists from tures of the very first rank, and has been outside; and, what is perhaps still more supplemented by others which Mrs. Derby remarkable, all this part of our university has placed in our charge-so that we can activity has been placed on a self-supportnow show excellent specimens of Botticelli, ing basis. It has at the same time stimuCorreggio and other Italian artists of lated an increased interest in the study of

oratorios and choruses among the people of than to attempt to prophesy in advance. New Haven, under the leadership of vari- It will be sufficient for the moment to say ous members of our musical faculty. Nor that the prospectus of this summer school, should we fail to mention the importance issued as a bulletin of Yale University in of the collections given by Mr. Steinert, February, 1905, is a document which every now housed in the upper floor of Memorial Yale man may read with satisfaction. But, Hall, whose historic importance is parallel useful as such a summer school may prove, to those in our art galleries and museums. I regard Professor Sneath's work in com

4. Still another. development of outside municating with the teachers as having activity is seen in our public lecture even greater importance. At much sacricourses. These are by no means a new fice of time and labor, he has made jourthing. Almost from its very beginning the neys through different parts of the counSheffield Scientific School has arranged try, especially in the south; and he has at year by year a course of public lectures on every stage of his journeyings helped us scientific subjects under the title ‘Lectures to bring the effect of our Yale life and to Mechanics.' A few years ago some of Yale standards home to those who can not the people in New Haven, of their own come to Yale as well as to those who can. initiative, organized a 'New Haven Uni- He has shown the school men of the country versity Extension Center,' and arranged what we are trying to do in such a way as for somewhat similar courses of lectures, to help us to work together instead of covering the fields of literature and art as separately. well as science. The advantage of coop- I have purposely confined attention in eration between the university and the citi- this summary to the public activities which zens of New Haven was so obvious that we we already are in position to exercise, withare now working together. instead of sep- out mentioning those which are merely arately, and by this combination we can projected. A word should, however, be keep the grade of the lectures high and at said of the plan for a forest museum which the same time reach a wider range of is in the mind of Mr. Gifford Pinchot. hearers than would be otherwise possible. The Yale Forest School was organized just

5. The most recent development of our at a time when the American public was public activity has been connected with the beginning to see the importance of the subappointment of Dr. Sneath as professor of ject. We have had the good fortune to the theory and practise of education. Pro- take the lead in this line of education, so fessor Sneath's work consists of three dis- that students come to us from every quarter tinct parts. He gives regular instruction of the world. Mr. Pinchot feels that it in his subject; he takes charge of the newly would be possible, by the establishment of organized summer school; and he arranges a museum in connection with this school, means for closer communication and inter- to take the same position before the public change of ideas between Yale and the as a whole that our courses of instruction teachers in various parts of the country. have given us in the minds of students and Of the value of his work as an instructor, specialists, and to make Yale the center to both to graduate students and to teachers, which the whole world will turn for its it is unnecessary to speak. Of his work in record of progress in forestry in the past organizing the summer school it will be and its suggestions of possible lines of more appropriate to speak in next year's progress for the future. Mr. Pinchot has report, when we have a season behind us already realized so many of his ideals that

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