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SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES.
The American Journal of Science for July contains the following articles:
D. A. KREIDER: "Iodine titration Voltameter.
F. A. Gooch: ‘Handling of Precipitates for Solution and Reprecipitation.'.
R. H. ASHLEY: 'Estimation of Sulphites by Iodine.'
M. TALBOT: “Revision of the New York Helder. bergian Crinoids.'
L. V. PIRSSON: 'Petrographic Province of Central Montana.
T. HOLM: 'Croomia pauciflora.
E. RUTHERFORD and B. B. BOLTWOOD: ‘Relative Proportion of Radium and Uranium in Radio active Minerals.
J. TROWBRIDGE: ·Side Discharge of Electricity.'
H. L. BRONSON: ‘Effect of High Temperatures on the Rate of Decay of the Active Deposit from Radium.'
The contents of the June issue, Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, are as follows:
Frontispiece : Portrait of Karl Selim Lemström.
H. GERDIEN: ‘Die Absolute Messung der specifischen Leitfähigkeit und der Dichte des verticalen Leitungsstromes in der Atmosphäre.
J. DE MOIDREY, S.J.: 'Mesures magnétiques en Chine.'
H. F. REID: ' Records of Seismographs in North America and the Hawaiian Islands.'
HJ. TallquiST: ‘Karl Selim Lemström, His Life and Work.'
E. BIESE: • Verzeichniss der Publicationen des verstorbenen Professors Selim Lemström.'
Letters to Editor-L. A. BAUER: ‘Work of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Car. negie Institution for 1905. W. F. WALLIS: . Principal Magnetic Disturbances Recorded at Cheltenham Magnetic Observatory, March 1 to May 31, 1905.
Notes- Additional Eclipse (August 30, 1905) Stations.' 'Miscellaneous.
sult and a cause of a very general dissatisfaction with methods of teaching mathematics in the recent past, and of various kinds of attempts to improve them. Among the many ideas that are prominently discussed are those suggested by the terms correlation, laboratory methods, individual instruction, self-activity, graphical methods, etc. The facts of modern life are furnishing material which is replacing obsolete problems. An effort is being made to bring mathematics into vital relations with the whole of life. Even the long undisturbed supremacy of the methods of Euclid in secondary education is being questioned. What will it lead to? Even the elementary teacher can not fail to see what the investigator has never lost sight of, that he is dealing not with a completed, a dead, a petrified subject, but with one of the most vigorous, living, growing subjects taught in our schools. Perhaps one of the strongest evidences that this is the case is seen in the large number of state and sectional organizations of teachers of mathematics throughout the country.
The first annual meeting of the Missouri Society of Teachers of Mathematics met at Columbia, Missouri, May 6, 1905. A prelim inary meeting had been held at St. Louis in connection with the National Educational Association. The temporary organization of the society was effected at the meeting of the State Teachers' Association at Columbia, December 28, 1904. At a meeting of the mathematics section of that body a committee of organization was appointed, consisting of E. R. Hedrick, University of Missouri, Columbia; H. C. Harvey, State Normal School, Kirksville, and B. T. Chace, Manual Training High School, Kansas City.
The permanent organization was completed at the meeting on May 6. The constitution provides that there shall be at least two meetings each year, one in connection with the annual meeting of the State Teachers' Association, the next meeting of .which will be held at Jefferson City, December 1905, and one during the month of April or May, which shall be the annual meeting for the election of officers and the transaction of general busi
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
MATHEMATICS. The past few years has been a very widespread movement among teachers of mathematics towards the organization of local, state and sectional associations of teachers of mathematics. This movement is both a re
ness. The general management of the society is in the hands of an executive council of six members. Steps have already been taken towards the establishment of several divisions.
The total membership of the society is two hundred and thirty-six.
L. D. Ames, of Columbia, presided at the meeting. The following officers were elected:
President-H. C. Harvey, Kirksville. Vice-President-L. M. Defoe, Columbia. Secretary-L. D. Ames, Columbia. Erecutive Council-E. R. Hedrick, Columbia (chairman); B. T. Chace, Kansas City; B. F. Finkel, Springfield; B. F. Johnston, Cape Girardeau; Wm. Schuyler, St. Louis; Miss E. J. Webster, Kansas City.
The monthly journal, School Science and Mathematics, was made the official organ of the society, and will be sent free to all members. The annual dues are one dollar and fifty cents.
Arrangements were made to send delegates to a conference to be held in connection with the National Educational Association, which met at Asbury Park, N. J., on July 7-11, 1905, looking towards the organization of a national society.
The following papers were read:
E. Y. BURTON, St. Charles Military Academy: * Correlation of Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry.'
Wv. SCHUYLER, McKinley High School, St. Louis: 'An Experiment in Individual Instruction:
GEO. R. DEAN, School of Mines, Rolla: ‘A Díethod of Teaching Elementary Geometry.'
J. W. WITHERS, Yeatman High School, St. Louis: · The Teaching of Mathematics in the High School.'
F. C. Touton, Central High School, Kansas City: Some Developments in Elementary Al. gebra.'
Wm. A. LUBY, Central High School, Kansas City: 'The Teaching of Zero and Infinity in the High School.
Abstracts of these papers will be published in School Science and Mathematics.
L. D. Ames.
and discussion of the various forms of American violets. The discussion was opened by Dr. N. L. Britton, who spoke of the recent specific differentiations of various authors. He was of the opinion that many of these were doubtful and that while we had, perhaps, twice as many good species as were known in Gray's time, we only have about half as many good species as have been described. The speaker then gave a general sketch of the group, noting that while they are preeminently a north temperate cosmopolitan group they extended into the southern hemisphere along the highlands in both the orient and the occident. There is only a single endemic and one introduced species known from the West Indies. Mexico furnishes, perhaps, half a dozen species, and there are numerous species in the highlands of South America. Our violets fall naturally into two habit groups, the acaulescent and the stemmed. A rather common character is the occurrence of cleistogamic flowers, which are borne on horizontal or erect scapes according to the species. The speaker passed the various species in review, paying particular attention to those of eastern North America.
Stewardson Brown, of the Philadelphia Botanical Club, was called upon to review Dr. Britton's remarks. He said that in the main he agreed with Dr. Britton's views of specific validity. He called attention to a form from the vicinity of Philadelphia which Stone recently identified as Viola septemloba of LeConte of the palmata group, and which the speaker believed to be something different. Attention was also called to Viola obliqua, one of the earliest and most abundant violets in the Philadelphia region. The speaker described the sagittata-fimbriatula group as one of the most integrated and little understood of any of the groups of acaulescent blue violets.
Continuing the discussion, W. W. Eggleston mentioned the occurrence of what he believed to be a hybrid form. He also called attention to President Brainerd's methods of studying violets under cultivation and observing their fruit characters.
L. H. Lighthipe called attention to Viola
THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB. The meeting of May 9 was held at the New York Botanical Garden, with President Rusby in the chair and 42 members and visitors present.
The meeting was devoted to the exhibition
Secretary. BOULDER, COLO.,
June 7, 1905.
Angelli, holding it to be distinct from Viola palmata, the differences showing in the character of the flowers and of the summer leaves. Miss Angell, who was present, told of her studies of this species and called attention to the extraordinary size of the summer leaves. Dr. Rusby in the course of his remarks mentioned a very early form which is apparently the variety cordata of Viola cucullata of Gray. This form has been studied extensively by Miss Sanial, one of the club members.
Dr. Rydberg spoke of the violets of the Rocky Mountain region, passing in review the various species from that section and calling attention to the occurrence of the common European Viola biflora which reappears in Colorado.
Dr. Shull spoke of the difficulty he had ex: perienced in germinating violet seeds, and in the discussion it was brought out that violet seeds are apt to lose their vitality upon drying
Dr. MacDougal spoke of the difficulties attendant upon mutation experiments with the violets, and advocated experiments to test any possible theories as to hybrids.
After some further discussion by Dr. Britton and others this most interesting meeting was brought to a close.
EDWARD W. BERRY,
SPECIAL ARTICLES. NEW WORK UPON WHEAT RUST. For a number of years it has been the belief of the writer that the efficiency of the uredospores (summer spores) of wheat rust to perpetuate the disease is possibly much greater than thought to be. It has been assumed by most botanists that these spores are quick to germinate and short of life. As there are formed definite resting spores, and also the cluster cup stage on the barberry bush, it has been apparently taken for granted that the summer spores have no other effect than to rapidly spread the disease from plant to plant during the summer season.
It will be interesting news to mycologists to know that we have at last definitely established the fact of the wintering of the red spores (uredospores) of a number of the important rusts in viable form, including the important species Puccinia graminis.
During the winter of 1888 and 1889 the writer, while working at the Indiana Station, first demonstrated the fact that the mycelium of the uredo stage (red spore stage) of the species known as Puccinia rubigo-vera could pass the winter in the tissues of the wheat plant uninjured (see Agricultural Science, Vol. 3, page 105). During the summer of 1890 (see Agricultural Science, Vol. 5, Nos. 11 and 12) it was further proved that the red spores of this last-named species could survive exposure to the drying air and sunshine of July and August for over a month. This indicated that it was possible for such spores to be borne many miles by the wind, and aided to an understanding of the rapidity with which general rust infection may take place over large areas of country.
Aided by the persistent and painstaking efforts of assistant plant pathologist Mr. F. J. Pritchard, I have at last been able to make numerous trial studies upon methods of stor
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO SCIENTIFIC
SOCIETY. During the academic year 1904—5 the society met every Monday evening from October to May, holding in all thirty meetings. In nearly all cases a single topic was discussed at each session, but a few times there were two papers given. The speakers avoided technicalites as far as possible and presented their topics in such form as to be interesting to men of science generally. Papers were given, for the most part, by members of the faculty representing the various departments of pure and applied science. At the last meeting of the year, held on May 15, the following officers were elected :
President-Henry B. Dates.
ing and keeping wheat and other types of sweet-pea in the literature that I have had grass straw, which is infected by red rust, so access to. I have called the disease an anas to carry out various studies upon the most thracnose on account of its resemblance to the successful methods of testing the vitality of anthracnoses of some other plants. the spores from week to week and from month M ore material was secured at different times to month. We are now able to announce defi- during the autumn, and it was my intention nitely that the vitality of the red spores to make a personal investigation of the dis(uredospores) of Puccinia graminis, in cer- ease until after Mr. A. Lee Post became offitain cases, may remain unimpaired by the cially connected with the experiment station action of the drying winds of autumn and the and a student in the university, when the intense cold of a North Dakota winter. In problem was assigned to him under my direcsome cases we have been able to germinate tion. He began a study of the life history as high as eighty to ninety per cent. of all of the fungus by means of artificial cultures the spores under test. We have found these and inoculations. The results of the investispores successfully surviving upon dead leaves, gation, up to date, have been presented in the dead straw and upon the partially dead or form of a thesis, and will probably be pubgreen leaves of living grain or grasses. This lished later with slight alteration and the addiapplies also to a number of other important tion of new data. rusts which attack wheat and allied grasses. While examining some of the agar cultures
In the case of Puccinia rubigo-vera, the with Mr. Post, I noticed that there was an smaller wheat rust, it has been found by the occasional cell of the mycelium that contained writer to be wintering freely in Mississippi, spores, the number of spores in the cells varyTexas, Illinois, Minnesota and North Dakota ing. To all appearances the endospores were both upon living leaves of wheat or winter rye the same as those borne externally on the and upon the matured leaves and straw of the hyphæ. This was the first time that I had same. This fact will of necessity have great seen endospores in the mycelium of a fungus weight upon the future investigations of other than those found in bacteria, and correwheat rust. The matter of the barberry stage spondence with some of the leading mycoland other æcidial rusts may yet be proved to ogists has failed to give me any definite light be of physiological necessity for the perpetua- on the subject of endospore formation in the tion of the species, but it would seem that higher fungi. these need no longer be believed to be a direct The manner of growth of the mycelium and yearly necessity to the perpetuation of the the way the conidia were produced were so rusts concerned.
characteristic of the bitter-rot fungus of the HENRY L. BOLLEY. apple and the one causing the mummy disease North DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. of the guava, that Mr. Post made some inocu
lations in apple-agar and in apples. The reCONCERNING THE IDENTITY OF THE FUNGI CAUS- sult of the inoculations on apples was so simING AN ANTHRACNOSE OF THE SWEET-PEA ilar to the bitter-rot of the apple that a numAND THE BITTER-ROT OF THE APPLE.
ber of mycologists have pronounced it genuine ABOUT a year ago I received some sweet-pea bitter-rot. stems from Inwood, W. Va., with a request as Through correspondence with the person to the cause of the plants dying. These stems who sent me the diseased sweet-pea stems, I had dead, shrunken areas on them with masses learned that the sweet-peas grew near an apple of pink spores scattered about over the dead tree, the fruit of which rotted. Just what areas. There were also a few spore masses on kind of a rot it was will be determined this some of the leaves. An examination showed fall if possible. This rotting of the apples on that the dead areas were probably caused by the tree near the sweet-peas, suggested the some species of Glæosporium, but no such possible identity of the anthracnose of the fungus has been found as occurring on the sweet-pea and bitter-rot of the apple. To prove
whether they are, or are not, the same, I let Mr. Post have some specimens of bitter-rot and of the ripe-rot of the grape collected at least two hundred miles from where the sweet. peas grew. Seedling sweet-peas, inoculated with spores from these two sources, were killed at the point of infection in the same way that the original sweet-pea stems were killed, and other seedlings which were inoculated with pure cultures of the fungus causing the anthracnose of the sweet-pea.
It would seem, then, from the results obtained, as if the bitter-rot of the apple, the ripe-rot of the grape and the anthracnose of the sweet-pea are caused by the same fungus. A stage corresponding to the ascigerous stage of the bitter-rot has not been obtained yet in artificial cultures.
John L. SHELDON. WEST VIRGINIA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, MORGANTOWN, W. VA.,
June 19, 1905.
Quercus, but I have not found any record of three or of four perfect embryos occurring in this genus.
The normal abortion of five ovules and reduction to one embryo seems to be an acquired character, and in the development of several embryos appears to be a reversion to an ancestral condition.
Now, it is well known that the formation of several or many embryos is characteristic of entomophilous flowers, but very rare among anemophilous.
This suggests that the oaks of the Greenland Tertiary flora were entomophilous, that their flowers were more conspicuous, and that their fruits normally developed several embryos. With the oncoming of the ice sheet the oaks moved very slowly southward because of the inadaptability of the fruit for wide dispersal. Deserted by the insects seeking the warmth farther south, the oaks may then have adopted their present anemophilous habit.
Paleobotany so far can give no evidence either for or against this theory, but later studies of the Tertiary foras may strengthen the indication now furnished by the development of two, three and four embryos in cases of reversion in Quercus prinus.
C. J. Maury.
INDICATIONS OF AN ENTOMOPHILOCS HABIT IN
TERTIARY SPECIES OF QUERCUS. THE occasional development of several embryos in the fruits of recent species of Quercus is of interest as suggesting an entomophilous habit in the flowers of the Tertiary species of this genus.
At present normally five of the six ovules in the three-celled ovary atrophy, and the one remaining forms later a perfect embryo which fills the entire cavity of the nut. But it not infrequently happens that two embryos de
le. velop, each with cotyledons, plumule and caulicle. Experiments made by the writer show that both embryos will grow, and the twin oaks were kept until they reached a foot or more in height. Several cases were found by the writer in which three perfect embryos occurred in acorns of the chestnut oak, Quercus prinus. All germinated nearly equally well. Finally a single case was found in which there were four perfect embryos. This also was an acorn of the chestnut oak, which develops several embryos more readily than Q. alba, rubra or tinctoria.
Several notes have been previously published on the development of two embryos in
BATHYGNATHU'S BOREALIS, LEIDY, AND THE PER
MIAN OF PRINCE EDWARDS ISLAND. A Few days ago I had occasion to examine the figure of Bathygnathus published by Leidy in his original description (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila.•(2), 11, pp. 327–330, pl. XXXIII.) and became convinced that it was not a dinosaur, as has been long supposed, but one of the most specialized of the pelycosaurs, such as occurs in the Texas region, probably a Dimetrodon or Vaosaurus. I communicated with Dr. Lambe, of the Canadian Survey, indicating my belief that this settled the question of the possible occurrence of Triassic deposits in Prince Edwards Island. Almost all of the geologists of the Canadian Survey who have worked on the island have considered the rocks as Permo-carboniferous and have