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produced by insects, and this has been pub- Sydney. The fronts of the main structure are lished in the 29th Report of the Department ornamented with Romanesque carvings in of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana, white stone, showing representative fora and and also issued as a seventy-page 'separate fauna of Australia. The main entrance is The plan of this brochure is as follows: (1) a formed by a triple arch, with two center colshort historical section, (2) biology and classi- umns of polished bluestone or trachyte, flanked fication of gall-insects, (3) morphology of by two pilasters of the same material. The galls, (4) causes inducing gall formation, (5) main building to which access is thus gained a systematic account of Indiana galls, (6) has three floors and a half-basement, and conbibliography. Illustrations from drawings and tains 28 rooms, many well lighted, lofty and photographs serve to make the descriptions suitable class-rooms. There is a chemical easier to follow.

laboratory, and at the rear of the main strucThis little booklet should stimulate interest ture are electrical engineering, plumbing, sanin these curious structures, about which there itary engineering, blacksmiths' shops and wellhas been practically nothing written in this equipped general engineering shops. In 1903 country in any systematic or connected way there were 477 technical classes in operation, until Dr. Cook took up the matter. He is of which 243 were held in Sydney and suburbs now at work on a monograph of the in- and 234 in the country districts, while there sect galls of North America, in which the were in addition 86 classes held in connection galls will be classified with reference to the with the public schools. The number of indihost plants, and the treatment is to be pri- vidual students under instruction during the marily from the standpoint of the plant pathol. year was 13,232, and the average weekly atogist. It is to be hoped that botanists and tendance 8,671. In 1896 a technical college entomologists will help in this undertaking was opened at Newcastle, and a new college at by sending him specimens of all kinds of galls Bathurst in June, 1898. In 1902 a technical from different localities.

school was built at Lithgow, and mechanical CHARLES E. BESSEY. engineering shops provided at Newcastle. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA.

During the year the expenditure by the gov

ernment on technical education amounted to TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA. £26,459, exclusive of expenditure on the tech

The necessity for providing the means of nical museum and branches. Fees to the imparting technical education has been unre amount of £8,707 were received from the stuservedly acknowledged in each of the states of dents. In Victoria much has been done in the Australian Commonwealth. the annual promoting the work of technical education, a combined expenditure in this direction being patriotic Victorian having assisted the earlier over £60,000, exclusive of the cost of land, stages of the movement by giving £15,500 buildings, etc. In Sydney, after successful

towards the establishment of a workingmen's experiments in the formation of classes by

college. In 1903 there were eighteen schools one of the state subsidized educational insti

of mines and technical schools receiving aid tutions, a technical education board was es

from the state. The total state expenditure tablished, which did good work until 1889,

during the year was £16,430, and the fees rewhen the state government assumed control

ceived from students amounted to £11.741. of the movement, the work of technical educa

The average number of students enrolled was tion being handed over to the state department

3,173. In addition, classes in manual training of public instruction. The technical college,

and in cookery and domestic economy are held forming the headquarters of the system, is

at various centers, the net expenditure on one of the leading architectural features of

these branches amounting in 1902–3 to £3,437.

In South Australia the Adelaide School of * Communicated to the Journal of the Society Design in 1903 had 577 students. There were of Arts by Mr. John Plummer, of Sydney.

also branch schools at Port Adelaide and Gaw

ler. The School of Mines and Industries, founded in 1889, received state aid in 1903 to the extent of £3,658, while the receipts from fees and sale of materials to students amounted to £3,691. Queensland is beginning to display increased interest in the movement, a board of technical instruction having been appointed in 1902, holding its first examination at the close of 1903, when 960 students were examined, two thirds obtaining certificates of competency. In the same year there were twenty technical schools distributed through the state, with an enrolment of 2,600 students. The amount of fees, etc., collected was £13,385, and that of the expenditure £14,280, showing the system to be almost selfsupporting. In Western Australia a technical school has been opened at Perth, having now an average attendance of 190, the annual expenditure amounting to nearly £6,000. Tasmania has also technical schools in Hobart and Launceston, the average attendance, including that of the two schools of mines, being 540, the annual expenditure being under £3,000.

committee on the Drown Memorial Fund, and Dr. Rossiter W. Raymond, Dr. Drown's successor as secretary of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. The almuni, faculty and guests of the university were received by the president and trustees at a luncheon in the gymnasium, where in the evening an alumni dinner was given in honor of President Drinker. Addresses were made by Mr. Harlan Sherman Miner, '88, for the alumni; President Isaac Sharpless, of Haverford College, for the invited guests; Bishop Talbot, of South Bethlehem, for the trustees; Professor Mansfield Merriman, for the faculty, and the president of the senior class for the undergraduates.


DRINKER. IN connection with the celebration of Founder's Day, Lehigh University installed its new president, Mr. Henry Sturgis Drinker, on October 12, in the Packer Memorial Chapel. Mr. Robert H. Sayre, president of the board of trustees, made the installation address, which was followed by a brief response from President Drinker. The greetings of the alumni were tendered in an address by Mr. Frank P. Howe, of the class of '78. Following the installation ceremonies, an oration in memory of Asa Packer, the founder of the university, was delivered by the Hon. Hampton L. Carson, attorney general of Pennsylvania, his subject being 'Practical Ideals. The service in the chapel was then adjourned to the site selected for the erection of the Drown Memorial Hall, where the sod was turned by Mr. Robert H. Sayre, and addresses in memory of the late President Brown were made by Dr. Charles R. Dudley, chief chemist of the Pennsylvania Railroad and chairman of the general


AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. The ceremonies in connection with the installation of Dr. Edmund Janes James as president of the University of Illinois is taking place this week. At the inaugural exercises addresses are expected by: ad

Hon Charles S. Deneen, Governor of Illinois.

Hon. Samuel A. Bullard, president of the Board of Trustees.

Hon. Andrew S. Draper, former president of the university and commissioner of education, state of New York. after which President James is to deliver his inaugural address and degrees are to be conferred. Professor T. J. Burrill, professor of botany and vice-president of the university, is announced to welcome delegates who are expected to respond as follows:

President James B. Angell, of the University of Michigan, for the state universities.

President Ira Remsen, of Johns Hopkins University, for eastern universities.

Chancellor Frank Strong, of the University of Kansas, for western universities.

President Edwin B. Craighead, of Tulane University, for southern universities.

Vice-President Harry P. Judson, of the University of Chicago, for the universities and technical schools of the state.

President Charles H. Rammelkamp, of Illinois College, for the colleges of the state.

President John W. Cook, of the Northern Illinois State Normal School, for the normal schools of the state.

Principal Benjamin F. Buck, of the Lake View hundreds of birds and mammals, besides many High School, for high schools of the state. reptiles and insects, accessories for groups and

There are being held during the week a a large number of valuable photographs. large number of assemblies and conferences, During the last two or three months he has including a conference on ‘Religious Edu- been exploring the fauna of Mount Colima cation in State Universities and Colleges, and the adjacent regions. a conference on Commercial Education and Dr. H. BECHHOLD has been appointed a 'A National Conference of College and 'ni

member of the Royal Institute for Experiversity Trustees. Among those announced to mental Pathology at Frankfort. speak at the latter congress are the Hon.

The Royal Commission on the Care and Andrew S. Draper, president Henry S. Prit

Control of the Feeble-Minded, consisting of chett and Professor Charles E. Bessey.

Mr. W. P. Byrne, C.B., Mr. W. H. Dickinson,

Dr. H. B. Donkin, Dr. J. C. Dunlop and SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS.

Mrs. Pinsent, left Liverpool for the United In memory of Professor DeWitt B. Brace,

States on October 2 to study American methhead of the department of physics of the l'ni

ods of treating the insane. versity of Nebraska, whose death we were

PROFESSOR W. E. Castle, of Harvard Unicompelled to record last week, the new physics

versity, will lecture before the New York building, the construction of which he supervised and into which he was about to move,

Association of Biology Teachers, on the even

ing of October 20, his subject being “The will be named Brace Hall.

Experimental Study of Heredity.'
PROFESSOR G. E. Hale, director of the Mt.
Wilson Solar Observatory, on September 30,

PROFESSOR Edgar L. HEWETT, of Washinggave a lecture in the Cavendish Laboratory,

ton, will lecture on October 30 at the AmerCambridge University, on “The Development

ican Museum of Natural History before the of a New Method in Solar Research, and

American Ethnological Society, on - The Life

and Culture of the Tewa Indians in Preon October 4 he gave a lecture at a special

Spanish Times.' meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society on the 'Solar Observatory on Mount Wilson,


livered the inaugural address at the opening of The medical profession of Chicago will give

the present session of the Southeastern Agria banquet to Dr. Nicholas Senn on Saturday,

cultural College, at Wye, England, taking as November 11. The committee of arrange

his subject ‘Botany and Agriculture.' ments consists of Drs. William A. Evans, Dr. J. W. LOWBER, F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S., of Frank Billings, John B. Murphy, William L. Austin, Texas, has been elected a member of Baum and David J. Doherty.

the Royal Societies Club of London. Dr. C. H. GILBERT, who has been working Sir William WHARTON, F.R.S., hydrogduring the summer on the deep-sea fishery rapher of the British Navy, died at Cape collections at Washington, has returned to Town, on September 29, of enteric fever. Sir Stanford University.

William Wharton was president of the SecMR. J. H. Batty, who has been collecting

tion for Geography at the meeting of the mammals, birds and reptiles for the American

British Association in South Africa. Museum of Natural History in Mexico for

DR. WILHELM JOHANN FRIEDRICH VON several years past, finished his work in south BEZOLD, professor of physics and meteorology ern Sinaloa in November of last year, going at the University of Berlin and director of thence overland through Tepie to Jalisco, the Prussian Meteorological Bureau, died on where he has since been making important September 13, at the age of sixty-eight years. collections. Several shipments from Jalisco The death is announced of Dr. Alexander have already reached the museum, containing Ilay Japp at the age of sixty-six years. He

was a man of letters who wrote a life of Thoreau, books on Darwin and some works on natural history.

M. Alexis Pache, with three natives, was killed in August, by an avalanche, while making explorations in the Himalayas.

The generosity of a friend of the American Museum of Natural History enables the department of ornithology to plan to assemble a special collection of Birds of Paradise. Many species of this family are now becoming so rare that specimens can be secured only with difficulty. Mr. Chapman, associate curator of ornithology, while attending the fourth Inter national Congress of Ornithologists in London recently, took advantage of the occasion to examine the stocks of London dealers in natural history supplies and was fortunate in procuring some desirable material for use in the proposed group.

PEABODY MUSEUM of Yale University has received a large cabinet of shells from the estate of the late 0. P. Hubbard.

The International Congress of Radiology, which met recently at Liège, has decided to hold another congress in five years, which was placed under the charge of an international committee.

We learn from the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society that the Academy of ociences of Berlin held its Leibnitz session on

une 29. The Steiner prize was not awarded, but the sum of six thousand Marks was set apart in recognition of the investigations of the late Professor Guido Hauck. THE following resolution was passed by the

[ Tuberculosis recently held at The congress, after hearing the exthe most recent investigations, de

it is not only indispensable to ugion from man to man, but also ue the prophylaxis of bovine tubercu? continue to take administrative

measures to avert its possible to our species, and finally that it

be on our guard against all

PROFESSOR W. C. UNWIN delivered the inaugural address of the opening session at the City and Guilds Central Technical College, taking as his subject “The Niagara Power Stations. Professor W. E. Ayrton, the dean, presided. According to the London Times Professor Unwin, in the course of his address, which was freely illustrated by lantern views, pointed out that if the total energy due to the fall from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario could be utilized it would amount to 7,000,000 horsepower. At the fall itself the horsepower of the descending water was about 1,000,000. The first great scheme for utilizing the water power resulted in the formation of the Niagara Falls Power Company, who obtained, in 1886, the right to develop 200,000 horsepower on the American side, and later 250,000 horsepower on the Canadian side. Work on a canal and tunnel for 100,000 horsepower was commepced, and in 1890 Mr. Adams went to London to consult the engineers on that side of the Atlantic. A competition for hydraulic and electric plans was started. A commission with Lord Kelvin as chairman was formed to consider the plans. The competition practically settled the hydraulic arrangements to be adopted, but two or three years of conferences and discussion elapsed before a really practicable scheme of electrical distribution for all purposes was threshed out. Professor Unwin gave a detailed description of the plant of the Niagara Falls Power Company, and referred to the chief points of interest in the undertakings of the Ontario Power Company, the Canadian Power Company, and the Electrical Development Company. Dealing with the question of the destruction of the falls, he stated that in 1885 Mr. Evershed thought he was taking a very safe line in saying that for power purposes no more than 4 per cent. would be required. If 150,000 horsepower were produced the daily demand would be 11,000 cubic feet per second, which was 5 per cent. of the mean flow, or not quite 7 per cent. of the minimum flow. The development of 650,000 horsepower demanded 48,000 cubic feet per second, or 211 " per cent. of the mean flow and 30 per cent.

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Congress of Tuberculosis recently Paris: “The congress, after heari posé of the most recent inves clares that it is not only avoid contagion from man to I


losis and to continue tot and hygienic measures to at


is desirable to be on our g forms of animal tuberculosis.”

488 last year. They are distributed among the departments as follows:




of the minimum flow. It was obvious that when the whole of the machinery was in working order the appearance of the falls would be startling. Taking into account the water used for the Welland Canal and Chicago drainage and other canals projected the total diversion of water would be at least 41 per cent. of the minimum flow. Nor was the end of projects for the diversion yet in sight, so that there seemed likely to be a fulfillment of Lord Kelvin's prophecy that before long Niagara would be a dry ravine.


Sir Donald Currie has offered £20,000 to Queen's College, Belfast, on condition that an equal sum is otherwise raised. A large portion of the necessary sum has already been promised.

Mr. Basil McCrea, of Belfast, has given £6,000 to found a chair of experimental physics in Magee College, Londonderry, and to provide two scholarships in connection there. with, on condition of the subscription of funds for a suitable laboratory within a certain period.

The trustees of the Carnegie Foundation to provide pensions for college professors will hold their first meeting in New York City on the afternoon of November 15.

The president of the Louisiana State University announces that as the yellow fever quarantines are still in force, it is deemed best not to open the university until November 1. The session will close on June 27, 1906. Perhaps it would be safe to open at an earlier date, but the university authorities wish to be sure of avoiding all danger, not only of infection in the school, but of detention of students by quarantine. There have been seven sporadic cases of yellow fever in Baton Rouge since September 4, but there has been no yellow fever at the university, and no serious sickness of any kind.

Greek ...........
Latin ............

27 28
Romanic Languages
History .....
Law .........
Botany ......
Physiology ..
Zoology .....
Entomology ........
Geology and Mining....... . 53 41
Civil Engineering .........
Mechanical Engineering .......
Electrical Engineering .......
There are this year 713 students in the
freshman class of Harvard University, as com-
pared with 788 students last year.

An instructorship in the department of physics of the University of Pennsylvania is vacant. Applications may be addressed to Professor Arthur W. Goodspeed.

PROFESSOR NATHANIEL Butler has been appointed dean of the College of Education of the University of Chicago to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Professor H. E. Locke.

AUSTIN Cary, A.B., has been appointed assistant professor of forestry at Harvard University, and R. T. Fisher, A.B., has been promoted to an assistant professorship in the same subject.

PROFESSOR A. Euch, of the University of Colorado, has been appointed professor of mathematics at the Cantonal College of Solothurn, Switzerland. .

Dr. Tu. Paul, director of the scientific department of the Bureau of Health at Berlin, has accepted a call to the professorship of pharmacology and applied chemistry at Munich.

THERE have this year registered at Stanford University 590 new students as compared with

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