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pure recessive or pure dominant characters Africa, with its great variations in the had been hit upon from the first.
amount and incidence of the rainfall and Biffen's work further indicates that the with its very different temperatures, afpower of producing a glutinous grain, such fords a very good opportunity for obtainas will lead to 'strength' in the flour, is a ing information on this point. Returning, Mendelian character, following the same however, to the question of variety, it is laws of inheritance as the bearded or generally recognized that relative immunbeardless habit or the color of the grain or ity or susceptibility to an attack of yellow chaff. Extreme strength shown in any rust is characteristic of particular varieparticular wheat can then be picked out ties, and Biffen finds that such ‘immunity' and combined with any other essential is a true Mendelian character, recessive qualities, such as the yield and the char- and therefore only appearing in the secacter of the straw, which distinguish our ond generation of hybrids between a rustpresent varieties of wheat. Of course the ing and rust-proof parent. It is not correinheritance of a quality like strength, which lated with shape or character of the leaf, is only relative between different varieties, but is transmitted from one generation to can not be traced with the sharpness with another quite independently, and can, which such characters as the long-awned therefore, be picked out of a desirable bearded type can be followed; still the parent and combined with other qualities variation that is, as it were, superimposed of value in different parents. Here, again, upon the 'strength' or 'weakness' repre- we are dealing with a character that is only senting the inherited Mendelian character relative, for no wheat can be called either is not sufficient to obliterate the evidence absolutely rust-proof or entirely susceptof inheritance according to the law. And, ible; the offspring that have inherited imof course this variation of individual seed- munity will still vary a trifle among themlings in the 'strong' section above and be- selves in the degree of their resistance to low the degree of strength possessed by the attack, and in this possibility of variation parent, i. e., the inherited character, gives lies the chance of the plant-breeder to imthe plant-breeder his opportunity of im- prove upon the rust-resisting powers of the proving such a quality at the same time varieties we now possess. as he is combining with it the other char- The whole work of the plant-breeder is acteristics that are desired in the new of singular importance in a country like varieties. Biffen's work among the wheat South Africa whose agricultural history is hybrids touches also upon another point of so recent. Our European crops represent special importance to South African farm- the culminating points of a tradition, and ing, where the incidence of frust' forms are the fruit of the observation and judgthe greatest obstacle of extensive and suc- ment of many generations of practical men cessful wheat-growing. The climatological working, as a rule, with chance material. conditions which make for a rust attack The products are eminently suited to Eurohave not been worked out, as far as can pean conditions, but, as has been seen be judged from the behavior of English so often, they fail comparatively when wheats in various seasons, together with brought into other climates and soils. It the prevailing climates in countries where follows, then, that in a new country the rust is specially prevalent; a flush of work of the acclimatizer is one of the necesgrowth in the spring followed by high tem- sary foundations for agriculture, and this peratures will favor the disease, but South involves a careful study of climatology
and of the influence that the distribution of rainfall and temperature in various parts of the country has on the character of the crop.
Then the cross-breeder's work begins: acclimatization alone is hardly likely to yield the ideal plant, but by it are found plants possessing the features, one here and one there, that are desiderated; and starting with this ground material the hybridizer can eventually turn out an individual possessing to a large measure all the qualities that are sought for.
There is little hope that science can do anything wholly new for agriculture: acclimatization, breeding and selection have been the mainstay of farming progress since the beginning of time, just as the
e action of the nitrifying bacteria and of nitrogen fixation by the leguminous plants was instinctively apprehended by the earliest farmers of whom we have any record.
But with increasing knowledge comes more power, and particularly the possibility of accelerating the rate of progress; agri. cultural improvements in the past have resulted from the gradual and unorganized accretions of the observation and experi. ence of many men, often of many generations, now that we are provided by science
are provided by science with guiding hypotheses and by the organization of experiment with the means of replacing casual opinions by exact knowledge. Even the properties of the soil and the character of our farm crops and animals-stubborn facts as they are and deeply grounded in the nature of things-ought to become increasingly plastic in our hands.
A. D. HALL.
most prominent, finally dispels the tradition that a continued liberal allowance of proteid in a normal diet is a prerequisite for the maintenance of bodily vigor.
Professor Chittenden had suffered from persistent rheumatism of the knee joint and determined on a course of dieting which should largely reduce the proteid and calorific intake. The rheumatism disappeared and minor troubles such as 'sick-headaches' and bilious attacks no longer recurred periodically as before.
There was a greater appreciation of such food as was eaten: a keener appetite, and more acute taste seemed to be developed and a more thorough liking for simple foods.
During the first eight months of the dieting there was a loss of body weight equal to eight kilograms. Thereafter for nine months the body weight remained stationary.
Two months of the time were spent at an inland fishing resort, and during a part of this time a guide was dispensed with and the boat rowed by the writer frequently six to ten miles in a forenoon, sometimes against head winds (without breakfast) and with much greater freedom from fatigue and muscular soreness than in previous years on a fuller dietary.
During this latter period of nine months the nitrogen of the urine was determined daily. The average was 5.69 grams. During the last two months this was reduced to 5.40 grams. Experiments showed that about one gram of nitrogen was eliminated in the fæces, and that nitrogen equilibrium could be maintained with dietaries of low calorific value (1,613 and 1,549 calories) containing 6.40 and 5.86 grams of nitrogen. These figures correspond to diets containing 40 and 36.6 grams of proteid instead of 118 grams commended by Voit and honored by habit and tradition. The foods with the strongest flavors are meats.
Professor Chittenden believes that the large quantity of proteid in the ordinary diet is due to self-indulgence. He protests against such indulgence and believes that a futile strain is thereby placed upon the liver, kidneys and other organs concerned in the transformation and elimination of the end products of proteid metabolism.
SCIENTIFIC BOOKS. Physiological Economy in Nutrition. By
RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN, Ph.D., LL.D., Sc.D. New York, F. A. Stokes Co. 1904.
This notable volume, the production of Professor Chittenden and his coworkers, of whom Professor Lafayette B. Mendel is the
These experiments, however, were not con- calculations of Voit in 1866 it was shown that fined to an individual or even to a single a man of 70 kilograms on a medium mixed group of individuals. Similar experiments diet produced 2,400 calories, or 34.3 calories were made on other professional men, on stu- per kilogram. Rubner allows 2,445 calories dent athletes in training, and on soldiers to men of 70 kilograms weight engaged in ocunder military regimen. The nitrogen in the cupations involving light muscular work, men urine was determined daily in twenty-six in- such as writers, draughtsmen, tailors, physidividuals for periods extending from five to cians, etc. nine months.
But the soldiers under Chittenden exercised Summarizing the results obtained in all for two hours in the gymnasium, then apparthese groups of individuals, it is established ently drilled for one hour, and walked for that a diet containing about fifty grams of another hour. This physical work can only proteid (8 grams of nitrogen) is able to main be accomplished at the expense of increased tain the adult body machine in perfect repair. metabolism. Zuntz has shown that to walk
The professional group alleged a greater 2.7 miles in one hour along a level road rekeenness for its work, the athletic group won quires an extra metabolism equivalent to the championships in games, and the soldiers liberation of 159.2 calories in a well-trained maintained perfect health and strength, many man weighing 70 kilograms. If a soldier professing repugnance to meat when allowed during four hours of exercise actually accomit after five months of practical abstinence. plished the equivalent of work of a walk of
Although it is possible that the alleged im- ten miles over and above what Professor Menproved mental condition may have been due to del accomplished in his laboratory, then the mental suggestion, still the fact remains that metabolism of the soldier would be larger than it has been absolutely proven by Chittenden's Professor Mendel's by 637 calories (159.2 X 4) work that the allowance of proteid necessary or he would have had a total metabolism of for continued health and strength may be 3,085 calories (2,448 + 637). This does not reduced for many months to one half or less seem an improbable amount. what the habit of appetite suggests.
For ordinary laborers working eight to ten The reviewer would, however, remark that hours a day, such as mechanics, porters, joinit still remains to be proven that the fiftyers, soldiers in garrison and farmers, 3,000 grams of proteid in the diet—which is not calories, as advocated by Voit, is apparently greater than the body would metabolize in not too great. Rubner's diet for the same starvation-is advisable as a program for the class calls for 2,868 calories. Chittenden's whole of one's adult life. It may also be that allowance of 2,500–2,600 seems to the writer more than this quantity is indicated, during too small, while Atwater's of 3,400 appears convalescence from wasting disease, or during excessive. the muscular hypertrophy which accompanies Unstinted praise for painstaking endeavor preliminary training for muscular effort. and unremitting toil belongs to the workers
The reviewer believes that Professor Chit- who have achieved this volume. It is a monutenden has fallen into error in the commenda- ment of fidelity and an inspiration to thortion of 2,500 to 2,600 calories as an ample oughness in scientific work. energy content for the diet of a soldier at
GRAHAM LUSK. drill. Accurate information on this point is UNIVERSITY AND BELLEVUE HOSPITAL only obtainable through respiration experi
MEDICAL COLLEGE. ments. Chittenden, pursuing a sedentary life, prescribes 2,000 calories for himself or 35 The Insulation of Electric Machines. TURNER calories per kilogram of body weight, while and HOBART. Pp. vi + 297. 146 illustraMendel requires 2,448 calories or 35.3 calories tions. New York, The Macmillan Comper kilogram. These are entirely normal val pany. 1905. Price, $4.50. ues for people at light work. In the earliest It is a difficult and tedious task to write a
erties will surprise the non-technical reader and suggests an interesting and useful field of research.
As a bit of friendly criticism it should be suggested that in the next edition most of the experimental curves given should be remade by the wax process, in the interest of neatness and easy reference. A very useful bibliography of the subject is a valuable feature of the book, and the index is satisfactorily full. Altogether Turner and Hobart have done a commendable piece of work and one that will be widely appreciated.
book upon a subject which is in the empirical stage of its history, yet in this volume the authors have succeeded in producing a work which is rich in useful information, and which the electric constructor will find a valuable addition to his library. From a scientific standpoint perhaps the most interesting portion of the book is the second chapter, which summarizes very effectively the present state of knowledge regarding the dielectric strength of various materials under various conditions. Nothing is more convincing evidence of the need of further investigating the passage of electricity through gases than the discordant values obtained by different experimenters for the dielectric strength of air.
The constructor will find the chapters on field and on armature insulation and on the
space factor' exceedingly practical and suggestive, and indeed wherever the authors have had the opportunity of drawing upon their own valuable experience and exercising untrammeled their nice discrimination the results are very satisfactory. Unhappily, insulation at present must rank as crude art rather than as science, and art, too, somewhat luridly colored by commercial daubers.
Of patented insulating preparations and secret compounds the name is legion, and good, bad and indifferent, all alike make the most extravagant claims, and back them up by experiments. These compounds can not be left without mention in a book on insulation, for some of them are highly meritorious, but proper and adequate treatment of them is a practical impossibility. In dealing with this part of their subject therefore, the authors can hardly do more than supplement the alleged facts by such data as are available and to let the matter go at that. They have at least avoided the error of assuming commercial data to be altogether reliable by giving several points of view on disputed topics. The chapters treating of oil insulation fortunately escape such difficulties, paraffin and other oils being free from patents and trade marks, and these will weil repay study.
The facility with which oils, spite of the old saying that oil and water will not mix, take up moisture enough to ruin their insulating prop
Grundriss der Soziologie. By Ludwig Gum
PLOWICZ. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Vienna, 1905.
Sociologists in this country will be interested in this new edition of Doctor Gumplowicz's famous work. In the preface he calls attention to the rapid development of sociological study during the last twenty years, in which development he modestly hints that his ‘Grundriss' might well assert, Quorum pars magna fui.
The text of the first edition is preserved intact, with slight verbal changes here and there. The chief modifications consist in additions, reference notes and quotations from later works. In book one, for instance, the history of sociology is brought down to date. Special attention is given in this to the views of Ratzenhofer, whose untimely death while homeward bound from the congress at St. Louis, deprived sociology of one of its foremost writers. Ratzenhofer's ‘Positive Ethik' is extensively quoted from in book four, pages 330-336. Discussions of 'Methode der Soziologie,' and 'Geschichtsphilosophische Konstruktionen,' complete the list of important additions.
This last discussion should be read in connection with his article in American Journal of Sociology, March, 1905, entitled 'An Austrian Appreciation of Lester F. Ward.' Dr. Gumplowicz frankly admits that he is not yet prepared to believe in the possibility of an 'applied sociology,' but, while still holding to
the position he set forth in his first edition, he is prepared to see his argument become old-fashioned (hinfällig), with advance in sociological knowledge.
The author has lost none of his old-time vigor of expression, nor of his opposition to the organic theory. He takes occasion to give this latter some hard blows, even though his conclusion is, “ Diese Methode' ist ein für allemal abgetan,” page 170.
J. Q. DEALEY. BROWN UNIVERSITY,
September 12, 1905.
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE.
BREEDING BENEFICIAL INSECTS. Harper's Monthly Magazine is a journal of such high standing and is as a rule so clean and so accurate that anything published in its pages, aside from ostensible fiction, is received by a very large reading public as bearing the stamp of absolute accuracy. It, therefore, becomes necessary whenever an inaccurate statement is published in its pages, and particularly when by such a statement a keen injustice is done to an institution or to an individual, to publish in some way and as speedily as possible an emphatic rejoinder and correction. I, therefore, wish to call attention to the article by H. A. Crafts in the October number of Harper's Magazine, pages 778 to 782, which bears the title of this present communication. The article refers to the excellent work which has been done in California in the breeding of beneficial insects, and more especially to the admirable quarantine carried on by that state against the possible importation of new insect pests. To these features of the article no exception can be taken, but there is another and important matter which must be corrected.
Mr. Crafts writes:
Mr. Craw (Alexander Craw, late Horticultural Quarantine Officer of California] advised that search be made in foreign countries for the parasite that would destroy the 'cottony cushionscale. At that time the state had enacted no horticultural laws, and there were no public funds available for the prosecution of the search sug. gested by Mr. Craw. But to remedy this defect
private funds were raised, and Professor Albert Koebele, an attaché of the United States Department of Agriculture, was commissioned to make the quest.
Professor Koebele in the course of his travels went to Australia, where he found a grub feeding upon the cottony cushion-scale. He took the grub and developed it to its condition of maturity, and found that it grew into a small beetle known as a ‘ladybird. At the same time the professor made a second discovery, and that was that a secondary parasite was preying upon the ladybird.'
Knowing that it would be fatal to the project to send the ladybird and its parasite to California together, he set about propagating a colony of the little beetles in close confinement. He accordingly had glass-houses built over two small orangetrees in an orchard that was infested with the cottony cushion-scale, and beneath these he bred up some strong colonies of the ladybirds and sent them to Mr. Craw.
l'pon their arrival in California the process of propagation was continued and a large number of the bugs raised. * * *
The insects thus raised by Mr. Craw were sent out in small colonies all over the state wherever there was an orange or lemon orchard affected by the cottony cushion-scale and turned loose in the trees. The result was the speedy cleaning up of the pest, and it has remained in subjection ever since. since.
And thus the great citrus-fruit industry of California was saved. 0
In these statements Mr. Crafts has done a great injustice to the United States Department of Agriculture, and to the late C. V. Riley, at that time (1888–90) chief entomologist of the department. The facts briefly are these. Prior to the Australian expedition of Mr. Koebele. Professor Riley was in Cali. fornia. He attended, with Mr. Craw, a large horticultural meeting, and the subject of sending abroad for parasites was broached at this meeting. It is quite possible that Professor Riley got the original idea from Mr. Craw. Here, however, Mr. Craw's connection with the introduction ceases; nor do I think Mr. Craw has ever made any personal claim which would in any further way substantiate the statements made by Mr. Crafts, just quoted. Professor Riley returned to Washington, corresponded with entomologists in Australia,