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ing countries was made in the first instance Francisco, secured magnetic observations for five years only, in case the publication of daily to a greater or less extent according to the catalogue should fail financially or in conditions of the weather and sea, 'swung' other ways. It was also decided to spend twice under sail, and arrived at San Diego, £100 in making the catalogue known, and to August 12. This first short cruise was an take steps to invite the cooperation of other experimental one, various instruments and countries not yet represented on the council, methods having been subjected to trials under e. 9., Spain, the Balkan States, South Ameri- the direction of the writer, who accompanied can Republics, etc.
the expedition as far as San Diego. The deThe proposal to publish additional volumes flection apparatus devised by the writer for upon, a, medicine and surgery; b, agriculture, determining horizontal intensity has proved horticulture and forestry; c, technology (vari successful. In a future paper the methods, ous branches) was discussed, and it was de instruments and results will be more fully cided that the executive committee should described. take the suggestion into fuller consideration After further alterations had been made at and bring it under the notice of the inter- San Diego, and the deviation coefficients havnational convention in July, 1905. It was ing been redetermined, the Galilee again set also resolved that all alterations in the sail, on September 1, this time for the Hawaischedules should be collected and edited by the ian and Midway Islands and is expected to central bureau prior to submission to the return to San Francisco about December 1. regional bureaus for their opinions, and that After these two experimental voyages, she is the schemes should be edited by a special com- to sail from San Francisco early in 1906 on a mittee before being submitted to the inter- more lengthy cruise-one embracing the ennational convention.
tire circuit of the North Pacific Ocean. A. LIVERSIDGE. The scientific personnel at present consists
of Mr. J. F. Pratt, commander; Dr. J. Hobart INAUGURATION OF THE MAGNETIC SUR
Egbert, surgeon and magnetic observer; Mr. J. VEY OF THE YORTH PACIFIC OCEAN..
P. Ault, magnetic observer, and Mr. P. C. As announced in a previous issue of Sci
Whitney, magnetic observer and watch officer. ENCE, the brig Galilee of San Francisco, a
The sailing master is Captain J. T. Hayes, wooden sailing vessel, built in 1891, of length who has made some record sailing trips in the 132.5 feet, breadth 33.5 feet, depth 12.7 feet,
Galilee-one a voyage of 3,000 miles from the displacement about 600 tons, has been char. South Pacific Islands to San Francisco in tered by the department of terrestrial mag- fifteen days and having made as much as 308 netism of the Carnegie Institution of Wash miles in one day. ington for the purpose of making a magnetic
L. A. BAUER. survey of the North Pacific Ocean. After the DEPT. TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, various necessary alterations, e. g., substitu CARNEGIE INSTITUTION, tion of the steel rigging by hemp rigging, etc., WASHINGTON, D. C., were made, the vessel entered upon her duties
September 11, 1905. early in August. Magnetic observations were made at various places on the shores around EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN YELLOW San Francisco Bay and the most suitable FETER AND MALARIA AT VERA CRUZ. place for 'swinging ship’ by their aid de- The U. S. Public Health and Marine IIostermined. The ship was swung' with the pital Service has published a bulletin on the aid of a tug on August 2, 3 and 4 in San experimental work done by assistant surgeons Francisco Bay between Goat Island and M. J. Rosenau, Herman B. Parker, Edward Berkeley, California, and the various devia- Francis and George E. Beyer, the conclusions tion coefficients were determined.
of which are as follows: The cause of yellow On August 5, the Galilee sailed from San fever is not known. The Myxococcidium
stegomyive is not an animal parasite. Yeast cells sometimes stimulate the coccidia in form and staining reaction.
The infection of yellow fever is in the blood serum early in the disease. No abnormal elements that bear a causal relation to the disease can be detected in the serum or in the corpuscles with the best lenses at our command.
The infective principle of yellow fever may pass the pores of a Pasteur-Chamberland B filter. Particles of carbon visible with Zeiss lenses pass through both the Berkefeld and Pasteur-Chamberland B filters. Because the virus of an infectious disease passes a Berkefeld or Pasteur-Chamberland B filter it does not necessarily follow that the parasite which passed the filter is 'ultramicroscopic,' or that it may not have elsewhere another phase in its life cycle of large size. The filtration of viruses may succeed or fail, depending upon the character of the filter, the diluting fluid, the pressure, time, temperature, motility of the particles and other factors.
The period of incubation of yellow fever caused by the bites of infected mosquitoes is usually three days, sometimes five days, and in one authentic instance six days and two hours; but when the disease is transmitted by such artificial means as the inoculation of blood or blood serum the period of incubation shows less regularity.
Yellow fever may be conveyed to a nonimmune by the bite of an infected Stegomyia fasciata; but the bites of Stegomyia which have previously (over twelve days) bitten cases of yellow fever do not always convey the disease.
Fomites play no part in the transmission of the disease.
The tertian and estivo-autumnal malarial parasites will not pass the pores of a Berkefeld filter.
There is a poison in the blood during the chill of tertian infection which, when injected into another man, caused chill, fever and sweating. This poison, while present in a case of tertian during the rise of temperature, could not be demonstrated in the blood of a case of estivo-autumnal fever during the de
cline of the paroxysm. While this poison reproduced the symptoms of the disease, still the data are too limited to consider it the malarial toxin.
Stegomyra fasciata is a domestic insect. It is most active during the day, but will bite at night under artificial light. The female lays eggs at intervals; the maximum number of eggs laid by one insect observed was 101. The mosquito does not always die directly after ovipositing.
Stegomyia fasciata may bite and draw blood from cadavers, although the danger from spreading the infection from this source is remote.
Male and female Stegomyia fasciata may pass a screen containing 16 strands, or 15 meshes to the inch, but not one of 20 strands, or 19 meshes to the inch.
Tobacco smoke produced by burning two pounds per 1,000 cubic feet with an exposure of two hours is sufficient to kill Stegomyia fasciata. This method is objectionable on account of the yellow stains and disagreeable odor. Pyrethrum burned in the proportion of one pound per 1,000 cubic feet with an exposure of two hours will stupefy Stegomyia fasciata; it requires two pounds to kill them outright.
From the limited number of experiments made and from previous experiments it is thought that sulphur dioxid is the best of the gaseous insecticides for this purpose. Formaldehyde gas is not an insecticide, and therefore not applicable.
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. M. ÉLIE METCIINIKOFF, of the Institut Pasteur, has been elected a foreign member of the Brussels Academy of Sciences.
Dr. KARL SCHWARZSCHILD, professor of astronomy at Göttingen, has been elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of that city.
Brig. GENERAL A. W. GREELY, chief signal officer of the army, has completed a thorough inspection of the Alaskan telegraph system.
Dr. Otto Klotz, Dominion astronomer, has just completed observations at Harvard Observatory for the longitude connections with the new observatory at Ottawa.
PROFESSOR PodwySSOTZKI, dean of the med- English in the large auditorium of the Carical faculty of Odessa, has been appointed di- negie Laboratory, 338 East 26th Street, Ocrector of the Institute for Experimental Medi- tober 9 to 14, inclusive, at 4 o'clock in the cine at St. Petersburg.
afternoon. Visitors are welcome to these DR. HERMAN S. Davis, after six years' in lectures. Reserved seats are to be had on vestigation of the variations of latitude for application to the college. Columbia University, New York, and five At the first fall meeting of the New York years' for the International Geodetic Associa- Academy of Sciences, Professor Robert W. tion, retires from this line of research on Hill will lecture on “ The Republic of Mexico, November 1, on which date his resignation as its Physical and Economic Aspects. The lecdirector of the observatory at Gaithersburg, ture will be given in the large lecture hall of Maryland, takes effect.
the American Museum of Natural History, The following members of the advisory and all interested are invited to attend. board of Panama Canal engineers have sailed The Harben Lectures of the Royal Institute for the Isthmus on the steamship Colon: Gen. of Public Health will be delivered in the lecGeorge W. Davis; William Barclay Parsons; ture room of the institute, on October 10, 12 Professor W. H. Burr, of Columbia Univer- and 17, by Professor Thomas Oliver, physisity; Gen. Henry H. Abbott; Eugene Tin- cian to the Royal Infirmary, Newcastle-oncauzer, German delegate; Edouard M. Quel. Tyne. The subject of the lectures will be, lenac, of the Suez Canal staff; Isham Some of the Maladies caused by the Air Randolph; F. P. Stearns; Joseph Ripley; W. we Breathe in the Home, Factory and the H. Hunter, of the Manchester Canal; Adolph Mine, including a Description of Caisson DisGuerard, French delegate; J. W. Welcker, ease or Compressed Air Illness.' Dutch delegate, and Capt. John C. Oakes, PROFESSOR WILLIAM OSLER, regius professor secretary.
of medicine at Oxford University, has acA CABLEGRAM from London states that Will cepted the post of Thomas Young lecturer on iam P. Byrne, principal clerk of the home medicine at St. George's Hospital, and will office; Dr. Horatio B. Donkin, a commissioner give a series of lectures and demonstrations of prisons and consulting physician to West at the hospital next spring on the diagnosis minister Hospital; Dr. William H. Dickinson, of abdominal tumors. consulting physician to St. George's Hospital DR. A. M. FAIRBAIRN, principal of Mansfield and former president of the Royal Medical College, Oxford, England, who has accepted and Chirurgical Society; J. C. Dunlop and an appointment as Deems lecturer at New Mrs. Pinsent, composing the sub-committee York University, will deliver his course of lecof the Royal Commission on the care and con- tures in January. trol of the insane, sailed from Liverpool for
PROFESSOR CHARLES SCHUCHERT, of Yale New York, on September 30, on the Cunard University, has returned from a geological Line steamer Etruria, to investigate American trip extending over the ancient formations of methods of treating the insane.
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and eastern DR. H. P. BOWDITCH, professor of physiol- Quebec.
the Harvard Medical School, has been A CABLEGRAM to the daily papers states that granted leave of absence for the coming year. Mylius Ericksen is preparing a Danish ship
The Herter Lectures, established by Dr. C. and a sledge party for an expedition to the A. Herter at the New York University and hitherto unexplored regions of the northeastBellevue Hospital Medical College, will be ern coast of Greenland. The plans have been given this year by Professor Carl von Noor- in course of elaboration since Ericksen's reden, chief of the City Hospital, of Frankfort, turn from his last expedition, and have been Germany. His subject will be ‘Diabetes.' approved by many societies, including the The lectures, six in number, will be given in American Geographical Society and the Royal
Geographical Society of London, and also by Dr. Nansen, Professor von Drygalski and other scientific men.
American Medicine states that during the epidemic in New Orleans an opportunity has been afforded for careful study of conditions leading to the infection, with the result, it is believed, that the causative microorganism has been isolated and identified. The work has been conducted at the emergency hospital by Drs. P. E. Archinard, J. Birney Guthrie and J. C. Smith. The life history of the organism discovered by Dr. Archinard has been followed, and its presence in the blood of patients confirmed.
Sir Thomas BROWNE, the author of 'Religio Medici,' was born on October 19, 1605, and the quatercentenary will be celebrated at Norwich on the same date this year. The British Medical Journal states that the memorial statue of Sir Thomas Browne, erected in the Market Place, will be unveiled at 12:30 P.M. by Lord Avebury, F.R.S.; afterwards a luncheon will be held at the Blackfriars Hall. At 8:30 P.M. there will be a service in memory of Sir Thomas Browne in the Church of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, near which he lived for many years, and in which he worshipped, and lies buried; the sermon will be preached by the Right Rev. Bishop Mitchinson, master of Pembroke College, Oxford, of which college Sir Thomas Browne was a member.
DR. ALFRED SCHAPER, assistant to the professor of embryology at Breslau, has died at the age of forty-two years.
The deaths are also announced of Dr. Franz Ruch, docent in geodesy in the Technical Institute at Prague, and of Dr. Rudolf Pernthner von Lichtenfelds, docent in architectural engineering in the Polytechnic Institute at Vienna.
The second general international sanitary convention will meet in Washington on October 9. The different South American republics will be represented, and many European men of science will be in attendance.
A CIVIL SERVICE examination will be held October 25, 1905, to establish a register of eligibles from which to fill four positions as
laboratory assistant in the Bureau of Standards, Washington. Three of these positions are in the Electrical Division of the Bureau and one in Weights and Measures; the salaries are $900 and $1,000. The examination will consist of: Education and experience (rated on application form) ............
rrrrrr................... 50 General physics .........
........ 25 Special subjects (it is optional with the com
petitor to take more than one of these subjeets)-(a) electrical measurements; (b) weights and measures................... 25 Total ........
.......... 100 Any one wishing to take the examination should address the U. S. Civil Service Commission requesting application blanks. Further information may be obtained by addressing the director of the Bureau of Standards. Applicants must be between 20 and 35 years of age.
The Smithsonian Institution has received information through the Department of State. from Consul General George Heimrod, of Apia. Samoa. that between August 2 and 4. last, a new volcano broke out in Savaii, about eight miles east of the old volcano Mangi, and ten miles south of Matautu. Mr. Heimrod states that the activity of this volcano is phenomenal, as in a single fortnight it created a new mountain with three peaks, one of which will soon reach a height of 800 feet or 2,000 feet above sea level. The ejected matter represents many millions of tons of unsmelted rocks, slag, cinders and ash, which at the beginning of the outbreak in its fiery state was moving towards the sea, the settled part of the island. The mass is about five miles long and one fourth of a mile wide, and as it has almost come to a standstill and is hardening at its extreme ends, danger for life and property is not anticipated.
In connection with the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers a museum of industrial hygiene will be opened this month at Paris by the president of the republic.
ACCORDING to The Journal of the Society of Arts the British consul at Naples reports that the work on the new wing which is being added to the Stazione Zoologica is making rapid progress. When completed the capabilities of the institution for scientific investigation in connection with fishing and other questions will be more than doubled, and the extension would seem to be much wanted, for during the spring months of the present year no less than seventy naturalists of all nationalities were engaged in various researches, and fifteen applicants had to be refused admission on account of the lack of accommodation. The completion of the new building, the ground plan of which measures 110 by 77 feet, will permit the following improvements to be made: (1) The unique library of books on marine biology will be brought together upon the same floor instead of being distributed in various rooms; (2) laboratories and workrooms equipped under the superintendence of Dr. Henze for research in the physiological chemistry of marine animals will be the best and largest of their kind, and will occupy the second floor of the new building; (3) laboratories and workrooms for other physiological work in connection with marine animals will occupy the first floor; (4) a new photographic and artists' room will be gained; (5) a bacteriological laboratory; (6) some thirty new rooms for private study. The basement will be occupied by enormous aquaria and tanks, with the necessary engines for working the circulating pumps and for supplying power to the engineer's shop.
THE Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia, announces the following courses of lectures: Professor Samuel T. Wagner, " Roads, Railroads and Tunnels'; sixteen lectures, as follows: September 15, 22, 29; October 6, 13, 20, 27; November 3, 10, 17, 27; December 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. Dr. Philip P. Calvert, “ The Development and Life IIistories of Invertebrate Animals '; ten lectures, as follows: October 2, 9, 16, 23, 30; November 6, 13, 20, 27; December 4. Professor IIenry Leffmann, Metals and Ores’; ten lectures, as follows: October 4, 11, 18, 25; November 1, 8, 15, 22, 29; December 6. Professor Wm. B. Scott, ‘Physiographical Geology'; sixteen lectures, as follows: January 3, 10, 17, 24, 31;
February 7, 14, 21, 28; March 7, 14, 21, 28; April 4, 11, 18. Professor Geo. F. Stradling, 'Electricity'; sixteen lectures, as follows: January 5, 12, 19, 26; February 2, 9, 16, 23; March 2, 9, 16, 23, 30; April 6, 20, 27. Dr. John W. Harshberger, ‘North American Trees'; ten lectures, as follows: February 5, 12, 19, 26; March 5, 12, 19, 26; April 2, 9.
The policy of holding annually a meeting of the principal engineers of the Reclamation Service for the purpose of discussing matters of administration and economies of work seems to have become well established. The reclamation act was signed by the president, on June 17, 1902. An engineering corps consisting of well-trained and experienced men has been gradually selected through the Civil Service Commission to meet the needs of the service, and the work of reclamation has been energetically pushed in all parts of the arid region. The first conference of engineers was held at Ogden, Utah, September 15 to 18, 1903, in connection with the eleventh Irrigation Congress. The first session of the second conference was held at the time of the meeting of the twelfth Irrigation Congress, at El Paso, Texas, November 14 to 18, 1904. On this occasion the principal engineers of the Reclamation Service met prominent citizens from the west and exchanged views with them regarding reclamation matters of common interest. The conference adjourned to meet in Washington in January, 1905, in order to allow opportunity for other engineers to take part in the discussions and to give additional time for consideration of important details. At the adjourned meeting in Washington a number of prominent public men met the engineers and exchanged views concerning matters in various states. The discussions that occurred at this meeting and the papers presented then constitute a very valuable body of material. The printed report of the proceedings of the first conference, that at Ogden, was distributed as Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 93 and was found to be of great assistance to the men engaged in reclamation work. On the recommendation, therefore, of Mr. F. H. Newell, chief engineer,