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7. Should the trustees of all institutions, public and private alike, be required by law to file full financial statements with some public authority and publish the same?

8. Should the alumni have some formally recognized place in the scheme of government of the institution? If so, what?

9. Should the student body have formal recognition in the scheme of government by being privileged to appoint representatives to any disciplinary or administrative body?

10. Is it possible to devise uniform methods of bookkeeping and statistics, so as to make comparisons more valuable?

It will be seen that these are all vital questions, indicating difficulties which every board of trustees has to meet. It is believed that erery university or college trustee will derive great aid in the performance of his duties by attending this conference and exchanging views on these important topics.

Urbana, in which the University of Illinois is located, forms with its adjoining city, Champaign, a single community of about twenty thousand inhabitants. It is situated 128 miles due south of Chicago, at the junction of three great railway systems, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland and St. Louis (Big Four), and the Wabash


1905-1906. October 7, Professor Hans Meyer, ‘Die Theorie der Narcose' (in German).

October 14, Professor Carl von Noorden, *Modern Problems of Metabolism.'

November 4. Professor E. G. Novy. «Trypanosomes.'

November 18, Dr. P. A. Levene, “Autolysis.'

January 20, Professor W. H. Park, ‘A Critical Study of Serum Therapy.'

January 27, Professor Lewellys F. Barker, “The Neurones.'

February 2, Professor F. S. Lee, ‘Fatigue.'

February 9, Professor L. B. Mendel, “ The Formation of Uric Acid.'

February 16, Professor T. H. Morgan, “ The Extent and Limitations of the Power to Regenerate in Man and other Vertebrates.'

February 23, Professor Charles S. Minot, ‘On the Nature and Cause of Old Age.'

March 2, Professor J. C. Webster, “Modern Views regarding Placentation.'

March 9, Professor Theobald Smith, “Some Phases of Tuberculosis.'

March 16, Professor W. H. Howell, “The Cause of the Heart Beat.'

The lectures will be held in the Academy of Medicine at half past eight on the above evenings during the winter. In the Sorbonne at Paris courses of lectures by distinguished Frenchmen and men of other lands are given with the object of bringing science before those engaged in practise and art of various pursuits. The aim of the Harvey Society is similar in character. The Harvey Society cordially invites all interested to attend this course.


Persons desiring to attend this conference should notify the undersigned as soon as possible. Suggestions as to other desirable topics for discussion will be thankfully received. Address :

DAVID KINLEY, Dean of the College of Literature and Arts, University of Illinois,

Urbana, Illinois.

THE HARVEY SOCIETY. THE Harvey Society, described by its constitution as 'a society for the diffusion of the knowledge of the medical sciences, offers the following course of lectures which are to be given under the patronage of the New York Academy of Medicine:

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. Dr. W J McGEE, U. S. Commissioner of the International Archeological and Ethnological Commission, lately chief of the department of anthropology and ethnology of the St. Louis Exposition and ethnologist in charge of the Bureau of American Ethnology, has been appointed managing director of the St. Louis Public Museum.

H. FOSTER BAIN, Ph.D. (Chicago), geologist of the U. S. Geological Survey and formerly assistant state geologist of Iowa, has been appointed state geologist of Illinois.

DR. MELVIL DEWEY has resigned the directorship of the New York State Library and of the lIome Education Department. It is expected that a statement may be made later in regard to the causes of Dr. Dewey's resignation and the future of the library school which he has conducted.

DR. HENRY M. WHELPLEY, of the medical department of Washington University, St. Louis, has been elected president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties.

Professor S. W. Williston, of the University of Chicago, lectured on "Ancient Sea Reptiles' at Stanford University on September 19.

PROFESSOR G. II. F. NUTTALL, F.R.S., of Cambridge University, will deliver the opening address of the forthcoming winter session of the London School of Tropical Medicine on October 11.

Tue fourteenth annual meeting of the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States opens in Detroit on September 26. Among the foreign representatives are Dr. S. Suzuki, surgeon-general of Japan and chief surgeon of the fleets of Admiral Togo; Drs. Ho Kan Yen, of the Chinese Navy; Ying

avy; Img Yung Tsui, of the Chinese Army, and WangHang-Chung, of the South China Army; and representatives from the British, Mexican, Canadian, Guatemalan and other foreign services.

Dr. Fridjof NANSEN, who has taken a prominent part in the movement to separate Norway from Sweden, is at present in London on a special mission concerned with the status of Norway.

PROFESSOR A. G. CRAMPTON, head of the department of physics at the College of the City of New York, has returned from Spain, where he observed the eclipse of the sun.

The expedition which Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Rotch sent to the tropics for the exploration of the upper air (see SCIENCE, Vol. XXII., p. 58), has returned to France on the steam-yacht Otaria, after a cruise of two months, during which latitude 9° N. was

reached. The scientific staff, Messrs Maurice, of Trappes, and Clayton, of Blue IIill Observatory, measured the trajectories of thirteen balloons, ascended two volcanic peaks and obtained further observations of temperature, humidity and wind from twenty kiteflights. There are besides similar data from six kite-flights executed by Mr. Clayton between Boston and Gibraltar. The observations showed the existence of a southerly antitrade in the tropics, above twelve thousand feet, and of an easterly upper-current in the equatorial region.

THREE expeditions have been sent out by the University of Kansas in the last two years for the collection of vertebrate fossils. In 1904 a party in charge of Mr. H. T. Martin, assistant curator of vertebrate fossils, spent the year in Patagonia collecting from the Santa Cruz formation. During the summer of the same year another party in charge of Professor C. E. McClung, curator of the collections, worked the Cretaceous of western Kansas. A third expedition, having as its personnel Professor C. E. McClung, Mr. H. T. Martin, Mr. W. J. Baumgartner and Jr. R. G. Hoskins, has just returned from a trip to the John Day formations of central Oregon. The result of these collecting trips has been to add materially to the number of vertebrate specimens in the museum.

Dr. F. H. Svow, curator of the entomological collections of the University of Kansas, who for the last thirty years has made annual collecting trips to various parts of the United States, has conducted two expeditions into Texas and Arizona and returned with some thirty thousand specimens, many of which are new to science.

PROFESSOR CHARLES N. Gould, of the department of geology of the University of Oklahoma, has been granted a year's leave of absence. He expects to spend the year at the University of Nebraska and at the Johns Hopkins University, taking advanced work along certain lines. During his absence the work at the University of Oklahoma will be in charge of Professor E. G. Woodruff.

To mark the centennial of the trip of Robert a self-registering electrometer, the variation Fulton's first steamboat in the Hudson River, of atmospheric electricity was photographically in October, 1807, the committee on plan and recorded, and a series of points of the same scope of the Fulton Centennial Commission curve was taken simultaneously by eye-readhas recommended the construction of a me- ings. The ionization of the air was studied, morial arch in Battery Park and the establish- and exact measurements of the intensity of the ment of a marine museum, on a basis similar solar radiation within the short wave-lengths to that on which the Metropolitan Museum were carried out. The observations, like all of Art and the American Museum of Natural others in Spain, suffered from the bad weather History were founded.

conditions. On the day of the eclipse rain GENERAL ISAAC J. WISTAR, of Philadelphia,

fell during the morning; consequently it can founder of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy

not be considered as undisturbed with regard and Biology of the University of Pennsyl

to atmospheric electricity. The measurements vania, formerly president of the American

of the solar radiation were possible in a conPhilosophical Society, died on September 18,

tinuous series only from the first contact to

the end of totality; the decrease of illuminaat the age of seventy-eight years.

tion, therefore, was determined in a satisfacTOBIAS-ROBERT THALÉN, 'professor emeritus

tory manner and without any gaps. On the of physics in the Royal University of Upsala, other hand, clouds prevented any reading bedied on July 27.

ing taken during the increase of light after The superintendent of the United States totality. Coast and Geodetic Survey has received a THE U. S. Geological Survey has in hand report from Mr. W. F. Wallis in charge of the investigation of curious phenomena known the Magnetic Observatory, Cheltenham, Mary- as 'blowing' or 'breathing' wells. In the land, that the recent disastrous earthquake in course of collecting well records, the hydrolItaly was recorded by the seismograph at this ogists of the survey have observed many wells observatory, on the night of September 7. that emit currents of air with more or less The principal phases in seventy-fifth meridian force, sometimes accompanied by a whistling mean civil time counting the hours continu sound which can be heard for a long distance. ously through twenty-four hours, from mid The best-known examples of this type of well night to midnight are as follows:

are found throughout the state of Nebraska.

Blowing wells are also known to occur in North-South East-West

Rapides Parish in southern Louisiana. The Component. Component.

force of the air current in one of the Louisiana h m

wells is sufficient to keep a man's hat susBeginning........................

21 03 20 21 03 07 Second preliminary tremor.. 21 07 37 21 07 43

pended above it. The cause of such pheBeginning principal portion. 21 27 03 21 23 23 nomena is mainly due to changes in atmosEnd principal portion ........ 21 40 32 21 42 04

pheric pressure or to changes in temperature.

21 52 36 21 57 55 Maximum amplitude.........

During the progress of a low-barometer storm Multiplying ratio .........


10 Average period of waves :

over these regions, the air is expelled from the Beginning .......


blowing wells. With a rising barometer, the Principal portion


blowing becomes rapidly less until the current End........ Period of pendulum........... About 23 About 18 is finally reversed. Differences in the tem

perature of the surface air and the air in the The Carnegie Institution sent professors F. soil also produce similar effects. When the Elster and H. Geitel and Herr F. Harms, to interstices between the grains of sand, gravel, Palma to make observations of the electric etc., in which the well is driven are filled with conditions of the atmosphere during the recent water, the phenomena of blowing is much less solar eclipse. Nature states that by means of noticeable. The survey will welcome any in

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formation from well owners and drillers relating to these wells.

We learn from the London Times that since May, 1904, correspondence has been proceed ing between the Bengal government, the government of India and the Secretary of State upon the subject of the establishment of a school of mines in India, or, in lieu thereof, the making of provision for mining instruc

uçtion at the Sibpur Engineering College, Calcutta, with practical instruction in the mining districts. The latter proposal was, on the advice of a representative committee of educational and mining experts, recommended by the Bengal government and has been sanctioned by the secretary of state. The course is to be for five years, including 18 months' training in the mining districts, where the students will work under the instruction of managers of mines. A professor of mining engineering is to be appointed from England at a salary of Rs.750 per mensem, rising annually by increments of Rs.50 to Rs. 1,000, which is equivalent to £800 per annum. A peripatetic mining instructor, with a native assistant, is also to be appointed, at the same salary, but without exchange compensation allowance. His work will be to give instruction to persons already engaged in mining work who desire to obtain certificates of competency. Such instruction is in all cases to be gratuitous, in view of the fact that 'owing to the extensive ignorance usually prevailing

prevailing the mines are now for the most part worked upon unsystematic and wasteful lines, and that the absence of technical knowledge is a constant source of danger to the laborers.'

for the erection and maintenance of a new biological laboratory.

MR. ANDREW CARNEGIE has given $30,000 to Wittenberg College, Springfield, O., for a science hall, provided an additional $30,000 is raised for the upkeep of the building.

ACCORDING to the report of the city comptroller of New Haven the property of Yale

'niversity exempted from taxation is valued at more than $9,000,000, an increase of nearly $2,000,000 in the past three years. This does not include the Hill House property, recently acquired at the cost of some $500,000.

On the occasion of the opening of Columbia University on September 27, the cornerstone of the new College Hall was laid, and the newly erected dormitories were open to inspection.

The library given by Mr. Andrew Carnegie to Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, was dedicated on September 13. Bishop Henry Spellmeyer, of Cincinnati and Hon. Johnson Brigham, of Des Moines, state librarian of Iowa, delivered the addresses. The building cost a little more than fifty thousand dollars. It is strictly fire proof and is built in the old colonial style of architecture. The capacity is 70,000 volumes.

On September 1, 1905, by the unanimous action of their respective boards of trustees the Medical College of Indiana was made the Medical Department of Purdue University with the title of ‘Indiana Medical College School of Medicine of Purdue University.'

COOPERATION between the University of Chicago and a number of railroad officers has resulted in the establishment of a four-year Cour course in railway education.

Dr. Henry S. DRINKER will be inaugurated as president of Lehigh University on October 12.

APPOINTMENTS at Brown University have been made as follows: J. Ansel Brooks, assistant professor of mechanics and mechanical drawing; James F. Collins, assistant professor of botany; Henry B. Drowne, instructor in civil engineering; Charles W. Brown, instructor in geology and mineralogy.

UVIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. By the will of the late General Isaac J.

saan I Wistar, the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology of the University of Pennsylvania, founded by him, will receive the residue of his estate, thought to amount to about $400,000.

At the opening of Smith College it was announced that Mr. Andrew Carnegie had promised the sum of $125,000 to the college, providing that friends of the institution raise an equal amount. The money is to be used




attention, I desire to express my hearty

thanks for the great honor you have exCONTENTS.

tended to me in inviting me to deliver the Contributions of Pharmacology to Physiology: Herter lectures. The honor I accept, not

PROFESSOR HANS MEYER................. 417 so much for myself as for the science which The Geographical Distribution of the Student

I represent. Body at a Number of American Universities: PROFESSOR RUDOLF TOMBO........ 424

Experimental pharmacology is a science Scientific Books :- .

with essentially theoretical aims-a part of Le Dantec's Traité de biologie: PROFESSOR general biology, in which there is nowhere ARTHUR 0. LOVEJOY....................

... 428 shown a greater interest than in America. Scientific Journals and Articles ............ 429 I take especial pleasure in asserting that in Societies and Academies :

this land of varied successes the underThe American Mathematical Society: Pro

standing of abstract problems and of purely FESSOR F. N. COLE. ..................... 430

theoretical work thrives and ever. grows, Discussion and Correspondence:The Probable Origin of Certain Birds : PRO

always extending to wider circles, filled FESSOR J. A. ALLEN...

... 431 with a scientific idealism which invites the Special Articles :

most splendid and admirable sacrifices, Battery Resistance by Mance's Method: spiritual and material. Your famous uniPROFESSOR ARTIITR W. SMITII. Organisms

versity and, indeed, these lectures themon the Surface of Grain, irith Special Refer

selves owe their origin to such idealistic ence to Bacillus Coli: DR. HAVEX METCALF 434 The International Catalogue of Scientific

impulses. And this gives me the courage Literature: PROFESSOR A, LIVERSIDGE..... 441 and the desire to talk to you of the sigInauguration of the Magnetic Survey of the nificance and value of pharmacology.

North Pacific Ocean: DR. L. A. BAUER.... 413 It is, then, not necessary for me to claim Esperimental Studies in Yellow Fever and your attention for the practical results or. Malaria at Vera Cruz. .................. 443

for their value to the practising physician; Scientific Notes and News..................

not, however, that I undervalue this imporUnirersity and Educational News........... 448

tant side of pharmacology. But may I not Mss. intended for puhlication and hooke etc., intended

hope at this place to be able to attain my tor review should be sent to the Editor of SCIENCE. (tarri.

purpose most easily, if I beg your attention

to the biological results which we owe to CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHARMACOLOGY TO pharmacological investigations ? PHYSIOLOGY

For the explanation and analysis of LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: Before I enter physiological function, apart from comupon the task for which I ask your kind parative physiology, stimulation and extir

1 Being the first of the Jerter lectures delivered pation of certain organs or parts of organs at the Johns Hopkins Medical School, October 5. serve as general methods. Experimental 1905.

physiology employed to this end mechanical


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