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eight per cent. of CO, should be added to the compressed oxygen which is taken for use during high balloon ascents.
R. DE .C. WARD.
to meteorology, with most satisfactory results. One point in his address must commend itself to many persons who try to keep up with the progress that is being made along the various branches of meteorological science, and that is the plea for maintaining “a comprehensive outlook on the whole field of investigation,' which is important in these days of intense specialization.
A NEW TEXT-BOOK OF METEOROLOGY. THE June number of the National Geographic Magazine contains an article entitled 'Forecasting the Weather and Storms, by Professor Willis L. Moore, chief of the Weather Bureau. This article occupies all but three pages of this number. It is illustrated by means of numerous weather maps, storm charts and half-tone prints, and is to form, as we learn, one chapter in a forthcoming book by Dr. Moore, entitled “The New Meteorology. The author's experience in the Weather Bureau, and the exceptional facilities at his command, will doubtless result in producing a popular book which will be very widely read.
NOTES ON INORGANIC CHEMISTRY.
SOLUTIONS IN LIQUID AMMONIA. The modern theories of solution are based almost exclusively upon phenomena taking place in aqueous solution. It is true that the action of other solvents, especially the organic, has been studied, as well as that of liquid ammonia, and to a lesser extent of liquid hydrogen chlorid, sulfid and fluorid. But this work has contributed little to the theory of solutions in general, nor have the theories of solution in water been to any considerable extent successfully applied to other solvents. During the past eight years Professor E. C. Franklin, now of Stanford University, has done much work on solutions in liquid ammonia, and in a recent Journal of the American Chemical Society he has brought forward a rather notable generalization, which brings the liquid ammonia solutions into line with water solutions. It has long been recognized that liquid ammonia stands near water as a solvent. It is an associated liquid with a fairly high dielectric constant. While inferior generally to water as a solvent, it has marked power of ionization, the more dilute ammonia solutions being even better conductors of electricity than aqueous solutions of the same concentration. As water from the standpoint of solution is to be looked upon as a compound of H ions and OH ions, so ammonia is a compound of H ions and NH, ions. When acids are dissolved in liquid ammonia they form, as a matter of course, ammonium salts, but nevertheless they retain true acid properties. They discharge the color of phenolphthalein; they dissolve metallic sodium and some other metals with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of metallic salts; they dissolve certain metallic oxids and basic salts which are insoluble in the liquid ammonia. Here the acid ion seems to be not H, but NH,, or as we may write it, NH,. H. It is, however, by no means im
At a recent exhibition of meteorological instruments held under the auspices of the Royal Meteorological Society in London, one of the most interesting exhibits was a series of twenty-four-hour traces of continuous sunshine, obtained on the Antarctic expedition of the Discovery.
Consular Report for February, 1905, contains a report by the American consul at Nottingham, England, on the fogs of that district, their relation to commerce, business and health, and the suggestions that have been made regarding the dispelling of fogs.
A PAPER by Forel in the Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles for March, 1905, summarizes the observations of Bishop's ring which followed the Mont Pelée eruption of May 8, 1902.
PROFESSOR ANGELO Mosso (Atti dei Lincei, XIV., (1)), has made experiments on the effect of carbon dioxide as a remedy for mountain sickness, and recommends that about
possible that in aqueous acids we have present, not the ion H, but OH, or OH,. H. In each case the hydrogen ion would be associated with a molecule of the solvent. Besides these compounds which act as acids in water, there are other compounds not acids in aqueous solution, which act as acids in ammonia Such, for example, are the acid amids and imids. In acetamid we may, perhaps, assume the ions CH,CONH. and H; in urea the ions H.NCONH and H, as well as CO(NH), and 2H. Here the NH seems to play the same part as the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl of acetic or carbamic acid. When sodium is dissolved in liquid ammonia, it gradually decomposes it with the evolution of hydrogen and the formation of sodium amid, NaNH,. The reaction is of course exactly analogous to the action of sodium on water with the formation of sodium hydroxid, NaOH. The interesting point is that sodium amid in ammonia solution is a base, just as sodium hydroxid in water. It colors phenolphthalein and neutralizes the ammonia acids. Just as aqueous bases contain the OH ion, the ammonia bases contain the NH, ion. When the bases react upon acids in liquid ammonia, salts are formed, which may be precipitated when insoluble, or left as crystals on evaporating the ammonia. Thus the reaction between acetamid and potassium amid may be expressed as follows: CH,CONH.H + K. NH, = CH.CONH. K + NH3.
Salts of the strongly positive metals, as far as they are soluble, dissolve in ammonia as in water without change. Compounds of the negative elements are more or less completely hydrolyzed by water. The same compounds are 'ammonolyzed' by liquid ammonia. The analogy is shown by comparing the reactions:
AsCl, + 3H.OH= As (OH)3 + 3HCI AsCl, + 3H. NH=As (NH)3 + 3HCI,
(3HCl + 3NH, = 3NH,CI). As the hydrolysis of SnCl, gives us not Sn(OH), but SnO(OH),, so the ammonolysis of PCI, gives not P(NH), but P(NH)NH,, and of Sis, gives Si(NH), rather than Si(NH),. As with hydrolysis so in ammonolysis the reaction need not go to com
pletion. In such a case we have in aqueous solution the precipitation of basic salts, and so here also are formed ammono-basic salts, which may be more or less de-ammoniated and hence appear as amins, imins or even as nitrils, that is, nitrids. The reaction of the formation of these basic salts is, as would be expected, reversible, and they can, after precipitation, be carried back into solution by an excess of 'ammono-acid,' that is, by an ammonium salt. This method of treatment seems to clear up very satisfactorily the mercury-ammonia compounds which have for nearly three quarters of a century been a stumbling block to chemists. They here appear to be ammono-basic salts, or mixed hydro- and ammono-basic salts, occasionally with ammonia of crystallization. They thus fall completely in line with the many and more familiar hydro-basic compounds of mercury.
It is a large field which has thus been opened by Franklin, and one which will require much work, of great experimental difficulty, before it is satisfactorily worked over, but what has been already done has served to greatly broaden our knowledge of solutions.
J. L. H.
FIRST INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF
ANATOMISTS." The first meeting of the Congrès fédératif international d'Anatomie was held in Geneva, and commenced on the morning of Sunday, August 6, by the opening of an exhibition of specimens and appliances illustrating recent progress in anatomy. The congress closed on the evening of Thursday, August 10, when three hundred members and adherents of the congress were entertained by the city of Geneva at an official banquet. The congress represented a conjoint meeting of the five leading anatomical societies—the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Anatomische Gesellschaft, Association des Anatomistes, Association of American Anatomists and the Unione Zooligica Italiana.
1 From Nature.
of the constens wehe
Almost every country was represented. Switzerland itself contributed more than 100 members, France 66, Germany and Austria 36, Great Britain and Colonies 23, Italy 11, America 3, and other countries 16. The largest contributors to the proceedings of the congress, however, were the Germans; out of a total of 117 communications, 32 were made by them, 31 by the French, 18 by the British, 15 by the Swiss, 8 by Italians, 5 by Swedes, and 2 by Americans.
From every point of view the congress was a success. Anatomy is peculiarly susceptible of international treatment, the subjects for description and discussion being concrete and capable of direct demonstration. The language difficulty certainly hindered a free discussion on more than one occasion; for instance, on the second day, a speaker, after giving his communication in French, listened most attentively to a vigorous criticism in German, and, bowing profoundly, replied, ' Je ne comprends pas l'allemand.' With an agenda list overloaded with 117 communications, there was a grave risk of disorganization. Thanks to the complete arrangements made by the committee of organization, presided over by Professor A. Êternod, of Geneva, and to the perfect arrangement of business by the president of the secrétariat, Professor von Bardeleben, the proceedings of the congress made an even and steady progress. The success of the congress must also be ascribed to Professor Nicholas, of Nancy, secretary of the French society; English members were indebted to Professor Symington, president of the British society, and to Dr. Christopher Addison, its secretary. Each day's work was divided into two parts; the morning was devoted to papers, ten minutes being allowed for each communication, and three minutes to any member who wished to criticize; the afternoon was set aside for exhibition of new specimens and demonstrations of the material on which the communications of the morning were based, and this was by far the most instructive and profitable part of the day's work. The Swiss cow-bell employed by the president of each day's proceedings (for the
president of each society acted in turn as chairman) to warn the speaker that he had reached the limit of his allotted time, bound the members of the congress by a common sense of humor and materially aided the success of the meeting. In spite of the entente cordiale, the British anatomists associated more closely with the German than with the French members of the congress—an association determined, for the greater part, by the fact that the Germans were the superior linguists.
The members of the congress took part in the dedication of a monument to the memory of Professor Hermann Fol, who set sail from Havre in his yacht, l'Aster, in the spring of 1892 to investigate the fauna of the Mediterranean. From the day he sailed until now not a single trace has been discovered of ship or crew. The members of the congress were lavishly entertained by Madame Fol. The congress placed a wreath on the bust of the Swiss physiologist Servetus, who discovered the pulmonary circulation in the sixteenth century, and was burned at the stake by Calvin because, so it is said, he denied the existence of the Trinity. A wreath was placed by the British section of the congress on the spot where he was burned, this gracious act being prompted by Professor Dixon, of Trinity College, Dublin.
The congress was a social as well as a scientific success. An invitation from American anatomists to meet at Boston in 1907 was declined, as it was felt that at least a space of five years should intervene between each congress. A permanent committee for the organization of the next congress was formed by the nomination of five men, one from each of the five affiliated societies. It is intended to bring out a bulletin containing the proceedings and transactions of the congress, to which purpose part of the sum (11,000 francs) raised by subscription in Geneva to meet the expenses of the congress will be devoted. When it becomes the turn of London to entertain this congress, it will not be found an easy matter to attain the standard of hospitality which has been set by Geneva.
MAGNETIC AND ALLIED OBSERVATIONS netic Observatory both special magnetic and DURING THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE
electric observations were made under the OF AUGUST 30, 1905.
direction of the observer-in-charge, Mr. W. F. The stations finally decided upon by the Wallis. department of terrestrial magnetism of the At all of these stations the assigned proCarnegie Institution of Washington in order gram of work as published in SCIENCE was to provide for the proper distribution and suc- successfully carried out. cessful study of the subject under investiga- These stations in addition to those by other tion were as follows:
countries will afford a unique and most valLabrador: Battle Harbor (magnetograph, uable collection of data covering the entire atmospheric electricity observations and dec- belt of totality. The hearty cooperation selination eye-readings, the whole under the cured from foreign countries has been very direction of J. E. Burbank, assisted by gratifying, some of them going to considerable Messrs. Bowen and Homrighaus) and Turna- expense and pains. To cite but one instance, vik (magnetic declination eye-readings by Russia in order to complete the distribution Mr. G. L. Hosmer, of the Massachusetts Insti- of stations along the belt of totality, sent tute of Technology). Both parties were sup- under the auspices of the St. Petersburg plied with full sets of absolute instruments Academy of Sciences, an expedition specially with which important magnetic secular varia- equipped for magnetic work and placed it tion and magnetic distribution data will be under the direction of one of its most exobtained en route and returning. As the perienced magneticians, M. Dubinsky, in Canadian magnetic expedition, under the charge of the Pawlovsk Magnetic Observatory. direction of Professor Stupart, located its Other European countries were no less zealous station in Labrador within the belt of totality, and likewise either sent special expeditions the above stations were selected so as to have equipped for magnetic and electric work under one immediately south of the belt and the the direction of able and experienced observers other about the same distance north. Dr. W. or made special arrangements for careful and G. Cady, of Wesleyan University, further comprehensive observations at their home more, made magnetic observations at Black stations. Point, Nova Scotia, and Dr. L. A. Bauer, as- According to the reports already received sisted by Professor W. C. Bauer, of Baker from observers in the United States and l'niversity, observed at Missinabi, Ontario, Canada, the eclipse interval was a rather disCanada.
turbed one, due to a cosmic magnetic storm, In addition, Professors Elster, Geitel and the magnetic disturbances having in fact beHarms made atmospheric electricity observa- gun several days before the day of the eclipse. tions at Palma, Majorca. It was also found During the night of August 29 and 30, brilthat the department could avail itself of the liant polar lights were visible at the northern skill and experience of Professor Palazzo, di- stations. rector of the meteorological and magnetic At the writer's station (Missinabi, Canada, service of Italy, and so made arrangements 48° 28'.6 N. and 5h 33.9m west of Greenwich) for magnetic, electric and meteorological ob- in addition to the disturbances already reservations under his direction at Tripoli. ferred to, there was a smaller fluctuation about
Observations were made under the auspices the time of maximum obscuration of the sun of the United States Coast and Geodetic Sur- of the character and amount to be expected vey at Pembina, North Dakota, by Professor as the eclipse effect-as judged by previous H. W. Fisk, of Fargo College; at Wausau, eclipses. However, whether this particular Wisconsin, by Mr. C. C. Craft; at Colebrook, fluctuation is really to be referred to the New Hampshire, by Dr. G. B. Pegram, of eclipse can not be stated definitely until the Columbia University, and at the various mag- records have come in from other stations. If netic observatories. At the Cheltenham Mag- it is found that the characteristic features of
this fluctuation did not take place simultaneously at widely distant stations, but progressed in accordance with the passage of the shadow cone, the presumption will be strong that an eclipse effect has again been detected. A fuller announcement must be reserved for a later occasion.
L. A. BAUER. DEPT. TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM, CARNEGIE INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON, D. C.,
September 11, 1905.
A NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF TRUSTEES OF AMERICAN COLLEGES AND
UNIVERSITIES. A NATIONAL Conference of Trustees of American Colleges and Universities will be held at the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, beginning Tuesday, October 17, 1905. All trustees of such institutions and all persons who have served as trustees are cordially invited to attend.
The sessions will be held during the week in which Dr. Edmund J. James will be formally inaugurated as president of the University of Illinois. The members of the conference will be invited to attend the exercises connected with the inauguration. This will give the members of the conference an opportunity to meet representative men, presidents and professors, from many different institutions, who will be in attendance as delegates, and also to inspect the work of one of the larger of the state universities.
It is well known that the method of governing higher institutions of learning by boards of trustees, that is, bodies of non-expertslaymen, so to speak, in the field of education, -is peculiarly American.
In England the old universities are selfgoverning bodies, controlled largely by the faculties; in France and Germany they are departments of the government, and so far as they are not directly under the control of the government, they are autonomous, that is, ruled by the faculties. In the United States alone we felt it necessary to create a third organ, an independent, often self-renewing
body of non-experts, in whose hands the entire legal control has usually been placed.
Many authorities regard this as a most satisfactory method; others find in it some of the most serious weaknesses of our American system of higher education; all believe that the problems connected with such a plan of control are far from being worked out satisfactorily.
This conference has been called for the purpose of discussing some of the most important questions of college and university administration, involving the relations of trustees, presidents and faculties. Among the questions which will be discussed are the following:
1. What should be the real administrative body of a college or university, the faculty or the trustees?
Should the trustees limit their functions to selecting a faculty and then vest in the latter the actual administration, or should the board itself undertake to administer the institution, either as a body or through its committees?
2. Should the president of the institution be the sole advisory authority to the board of trustees, or should the other administrative officers, or the various faculties, be consulted ?
3. Should the faculty be authorized to nominate men to the board for vacancies, or should that be done by the president or by the committees, or by the members of the board?
4. How should trustees be selected? (A) By cooperation? (B) By the alumni? (C) By outside authority? (1) In case of private institutions, by the church or other body? (2) In case of state institutions : (a) Appointed by the governor? (6) Elected by the people? (c) Or ex officio, e. g., governor, superintendent of public instruction, etc. ?
5. Should the trustees assume entire control of the financial administration, or should they allow the faculties to have a representation also, by allowing them to submit a budget either by departments or as a whole?
6. Should the trustees, if they reserve the financial authority, undertake to determine the budget in all its details, or should they simply distribute by departments and leave it to the individual departments to make detailed distribution?