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iii. Drumming muscle absent in both male and fe.
male, and no drumming sound produced by either sex .................. Menticirrhus.
Picirrhus. It has been observed in Pogonias and other genera that the drumming sounds are heard most frequently during the spawning season; and it is evident that this function is primarily sexual. Coexistent with the ability to make sounds there should be the ability to appreciate them; and Dr. George H. Parker's recent study of the squeteague ear, at the Woods Hole laboratory of the Bureau of Fisheries, has shown in that species a well-developed sound-perceiving organ. It is a suggestive fact that in the Scianidæ the otoliths are exceptionally large; and as a meager contribution to this interesting subject I may mention that in Menticirrhus (in which no drumming sounds are produced) the otoliths are relatively smaller than in any of the other genera that have been examined.
Hugh M. SMITH. BUREAU OF FISHERIES,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
Harlock.' This is a plain and straightforward narrative, interesting and instructive, sympathetic but without pretense of eulogy; and though the mutual dependence of the two twinstars of Swedish natural science is clearly set forth, there is no attempt to add luster to the one at the expense of the other. Brother students and pioneers, their relations are as pleasing to contemplate as those between Darwin and Wallace, and such comparisons as are drawn between them in this bicentenary memoir have every appearance of being true and fair-minded.
Many details of Artedi's life, his difficulties, devotion, temperament, methods of work and other matters not generally known are told in this brief biography. Those interested are commended to read the sketch itself. Only a word may be said here in appreciation of his ichthyological writings. The high regard professed for them by Dr. Günther and President Jordan in their popular works on 'Fishes' is well known, and it is rare that one meets with less favorable comments. Dr. Gill, however, is inclined to take a somewhat depreciatory view, since he remarks in SCIENCE (XXII., p. 140): “I can by no means assent to the estimate as to the extremely valuable historical and bibliographical works of Artedi.' * * * " We hope that our learned critic will not take it amiss if we set over against his opinion the following extracts from the biography now in our hands:
The fourth part of Artedi's 'Ichthyologia' is called “Synonymia Nomium Piscium. In it, as Günther truly remarks, references to all previous authors are arranged for every species, very much in the same manner as is adopted in the systematic works of the present day; these references and quotations are inserted under the diagnosis of each several species, entailing for the author a vast amount of labor, as Linnæus had occasion to find out when editing the work, for Artedi had not quite finished off the copying of them in. The laboriousness of the task becomes patent to all, when it is known that Artedi was so conscientious that he went back even to the ancient Greek and Latin writers, and endeavored to eluci
* Peter Artedi: A Bicentenary Memoir,' by A. J. E. Lönnberg. Upsala and Stockholm, 1905, pp. 44.
PETER ARTEDI. Ox March tenth of this year occurred the bicentenary of the birth of Artedi, distinguished Swedish naturalist, founder of modern systematic ichthyology, friend and preceptor of Linnæus, and coworker with the latter in various departments of natural history. Prematurely cut short in his career, he left an imperishable legacy to science in his own writings, and in so far as he helped stimulate the activity of his more famous fellow countryman. It is little wonder that Artedi's name should be held in pious regard by nearly all students of his favorite science, and that the two-hundredth anniversary of his birth should have been commemorated by some tribute of homage.
On behalf of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science, a biographical sketch of Artedi, with an appreciation of his service as an investigator in biological science, was prepared by Professor Einar Lönnberg, of Upsala University, and has been translated into English by W. E.
date what they may have meant by their varied and diverse nomenclature and by other statements concerning certain fishes. More than 150 forms have been dealt with in that thorough-going style, the quotations under each one often exceeding a score in number. Artedi's ‘Synonymia,' consequently, bears witness in its author not only to exceptional capacity for arduous toil and a deep and wide reading, but also to a rare degree of critical acumen and exactitude. For that reason the work forms a practically indispensable key to the earliest ichthyological literature (p. 40).
C. R. EASTMAN.
DECLARATION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION AT THE AS
BURY PARK MEETING. The National Educational Association, now holding its forty-fourth annual convention in Asbury Park and Ocean Grove, and represent ing the teachers and friends of education throughout the country, makes the following declaration of principles:
1. The Bureau of Education continues to render invaluable service to the nation. It is the judgment of the association that the powers of the bureau should be enlarged and that liberal appropriations should be made to it by Congress in order to enable it to widen its usefulness.
2. The National Educational Association notes with approval that the qualifications de manded of teachers in the public schools, and especially in city public schools, are increasing annually, and particularly that in many local ities special preparation is demanded of teachers. The idea that any one with a fair education can teach school is gradually giving way to the correct notion that teachers must make special preparation for the vocation of teaching. The higher standard demanded of teachers must lead logically to higher salaries for teachers, and constant efforts should be made by all persons interested in education to secure for teachers adequate compensation for their work.
3. The rapid establishment of township or rural high schools is one of the most gratifying evidences of the progress of education. We bejeve that this movement should be encouraged until the children of rural communities
enjoy the benefits of public education to an extent approximating as nearly as practicable the education furnished in urban communities.
4. The association heartily approves of the efforts now being made to determine the proper place of industrial education in the public place of schools. We believe that the time is rapidly approaching when industrial education should be introduced into all schools and should be made to harmonize with the occupations of the community. These courses when introduced should include instruction in agricultural as well as manual training, etc. Wherever the conditions justify their establishment, schools that show the application of the branches of knowledge to practical life should be established.
5. The National Educational Association strongly recommends the increasing utilization of urban school buildings for free vacation schools and for free evening schools and lecture courses for adults, and for children who have been obliged to leave the day schools prematurely.
6. It is the duty of the state to provide for the education of every child within its borders and to see that all children obtain the rudiments of an education. The constitutional provision that all persons must contribute to the support of the public schools logically carries with it the implied provision that no persons should be permitted to defeat the purposes of the public school law by forcing their children at an early age to become breadwinners.
7. The national government should provide schools for the children of all persons living in territory under the immediate control of the government. The attention of Congress is specially directed to the need of adequate legislation to provide schools for the children of citizens of the United States living on naval reservations.
8. The association regrets the revival in some quarters of the idea that the common school is a place for teaching nothing but reading, spelling, writing and ciphering; and takes this occasion to declare that the ultimateobject of popular education is to teach the children how to live righteously, healthily, and
supported schools administered by agents chosen by the people and responsible to the people for its ideals, its conduct and its results. ELIPHALET ORAM LYTE,
of Pennsylvania (Chairman), Charles J. BAXTER, of New Jersey, Edwin G. COOLEY, of Illinois, FRANK B. COOPER, of Washington, CHARLES D. McIver, of North Carolina, Miss Anna TOLMAN SMITH,
; of District of Columbia. Miss Harriet EMERSON, of Massachusetts, 0. J. KERN, of Illinois, EDWARD J. Goodwin, of New York, William L. BRYAN, of Indiana.
Committee on Resolutions.
happily, and that to accomplish this object it is essential that every school inculcate the love of truth, justice, purity, and beauty through the study of biography, history, ethics, natural history, music, drawing and manual arts.
9. The National Educational Association wishes to record its approval of the increasing appreciation among educators of the fact that the building of character is the real aim of the schools and the ultimate reason for the expenditure of millions for their maintenance. There is in the minds of the children and youth of to-day a tendency toward a disregard for constituted authority; a lack of respect for age and superior wisdom; a weak appreciation of the demands of duty; a disposition to follow pleasure and interest rather than obligation and order. This condition demands the earnest thought and action of our leaders of opinion, and places important obligations upon school authorities.
10. The National Educational Association wishes to congratulate the secondary schools and colleges of the country that are making the effort to remove the taint of professionalism that has crept into student sports. This taint can be removed only by leading students, alumni and school faculties to recognize that interschool games should be played for sportsmanship and not merely for victory. 11. The National Educational Association
he National Educational Association observes with great satisfaction the tendency of cities and towns to replace large school committees or boards, which have exercised through subcommittees executive functions, by small boards which determine general policies but entrust all executive functions to salaried experts.
12. Local taxation, supplemented by state taxation, presents the best means for the support of the public schools, and for securing that deep interest in them which is necessary to their greatest efficiency. State aid should be granted only as supplementary to local taxation, and not as a substitute for it.
13. We can not too often repeat that close, intelligent, judicious supervision is necessary for all grades of schools.
14. A free democracy can not long continue without the assistance of a system of state
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. The University of Cape Town conferred honorary doctorates on several members of the British Association on August 17, including the president, Professor G. W. Darwin, of Cambridge; Professor W. M. Davis, of Harvard University, and Professor Porter, of McGill University.
The Ophthalmological Congress, which held its annual meeting from August 2 to 5, awarded the Graefe Medal to Professor Hering, of Leipzig, for his work in the domain of physiological opties.
The Emperor of Austria has made Dr. Karl Toldt, professor of anatomy in the University of Vienna. a life member of the Austrian House of Lords.
PROFESSOR J. M. VAN'T IIOFF, the eminent physical chemist, has been elected a member of the Academy of Sciences at Turin.
Dr. J. LARMOR, of Cambridge, will lecture on mathematical physics at Columbia University during the year 1906–7.
PROFESSOR PODWYSSOTZKI, dean of the medical faculty of Odessa, has been appointed director of the Institute for Experimental Medicine at St. Petersburg.
Dr. N. L. BRITTON, director-in-chief of the New York Botanical Garden, and Mrs. Britton sailed for Bermuda on August 30, to carry out some botanical investigations, returning during the last week in September.
PROFESSOR OMORI, the Japanese seismologist, has concluded his visit to India, where he has been investigating the conditions of earthquakes.
PROFESSOR FREDERICK STARR, of the University of Chicago. has been granted leave of absence of more than a year, which time he will spend among the savage tribes of Central
A RECTER telegram from Liverpool states that, at the request of the colonial office, the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine has, with the consent of the university authorities, requested Professor Boyce to visit Belize, in British Honduras, to report on the sanitary measures in that colony necessary in view of the recent outbreak of yellow fever. Professor Boyce, who is now at New Orleans, will, after completing his observations of the methods employed by the Americans in combating yellow fever there, proceed to Belize. The latest mail advices from Brazil have brought news that both members of the yellow fever expedition of the Liverpool School at Manaos have been ill with yellow fever, one very seriously. The latter has now been invalided to Madeira to recuperate, but proposes to return to continue his work. The members of the expedition express the hope that they will now be immune. The medical officers of Manaos have shown them the greatest attention and kindness during their illness. The surviving members of the sleeping sickness expedition which the school sent to the Congo in August, 1903, returned to England by the steamship Oron on September 5.
The Journal of the New York Botanical Garden reports that Dr. P. A. Rydberg returned from two months' work in western Utah and Nevada, late in August. A large number of herbarium specimens were secured which will furnish much valuable material for the furtherance of his studies on the flora of the Rocky Mountains. Mr. George V. Nash has recently returned from an exploring trip to the interior of Hayti. Some regions hitherto unvisited by the botanist were reached and a large amount of preserved material, seeds and living plants were secured, together
with many valuable notes on distribution. Professor F. E. Lloyd, of Teachers College, has returned from a summer of work at the Desert Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution at Tucson, Arizona. Professor Lloyd is carrying out some investigations upon the transpiration of desert plants under a grant from the Carnegie Institution.
DR. STEPHAN KRUSPER, emeritus professor of mathematics in the Polytechnic School at Buda Pesth, has died at the age of eightyseven years.
DR. FRANZ REULEAUX, emeritus professor of technology in the Berlin Technological Institute, died on August 20, at the age of seventy-six years.
COUNT DE BRAZZA, known for his explorations in Central Africa, has died while on a special mission from the French government to that region.
Mr. J. W. DOUGLAS, one of the editors of the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, died on August 28, in his ninety-first year.
THE eclipse expeditions to Spain were, on September 8, entertained at lunch by the mayor and municipality of Madrid. The toast of the day was proposed by the mayor, Señor Vincenti, and answered by Dr. Janssen, on behalf of the astronomical representatives of France Germany. Holland, Italy. America. Russia, Spain and Great Britain.
It has been stated that a member of the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies had proposed that a prize of $2,000,000 should be offered for the discovery of a certain method of stamping out consumption. The British Medical Journal announces that the proposal has been approved by the Brazilian Parliament. The offer, however, is larger in scope than was at first reported, for it appears that the prize will be given to any one, native or foreign, who shall discover a certain means of prevention or cure of syphilis, or tuberculosis, or cancer. The Brazilian minister of the interior will, it is said, refer the proposal to a committee composed of a representative of the National Academy of Medicine, and four other members of kindred bodies in France, England, Germany and Italy. The Brazilian government will regulate the meetings of the committee.
MESSRS. HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & Co. announce that they will publish in eight volumes the proceedings of the International Congress of Arts and Science, held at St. Louis, in September, 1904. The volumes, ranging from 500 to 800 pages, have the following titles: 1. Philosophy and Mathematics'; 2. ‘Politics, Law and Religion’; 3. ' Language, Literature and Art’; 4. “Inorganic Science'; 5. ‘Biology and Psychology ’; 6.
Medicine and Technology'; 7. “Social Sciences’; 8. “Education and Religion. The addresses are printed as they were delivered, except that those in foreign languages have been translated into English. Short bibliographies will be given for each department of learning, and a very full index with references will be added.
Messrs. CASSELL will publish this autumn • The Zoological Society of London: a Sketch of its Foundation and Development, and the Story of its Farm, Museum, Gardens, Menagerie and Library,' by Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S. The edition is to be limited to 1,000 copies.
To commemorate the meeting of the British Association in South Africa, a plan has been formulated to found a British Association medal for South African students.
The International Surgical Society will hold its first congress at Brussels from September 18 to September 23.
The eighth general meeting of the American Electrochemical Society was held in Bethlehem, from September 18 to 20.
The department of zoology of Stanford University, has been presented with a large collection of the fresh-water fishes of Mexico by the Field Columbian Museum of Chicago. The collection is the work of Dr. S. E. Meek.
REUTER'S correspondent at Stockholm reports that Professor Nathorst has received a letter in which Lieutenant Bergendahl, who is a member of the Duc d'Orléans's Greenland Expedition, states that on July 27, as the expedition passed Cape Bismarck, unknown land was discovered. It appears that Cape Bis
marck lies on a large island, and not on the mainland. The new land has been mapped as well as possible, and has received the name Terre de France. The expedition was unable to penetrate further north than 78° 16' N. lat.
The Historical Congress held at Rome in 1903 appointed a permanent international committee to organize an international gathering of those interested in the history of the natural sciences. The chairman was Professor Paul Tannery, of Paris, who died a few months ago. We learn from the British Vedical Journal that in place of him the committee has now unanimously elected as its chairman Dr. Karl Sudhoff, who has just been appointed professor of the history of medicine in the University of Leipzig. The members of the committee are Drs. Benedikt, of Vienna; Blanchard, of Paris; Bobynin, of Moscow; Cajori, of Colorado Springs; Carpi, of Rome; Eneström, of Stockholm; Favaro, of Padua; Giacosa, of Turin; Guareschi, of Turin; Gunther, of Munich; Heath, of London; Korteweg, of Amsterdam; Loria, of Genoa; Petersen, of Copenhagen; Rubio, of Zurich; Saavedra, of Madrid; Smith, of New York; Teixeira, of Oporto; and Zeuthen, of Copenhagen.
Nature states that at the annual meeting of the Academy of the Lincei, which was held on June 4 in the presence of the King and Queen of Italy, the president, Professor Blaserna, announced the result of the competition for the three Royal prizes founded by the late King Humbert. In the section of normal and pathological physiology, the prize is awarded to Professor Aristide Stefani, of Padua, for his published work dealing with the physiology of the heart and circulation, the non-acoustic functions of the labyrinth of the ear, and the serotherapeutic treatment of pneumonia. In the sections of archeology and of economic and social science, the judges reported that the competitors were not of sufficient merit to justify the award of the prizes. This is the first occasion on which so small a proportion of the prizes have been conferred, and it is proposed that in future the section of archeology shall embrace not only classical, but also christian and medieval archeology. Minis