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by the railroads was to be made during the SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. morning of the eighteenth, but a few days Dr. GEORGE F. Kunz, of New York City, before that Mr. Allen wrote Professor Abbe, has been appointed by the State Department saying that he feared some embarrassment if a delegate to the International Congress for the Harvard College Observatory should fail to the Study of Radiology and Ionization, which change its public time signals, as the director will be held in Liège, Belgium this month. of the observatory was absent from the country. We learn from the American Geologist that Accordingly, a telegram from General Hazen

Professor T. C. Chamberlin has been ap

P to President Eliot urged that by reason of its

pointed a member of the Illinois Geological eastern longitude Ilarvard College and New

Survey Board. The other members are exEngland should have the honor of thus begin

officio Governor Deneen and President James, ning the desired reform. The people as well

of the State University. as the railroads of New England began the

MR. E. C. Chilcort, agronomist of the good work on that Sunday morning.

South Dakota Agricultural Experiment StaBy an agreement with the Western Union Telegraph Company, made about 1877, that

tion, has been appointed expert in connection company sold its time signals received from

with the cereal work of the Department of

Agriculture. the Naval Observatory to its customers throughout the country who would pay for

Dr. Walter Schiller has been appointed them. This was, probably, the only case in head of the geological division of the Museo which a government institution cooperated de la Plata and geologist of Buenos Ayres. with a corporation to sell that which would On the occasion of the installation of Mr. seem to be government property and without Andrew Carnegie as lord rector of St. Anany return to the Treasury. Of course the drew's University on October 17, the univertelegraph companies made equivalent returns sity will confer the honorary degree of doctor to the government by allowing the free use of of laws on Mr. Carnegie; Mr. Whitelaw Reid, their lines for longitude purposes, but it seemed the American ambassador to Great Britain; rather hard that this last concession, which Mr. Charlemagne Tower, the American amhad been in effect since 1845, should be used bassador to Germany; Bishop Potter of New as an argument for maintaining a popular York; Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president distribution of time signals that cut under of Columbia University, and Dr. William J. or competed with the work of local astronom

Holland, director of the Carnegie Museum at ical observatories. Of course on November Pittsburg. 18, 1883, at the request of the telegraph com- A MEMORIAL in honor of Professor Friedrich pany the Naval Observatory began sending von Esmarch, the eminent surgeon of the signals on the 75th standard for transmission University of Kiel, has been erected in his to the railroads, but its own time-balls and native place, Tönningen in Schleswig-Holstein. signals for use in Washington city continued

Professor von Esmarch was present at the unto be regulated by Washington local mean veiling, which took place on August 6. time until March 1, 1884.

M. VIDAL DE LA BLACHE has received the In conclusion it may safely be said that the medal of the Paris Geographical Society in adoption of the present system of standard recognition of his work, "Tableau de la hours, with all its manifold advantages, has Géographie de la France,' which is the introbeen accomplished by persons outside the duction to the 'Histoire de France, published government service. The officials of our rail- under the direction of M. E. Lavisse. roads have lately united in ascribing the suc- SECRETARY Wilson has made public the recessful introduction of standard time to Mr. port of Solicitor George P. McCabe on the W. F. Allen, without saying a word in favor investigation of the charge that Dr. Daniel of the Naval Observatory's pretensions. E. Salmon, head of the Bureau of Animal

Industry, was improperly interested in the firm of George E. Howard and the Howard Label Company. Secretary Wilson's indorsement on the report is as follows: “Inquiry discloses the fact that Dr. Salmon had an unfortunate connection with the firm of George E. Howard & Co. While this connection was not an ideal relation for a govern ment officer to have with a firm doing business with the department, I am convinced that Dr. Salmon never intended to profit by work done by Mr. Howard for the Department of Agriculture, and that he has never been connected with the Howard Label Company or received any benefit from the contract of that company with the department. The action of the department regarding the meat inspection service was as fair, considerate and comprehensive as the appropriations would warrant. The case does not seem to call for further disciplinary action.”

The statement which we quoted from the American Geologist in regard to the change in the directorship of the Geological Survey of Michigan was incorrect. In regard to the survey, we are informed that the director, Professor A. C. Lane, is engaged in detailed studies in the copper region. Professor I. C. Russell is making an examination of the surface geology in the Upper Peninsula, and Mr. Frank Leverett, of the United States survey, is studying the same problem. They are working in cooperation. Professor C. A. Davis is studying the development and ecology of the peat bog flora. Mr. W. C. Gordon is completing a cross section of the copper-bearing formation to determine the different horizons near the Wisconsin line. Professor W. M. Gregory is finishing his report on Arenac County. Mr. W. F. Cooper is working on the Wayne County report and watching the shaft going down to rock salt, near Detroit.

Plans for the cooperative investigation of the artesian waters in the vicinity of Wilming ton, North Carolina, have been arranged by the United States Geological Survey and the State Geological Survey of North Carolina. It is expected that the work will be in charge of Mr. M. L. Fuller, who will be assisted by

Mr. L. W. Stephenson, of Johns Hopkins University, and Mr. B. L. Johnson, recently of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

CHARLES E. Brown, curator of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, has returned from a week in the field plotting mounds and collecting archeological data in the vicinity of Beaver Dam and Fox Lakes in the western part of Dodge County, Wisconsin, and is now preparing the society's exhibit of archeology for the state fair.

On August 9 the London County Council erected a tablet on the house in which Edward Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination, lived during 1803.

It is proposed to erect a memorial to the late Professor Emerich Meissl in the agricultural experiment station at Vienna, with which he was connected for more than twenty years.

PROFESSOR Ellis A. Apgar, for twenty years state superintendent of public instruction in New Jersey and a writer on botany, died at East Orange, N. J., on August 28.

Dr. Robert BILLWILLER, director of the Swiss Meteorological Bureau, died in Zurich on August 14, at the age of fifty-six years.

It appears from cable despatches to the daily papers that the weather was very favorable for observations and photographs of the total solar eclipse on August 30 for the large number of parties of different nationalities that went to Spain, Algeria, Tunis and Egypt. The weather was unfavorable on the Island of Majorca. In this country the partial eclipse was obscured by clouds.

REUTER'S AGENCY telegraphs that members of the British Association arrived at Durban on August 22. They proceeded to Pietermaritzburg on August 24, where they were welcomed by the governor of Natal. A number of excursions were made on the twentyfifth, and the members left for Colenso on the twenty-sixth.

The seventy-seventh meeting of German Men of Science and Physicians was held in Meran last week under the presidency of Dr. Franz von Winckel, professor of gynecology

at Munich. At the general sessions papers test the preserving capacity of these exhibits were presented by Professor W. Wien, of they will be sent to the tropics. Würzburg, on ‘Electrones ’; Professor Nocht, of Hamburg of Hamburg, on ‘Tropical Diseases '; Pro- UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS. fessor II. Molisch, of Prague, on ‘The Reac

By direction of the late Mrs. Adolphus F. tion of Plants to Light'; Professor H. Dürck,

Eliott, a hospital, to cost $175,000, has been of Munich, on ‘Beri-Beri’; Dr. Cl. Neisser,

given to the University of Minnesota. of Lublinitz, on 'Individuality and Psychoses’; and by Professor J. Wimmer, of

The University of Melbourne attains its Vienna, on the Mechanics of the Develop

jubilee next year, and preparations are already ment of Animals. At a meeting of the entire

in progress to celebrate the event. association papers on heredity were presented

The board of Trinity College, Dublin, has by Professor C. Correns, of Leipzig; K.

instituted a diploma in economics and comHeider. of Insbruck, and B. Hatschek, of mercial knowledge. The course for the exVienna. The association met in thirty sec

amination includes, as obligatory subjects, the tions for the reading of scientific papers, of

theory of economics, commercial history and which seventeen were in medicine and thirteen

geography, accountancy and commercial law; in natural science, the latter being as follows: and as optional subjects a modern language (1) Mathematics, astronomy and geodesy; (French or German or Spanish), any one of (2) physics; (3) applied mathematics and a variety of special economic subjects, and physics; (4) chemistry; (5) applied chemistry; any one of the following branches of economic (6) geophysics and meteorology; (7) geog- and business organization-banking, railways, raphy; (8) mineralogy, geology and paleon- insurance, agriculture. tology; (9) botany; (10) zoology; (11) an The summer course in experimental phothropology, ethnology and archeology; (12) netics at the University of Marburg was demathematical and scientific education; (13) livered this year by Dr. E. W. Scripture. pharmacology.

The course had been previously given by the The sixth Congress of Criminal Anthro- Abbé Rousselot, of the Collège de France, pology will meet at Turin on April 28, 1906, Paris. under the presidency of Professor Lombroso. MR. SAMUEL M. KINTNER, for some years An exhibition of criminal anthropology will professor of electrical engineering at the Westbe held in connection with the congress. ern University of Pennsylvania, has been ap

The nineteenth annual convention of the pointed associate professor of electrical engiAssociation of American Agricultural Colleges neering in the Carnegie Technical School. and Experiment Stations will be held at Wash- MR. W. P. BROOKS has been appointed diington, D. C., in the early part of November rector of the Massachusetts Agricultural Colnext.

lege and Experiment Station, in succession to The Sank County Historical Society has the late Henry Hill Goodale. been organized, in Wisconsin, to further M. LAVASSEUR, the statistician, has sucarcheological and historical research, by ceeded M. Gaston Paris as executive head of Messrs. A. B. Stout and II, E. Cole, members the Collège de France. of the Wisconsin Archeological Society.

Dr. VERNEUIL anu Dr. Rosenstiehl have been From June 21 to 26, 1906, a large agricul- appointed professors of applied chemistry in tural exposition is to be held at Berlin, which the National Conservatory of Arts and Measwill also comprise a special division for pre- ures. Dr. Deperet has been appointed proserved-food articles, such as products of the fessor of geology and mineralogy in the facdairy, dough, potatoes, fruits, wines and ex- ulty of sciences at the University of Lyons tracts, meats, beer, etc. Money prizes, diplo- and Dr. Rivals professor of technical chemmas and medals will be awarded. In order to istry at Aix-Marseilles.

A WEEKLY JOURNAL DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, PUBLISHING THE OFFICIAL NOTICES AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE.

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, 1905.

...... 321

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CONTENTS.
Doctorates Conferred by American Univer-

sities .......
The Advance of Our Knowledge of the Causa-

tion and Methods of Prevention of Stock
Diseases in South Africa during the Last

Ten Years: COLONEL B. BRUCE........... 327 The American Association for the Advance

ment of Science:
Summer Meeting of Section C, Geology and
Geography: DR. E. O. HOVEY....

232

.. 333 Scientific Books :

Haberlandt on 'Die Lichtsinnesorgane der
Laubblätter: PROFESSOR FREDERIC E. CLE-
MENTS. Chester on Soil Bacteria and
Nitrogen Assimilation: PROFESSOR ALBERT
SCHNEIDER ......

.......... 336 Scientific Journals and Articles............ 337 Societies and Academies :

Recent Folk-Lore Meetings in California.. 337 Discussion and Correspondence:

Latin as the Language of Botanical Diag-
nosis: PROFESSOR E. L. GREENE. Fleas

and Disease: DR. C. F. BAKER............ 338 Special Articles :

Note on the Habits of Ophidiid (Cuskell):
DR. THEO. GILL. A Note on the Habits of
Rissola Marginata: E. W. GUDGER. In-
ternal Infection of the Wheat Grain by
Rust: PROFESSORS HENRY L. BOLLEY and
F. J. PRITCHARD. Apparatus Tables for
Electrical Laboratories: PROFESSOR G. W.

STEWART .............................. 342 Quotations:

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology 345 Notes on Inorganic Chemistry:

Tantalum and its Alloys, Tin, Titanium and Cobalt Steels; Copper as an Antiseptic

against Typhoid Fever Organisms: J. L. H. 346 Recent Museum Reports......

........ 347 Scientific Notes and News........

349 University and Educational News...

352

Chicago ...........

272 Yale.

267 Harvard .....

24 36 29 31 28 46 38 258 Johns Hopkins....

23 31 35 240 Columbia...

239 Pennsylvania ........

171 Cornell ........

0 13 21 143
Clark.............
Michigan ....
New York ..........
Wisconsin ....
Boston...............
Virginia ...
George Washington..
Minnesota...
California .....
Brown .......
Bryn Mawr.......
Princeton. ...

3 3
Stanford.....
Nebraska.
Georgetown. .......
Washington ..........
Iowa ........
North Carolina.
Vanderbilt....
Cincinnati ....
Colorado......
Kansas .............
Lafayette ............
Missouri

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Lehigh....

0 0 0 0 0 2 0 Syracuse..........

0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Illinois.....

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Tulane......

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 234 224 239 253 216 266 281 324 2037

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MSS. intended for publication and books, etc., intended for review should be sent to the Editor of SCIENCE, Garri. son-on-Hudson, N. Y.

TABLE II.

has been conferred by other institutions, bia have, in the course of the past eight but few of them have proper facilities for years, each conferred about 250 degrees ; research. The table shows that 324 de- Pennsylvania and Cornell about 150; grees were conferred this year, a consider- Clark, Michigan, New York and Wisconsin able increase over 1904 and over any pre- about 50; Boston, Virginia, George Washceding year. During the first five years ington, Minnesota, California, Brown, covered by these records there was no in- Bryn Mawr and Princeton about 20; Stancrease in the number of degrees, the aver- ford and Nebraska about 10. age being 233. In 1903 there was a gain T he University of Chicago gave this year of 33 above this average, in 1904 of 48, 44 doctor's degrees, of which 21 were in and this year of 91. The increase in the the sciences, and these figures place Chipresent year is satisfactory, and if main- cago at the head of both lists, it surpassing tained may supply the demand for those Yale as the university which up to last competent to carry on research work. An year had conferred the greatest number of average increase of about twelve degrees degrees, and the Johns Hopkins Univera year for the past seven years is, how- sity, which up to last year had conferred ever, small, not in proportion to the in- the greatest number of degrees in science. crease in the number of graduate students Clark University this year conferred as or of academic and other positions where many as 18 degrees, all in the sciences, and competence in research is a qualification. Boston University conferred 14 degrees, It is further probable that the number of none of which were in the sciences. degrees given to American students by German universities has decreased during this

DOCTORATES CONFERRED IN THE SCIENCES. period.

Attention has been called on previous occasions to the large percentage of degrees conferred by a few institutions. There is,

Chicago ...

12 13 19 16 15 21 14 21 131

Johns Hopkins ..... 19 17 20 19 9 10 17 18 129 53 however, a slight tendency, that will prob Columbia.

10 23 12 13 14 18 11 20 121 51 Harvard .

11 7 15 15 14 15 23 12 112 43 ably become more marked, for the gap be

11 15 10 18 10 13 15 13 105 39 Cornell...

11 2 11 13 16 13 8 13 87 61 tween the seven institutions at the head of

Pennsylvania 8 8 6 12 5 14 9 12 74 13

12 5 9 7 1 4 10 18 66 100 the list and those below to be filled in.

Wisconsin The fact that Boston University this year

Michigan.

0 3 1 0 5 4 6 ? 1935 California

1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 conferred 14 degrees is probably excep George Washington

Brown. .....

0 0 1 2 4 0 tional, but the nine degrees conferred by Bryn Mawr.......... 2 1 2 1 0 2

0 3 1 0 0 1 1 the University of Wisconsin are more likely

Virginia.

0 2 0 4 1 2 0 0 to be increased than diminished in subse

Nebraska..

2 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 Stanford ...

2 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 quent years. Several institutions of the

0 1 1 0 2 1

New York. central and western states, of which Cali Washington ......

0 2 0 1 0 1 1 0

3 75 fornia and Wisconsin may be especially

0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 100

North Carolina ...... 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 3 73 mentioned, have greatly improved their

Lehigh...................

0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 100 facilities for graduate work during the

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 67 Vanderbilt..

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 50 period covered by these statistics. Up to Cincinnati 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 33

Colorado

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 33 the present time the universities fall into Georgetown. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 17

Lafayette ....

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 33 rather well-marked groups. Chicago,

Syracuse...

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 50 Yale, Harvard, Johns Hopkins and Colum

105 115 113 131 106 136 128 150 984 48

900

1901

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Yale.........

Clark ........

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Princeton.............

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Minnesota .....

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