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The printed page is large (123 by 200 mm.), “Use of the Method of Thought in Teaching and the type and arrangement, while so com- Botany”; “General Botanical Principles to be pact as to leave no waste space, are pleasing Emphasized in Teaching'; 'Detailed Disto the eye.
cussion of the Course in Botany for the High
School”; “The Laboratory, its Equipment, NEW EDITION OF BRITTON'S MANUAL.
Materials for Study and for Demonstration’; The second edition of Britton's ‘Manual of Botanical Literature for the Use of Teachers Flora of the Northern States and Canada, and Students. which appeared some months ago includes It is impossible to summarize these chapters. descriptions of about one hundred additional They should be read from beginning to end by species in an appendix, bringing the total every young teacher and by some who are no number up to more than 4,600. Generic and longer young. In passing it may be noted that specific synonyms have been added in many the author is thoroughly and heartily a believer instances, thus adding greatly to the useful in nature study': indeed, he is so much in ness of the book for working botanists. The
earnest in its advocacy that he devotes a good addition of a number of artificial keys will
many pages to criticism of many of the errobe especially helpful to beginners.
neous methods employed by some of its teachers. A NEW TROPICAL FLORA.
In discussing the types of botanical courses J. R. JOHNSTON (Gray Herbarium of Har
for high schools he says truly, “one of the big vard University) has in preparation a work on ideas which a student
ideas which a student should get from the the 'Flora of the Islands of Margarita and
study of plant forms is that of evolution. He Coche' off the north coast of Venezuela, which
should have an opportunity of looking into the must prove of much interest to American
kind of evidence which underlies this idea.” botanists. In noticing his descriptions of new
The 'Huxley and Martin method,' he says, species from these islands some time ago, the
was ordinarily that of verification, while the authorship of this work was erroneously given
development of individual initiative in thought in these columns.
was largely ignored.' Agassiz's method of
bringing the student into 'direct contact with THE TEACHING OF BOTANY.
· some form, such as a starfish, and leaving him In a most suggestive book entitled “The to find out things for himself without aid of Teaching of Biology in the Secondary School’ any kind' is characterized as 'heroic treat(Longmans, Green & Co.) by Professors Lloyd
ment, which can not be employed generally.' and Bigelow, the former discusses many mat Not to attempt too much is insisted upon, ters connected with the teaching of botany. and also that the botany of the beginner must Calling attention to the advances which include something of each of the greater dibotanical science has made in America during visions of the science. In elucidating these the last twenty-five years, and the changes suggestions the author discusses in detail the which the teaching of the subject has experi work which may be taken up in the high enced, he insists that the teachers should come school. After quoting the course of study to their work with a special mental equip- recommended by the Committee on a College ment for their peculiar tasks,' and full of Entrance Option in Botany, of the Society knowledge of the problems which they will be of Plant Morphology and Physiology, he decalled upon to face in their work. In the tails a course of his own, beginning with morcourse of the author's discussion one finds phology and anatomy of the fruit and seed, such chapter headings as “The Value of Sci- and following this with ecology, field work, ence, and Particularly of Biology in Educa- physiology, the root, the shoot, the leaf, the tion’; ‘Nature Study; The Value of Botany bud, Myxomycetes, Schizophyta, Thallophyta, in Secondary Education ’; ‘Principles De Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Phanerogams, geotermining the Content of a Botanical Course'; graphical botany and physiographical plant "The Various Types of Botanical Courses '; ecology. In practise it will be found quite
impossible to cover this work in the time allotted to botany in the secondary schools, but tnere can be no doubt as to the high value of these suggestions, from which the teacher may well make such selections as his time may permit.
CHARLES E. BESSEY. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA.
CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY.
FOEHN WINDS IN THE ANTARCTIC. During the Antarctic voyage of the Dis. covery, warm southerly winds were observed which, because of their high temperature, have generally been regarded as of foehn-like character. Sir Clements Markham (Geogr. Journ., June) believes that the high temperature may result from the fact that these winds blow from the ocean beyond the pole, that is, Weddell Sea, and not from adiabatic warming during descent. Hence he thinks that the Great Barrier may end on the other side of the pole with another line of ice-cliffs facing the Weddell Sea, and that the winds may blow across the ice barrier with great velocity without lowering their temperature. On the other hand, Dr. W. N. Shaw suggests that the snow which comes with these warm southerly winds is carried along in a surface drift, and notes that intensely cold air can contain very little moisture.
A. de Quervain; also a discussion, illustrated by means of curves, entitled "Temperaturen auf Bergstationen und in der freien Atmosphäre, by Dr. W. Wundt.
The Annuaire météorologique of the Royal Observatory of Belgium contains a useful list of text-books of meteorology, prepared by J. Vincent. Special attention is paid to general treatises, but a considerable number of special works on marine, medical and agricultural climatology are included. The list begins with Aristotle, and includes books in Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Russian, Danish, Spanish, Hungarian, Norwegian and Portuguese.
TUE mechanism of the origin of rain-clouds. and the conditions of heavy rains and floods on the northern slope of the Pyrenees, were discussed by Marchand. Director of the Pic du Midi Observatory, before the Congrès du SudOuest Navigable, held at Bordeaux in June, 1902. The paper was printed in the proceedings of that congress, and a German translation of a portion of the article, in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift for June, 1905, makes this interesting study accessible to the general reader · RECENT publications on the meteorology of the free air are those of Teisserene de Bort, on the diurnal changes in temperature (Comptes rendus, Vol. cxl., 1905, 467) and of Hergesell, on the results obtained by means of kites over the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean in 1904 (ibid., January 30, 1905).
R. DEC. WARD.
LOW TEMPERATURE IN THE SAHARA. In the Meteorologische Zeitschrift for June, 1905, there is a note on some low temperatures observed on December 19, 1904, in the Sahara, between Tuggurt and Guerrara. The temperature at midnight was 30.20 Fahr: at daybreak (6:15 A.M.), 28.4°; at sunrise (7:15 A. .), 33.8°; at 2:30 P.M., in the shade, 75.2°; at 7 P.M., 41.0°; and at 8:30 P.M., 39.2°. It was calm, and the sky was clear. On December 20. at 7:30 P.M., the temperature was 33.8°, and there was heavy frost, which in places reached a thickness of 1 cm.
AVVUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE
ADTAVCEMENT OF SCIENCE. The annual report of the council for the year 1904-5 states that the arrangements for the meeting of the association in South Africa had been directed, under the sanction of the council, by a special South African committee, sitting in London, and consisting of the general officers of the association (the president and president-elect, the general treasurer and the general secretaries), Professor Armstrong, Dr. Horace Brown, Sir William Crookes, Sir
Das Wetter for June, 1907, contains an interesting article, of a “popular' nature, entitled “Aus dem Leben der Wolken,' by Dr.
James Dewar, Sir Archibald Geikie, Professor Library as were granted under similar cirH. A. Viers, Sir Henry Roscoe and Dr. cumstances by the University of London. Sclater. The coordination of the work of the The council also reported on a plan for various local committees had been carried out dealing with the meteorology of the British under the direction of the central organizing colonies and the relation of the association to committee for South Africa, sitting at Cape corresponding societies. Town, consisting of Sir David Gill (chairman) and Dr. J. D. F. Gilchrist (secretary).
SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS. An additional expenses fund having been
The American Anthropological Association opened to supplement the subvention of £6,000 is meeting this week at San Francisco under from the South African colonies, contribu- the presidency of Dr. Frederic Ward Puttions amounting to £3.100 had been received. nam, of Harvard University and the UniverThe following agreement has been made
sity of California. The preliminary program between the British Association and the South
contains the titles of thirty-nine papers, which African Association in the matter of financial
proves that the anthropologists at least can
hold an unusually successful meeting in the arrangements respecting the annual meeting
summer and on the Pacific Coast. We hope in 1905: (1) That all members (but not associates) of the South African Association shall
to print subsequently abstracts of the papers. be entitled to associates' tickets at the meeting
Mr. W. R. Dunstan, F.R.S., director of the of the British Association in South Africa in scientific and technical department of the 1905; (2) that the South African Association
Imperial Institute; Mr. F. W. Dyson, F.R.S., shall pay a contribution of £500 to the funds chief assistant at the Royal Observatory, of the British Association: (3) the South Greenwich, and Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., African Association guarantees the purchase director of the National Physical Laboratory, of a thousand copies at least of the annual have been elected members of the council of volume, the copies to be sent direct to the the British Association. members of the South African Association on Tue regents of the University of California payment to the British Association by the have granted a year's leave of absence to South African Association of the sum of 8s. Professor Wm. E. Ritter, of the department per copy.
of zoology, for research at the San Diego A committee of the council, consisting of Marine Biological Station and travel abroad. Professor G. H. Darwin, Sir A. Geikie, the Associate Professor Charles A. Kofoid will general secretaries and the general treasurer, have charge of the department in his absence. was authorized to consider the appointment Mr. C. 0. Esterly, Mr. L. Griggs and Dr. Alice of an assistant secretary, in succession to Robertson have been appointed assistants in Dr. Garson, resigned, with the result that zoology. Mr. A. Silva White was unanimously ap- Mr. George K. CHERRIE, of the Museum of pointed to fill that office.
the Brooklyn Institute, has just returned from The books and other publications presented South America, where he has been collecting to or received in exchange by the association, for that institution. He obtained about 800 with the exception of the publications of the bird skins representing very fairly the avicorresponding societies of the association and fauna of the region about Ciudad Bolivar, the annual volumes of reports of the various Venezuela. These include a fine series of the Associations for the Advancement of Science, IIoatzin, together with nests and eggs of that have been transferred to the Library of Uni- bird; skins and skeletons of the Guacharo versity College, Gower Street, the council of bird, and skins of a number of species of l'niversity College having undertaken to give South American herons. From the observathe same facilities to members of the British tions of Mr. Cherrie, it seems probable that the Association for the use of University College breeding of the hoatzin is largely influenced
by the condition of the water, and inland, away from the influence of tide water, they do not breed until the ground beneath their nests is flooded. For this reason, although Mr. Cherrie stayed until June, he only obtained eggs of this bird. Eggs of a number of other species of birds were also obtained, many of which are but little known.
MR. EDWARD W. BERRY, the paleobotanist and secretary of the Torrey Botanical Club, is engaged in studying the fossil flora of Maryland for the Geological Survey of that state. Correspondents are requested to address him after September 1, in care of the Maryland Geological Survey, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
MR. GERALD DUDGEON has been appointed by the secretary of state for the British colonies to examine and report upon questions relating to the development of the agricultural resources of British West Africa.
DR. OLIVER E. GLENN, acting professor of mathematics at Drury College, has been appointed a member of the editorial staff of the American Mathematical Monthly, succeeding Dr. Saul Epsteen, who has been called to the University of Colorado.
PROFESSOR J. VOLHARD, professor of chemistry at Ilalle, celebrated on August 6 the fiftieth anniversary of his doctorate.
The trustees of the British National Portrait Gallery have purchased a portrait of Tiberius Cavallo, 1746–1809, one of the earliest students of electrical science.
We learn from the New York Evening Post that the city of Nuremberg, in conjunction with the Society of German Clockmakers, has erected a monument by way of commemorating Peter Henlein, who, four hundred years ago, substituted springs for weights in clocks, and thus made watches a possibility. The statue was made by the Berlin sculptor Meissner. It represents Henlein at work in his shop.
In connection with the indication by the council of houses in London which have been the residences of distinguished individuals, a memorial tablet was on August 14 erected on
No. 34, Gloucester Square, Hyde Park, where Robert Stephenson, the great engineer, resided at one time. The tablet is of encaustic ware and terra-cotta in color.
Dr. Otto Herz, the entomologist of St. Petersburg. has died at the age of fifty-six years. The deaths are announced of the Rev. Dr. J. Keith, of Scotland, who took an active interest in natural history, and of Mr. W. E. Langdon, a past president of the British Institution of Electrical Engineers.
We recorded last week the death of Professor Leo Errera. A correspondent writes in regard to him: “Errera was one of the comparatively few rich men who work as hard at science as do those who earn their living by teaching and research. A multi-millionaire, he earned the rather hard degree of Docteur Agrégé, and since his student days has been an important factor in the class-room and research work in botany at Brussels. His most notable work as an investigator, perhaps, was his demonstration that fungi store food reserves in the form of glycogen, like animals, and the contributions from his laboratory have been chiefly along physiological and ecological lines. Notwithstanding this limit to the field of his more active contributions, however, he was interested in all branches of botany, and at the recent International Congress at Vienna, where he secured a decision to hold the next quinquennial session at Brussels, he was one of the most constant and interested attendants at the arduous--and perhaps thankless--nomenclature sessions.
Tue correspondent of the London Times in Cape Town cabled on August 18 that the first boat, conveying a portion of the visiting members of the British Association to Durban, and marking the conclusion of the business gram in Cape Town, would leave that night. It was obvious at the outset that a rivalry was established between the purely pedagogic portion of the program and that part which makes for first-hand knowledge of South Africa. Fortunately there is no tendency to gauge the success of the 1905 meeting by the attendance at the lectures. So far the attendance has not been striking, but it is felt that
that has been more than made up by the keen- cinnati University shall be the head of the ness of the members to see all that can be seen pathologic department of the hospital. The of the country, and to profit by a closer ac directors stated that they had been made conquaintance with its problems, which is essen vinced of the fact that a professorship of patial to the proper understanding of them in thology would soon be added to the university England. South Africa, while paying a trib- staff. ute to the high standard of the papers read, The Sanitary Inspectors' Association met will endorse whole-heartedly the policy adopted in London on August 18. In the course of by the members..
his presidential address, as reported in the The Committee of the British Association London Times, Sir J. Crichton-Browne dealt on Zoology Organization has reported that a with the housing problem, and pointed out register of zoologists has been established, and the advantages from a health point of view that fifty-seven zoologists have accepted the in- of country life as compared with town life. vitation of the committee to place their names That the townsman was shorter-lived than the upon the register. The committee has ob- countryman was, he said, incontrovertible. tained by correspondence the opinion of a Professor Karl Pearson, a thoughtful and large number of the zoologists of the country cautious anthropologist, had told us that upon the question of the importance of the decadence of character and of intelligent grant applied for by the committee of Section leadership was to be noted alike in the British D to enable a committee to send a competent merchant, the professional man and the workinvestigator to the Zoological Station in man, and this he attributed to the fact that Naples. Other matters affecting the interests the intellectual classes were not reproducing of zoologists in the country have engaged the
their numbers as they did 50 or 100 years ago. attention of the committee during the year. In this view Professor Pearson was supported A meeting of the committee was held in London on May 11. A meeting of zoologists sum
last year that in the case of every man who moned by the committee to consider the ques. left the laboring class and became a member tion of the teaching of natural history in of the middle or wealthier classes his progeny schools was held in the Zoological Gardens, were likely to be diminished owing to the fact London, on the same date.
that marriages were later in that class. He At the last monthly meeting of the Zoolog- was inclined to think, however, that intelical Society of London it was stated that the lectual decadence, if it be upon us, was not additions to the society's menagerie during altogether due to the causes assigned by Prothat month had amounted to 274, amongst fessor Pearson and Mr. Balfour, and was not which special attention was called to a leopard necessarily destined to deepen as time went (Felir pardus), from near Hong-kong, pre- on. In a people like our own there was always sented by Mr. J. A. Bullin; to the three Cali
outside the actually intellectual class a still fornian sea lions (Otaria gillespir), from larger class potentially intellectual with abiliSanta Barbara, purchased; to a white-tailed ties incompletely evolved, because never called mu (Connochotes gnu), born in the men- forth, but capable under stress of circumagerie; and to a male Somali ostrich (Struthio stances of the higher development. Many of molyhdophanes), purchased.
our finest intellects had sprung from the unIt is expected that within a year wireless intellectual class, and genius was generally telegraph communication will be established more or less of a sport. His own view was between New Zealand and Australia.
that any dearth of ability from which we The Journal of the American Medical Asso- might be suffering was to be ascribed not so ciation states that, at the request of the med- much to the infertility of the cultivated classes ical directors of the City Hospital, the board of as to the artificial production of stupidity in public service adopted a resolution that here- various ways, and to the incessant drainage after the professor of pathology of the Cin- from the country—which was the fit and