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to determine readily under which genera a rules contain no provision that these must be given specific name has been applied, precisely taken up in the event of segregation, yet the at what place and, incidentally, by whom. The desirability of their later use is scarcely open nomenclatorial confusion resulting from the to question, and it is of high importance that widely differing schemes of classification such as are needed be used in their proper adopted by various writers has long since be- sense and that all be held available. come so pronounced as to offer a very serious There is evidence of great care in citation, obstacle to constructive work. What the and of unusual effort to prevent a possible ' Index Kewensis' has meant to botanists in misconception as to the authorship and publigeneral and Paris's “Index Bryologicus' cation of new names and new combinations,
atterly to students of mosses, those who have of which there are of necessity a good many. dealt with ferns have realized only partially, In transferring a species from one genus to hitherto, in consulting Moore's 'Index Fili- another, the resulting binomial, if new, is discum,' a work that was printed from A only tinctly indicated as such; not, however, in the midway through G in the years 1857-1862. usual way, by the phrase "comb. nov.' but by It is true that Salamon's Nomenclator der ‘C. Chr. Ind. [page] 1905'; by which means Gefässkryptogamen’ (1883) has been of assist the binary name of every recognized speciesance, although citations are entirely omitted; whether proposed formerly or in this volumebut, if we consider the activity of fern stu- is accompanied by citation of publication. dents in the last two decades alone, it becomes More than a few of Dr. Christ's species are evident from the wide range of descriptions in here first referred to other than their original periodicals—botanical and otherwise-how genera; but in most, if not all, of these cases little security in the use of new specific names that author is credited with the new binomial has been justified, and some idea may be (the citation being printed Christ in C. Chr. gained of the difficulties that have lain in the Ind. [page] 1905,') in recognition of assistance way of ready reference to original descriptions received in preparation of the manuscript. Christensen's • Index' is designed to meet this Criticism of the major systematic treatment condition. Judging from the character of the must be deferred until the appearance of the two parts at hand we have little doubt that final brochures, for not until then shall we opinion can not fail eventually to be substan- have a formal presentation of the classification tially and deservedly favorable.
adopted, nor shall we know how widely this With regard to the mechanical execution of treatment departs from that of its professed the work little but praise may be said. The model, Engler and Prantl. There is, however, typography is exceedingly well adapted to its some indication of a more liberal acceptance of purpose; and the method of citation is practi genera. Still, we can not but regard Anaxetum cally in accord with the common American Schott as worthy to stand quite apart, genericusage, the sequence being: (1) name, (2) ally distinct, from Polypodium; and recent author, (3) title of serial, (4) series, if any, studies have convinced us that a more valid in Roman capitals, (5) volume number in bold- genus than Adenoderris J. Sm. is hardly to be faced Arabic, (6) page and (7) date. In a found in the whole range of the Dryopterideæ. very few cases well-known works and periodi- In the recognition of species the policy of the cals are abbreviated in an extreme fashion author has been to follow the disposition of which, for the sake of avoiding cumbrous repe- monographers; in this way, de Vries's numertition seems quite justified. Accepted species ous species of Angiopteris are admitted, though stand under their proper genera in heavy-faced under protest, on the ground that there has apprint; very doubtful species and those known peared no latér revision. only among gardeners in italics; synonyms in Aside from the preparation of a modern ordinary brevier. The listing of subgenera 'Synopsis Filicum '-an undertaking so diffiin distinctive typography is also to be strongly cult and comprehensive that, under present commended; for, although our latest American Botanical Gazette, 39: 366-369. May, 1905. circumstances, it may scarcely be regarded teachers representing nearly all the larger aswith well-founded hopes of realization—there sociations of teachers of mathematics and is undoubtedly no more worthy single service natural science in the United States. Many to be rendered students in systematic pteri- letters received from teachers who were unable dology than the publication of precisely such to be present expressed sympathy with the proa work as Christensen has undertaken in his posed movement. 'Index Filicum.' The need of the work is Professor Thomas S. Fiske, of Columbia undeniable; the parts already published are University, was elected chairman of the conof high worth; the manuscript of the re ference and Dr. Arthur Schultze, of the High mainder is ready for the printer; and we can School of Commerce of New York, was elected only express our hope that the necessary sup- secretary. port shall be given-and at once--to insure There was absolute agreement in regard to the issuance of the remaining parts.
the advisability of forming closer permanent WILLIAM R. Maxon. relations among the associations represented, L'. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM,
and a large majority were in favor of effecting August 15, 1905.
this by means of a national association. Con
siderable discussion, however, arose as to SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES. whether the new society should be one of
THE August number of The Physical Re mathematical teachers only or one including view contains the following articles:
also teachers of science. The western assoA. DE FOREST PALMER: • Thermo-electric Deter
ciations, for the most part including teachers mination of Temperatures 0° and 200° C.'
of science as well as teachers of mathematics, Louis BEVIER, JR.: 'The Vowel Ao (as in Raw), strongly advocated a mixed organization, 0 (as in Rope), U (as in Rude).
while the teachers from the eastern states Wu. J. RAYMOND: The Measurment of In seemed, to a considerable extent, to favor a ductance and Capacity by Means of the Differ- purely mathematical society. The views urged ential Ballistic Galvanometer.'
by the western delegates prevailed, and on J. B. WHITEHEAD: “The Magnetic Effect of
motion of Professor E. R. IIedrick, of the Electric Displacement.' E. R. Drew: The Infra-red Spectrum of CO,
University of Missouri, a resolution was and Nitrogen.'
adopted to the effect that a national society The contents of The American Naturalist
of teachers of mathematics and science be
organized. for August are as follows:
The details of the organization were rePROFESSOR D. P. PENHALLOW: “A Systematic
ferred to the following executive committee:
ferred to the following execu Study of the Salicaceæ.'
Professor Thomas S. Fiske (chairman), New J. A. CUSHMAN: ‘Developmental Stages in the
York, N. Y.; Professor C. E. Comstock, Lagenida.'
DR. B. M. Davis: - Studies on the Plant Cell: Peoria, 111.; Professor E. R. Hedrick, CoVII.
lumbia, Mo.; Mr. Franklin T. Jones, CleveNotes and Literature: Nature Study; Zoology, land, O.; Professor William H. Metzler, Wasps Social and Solitary, Trouessart's Catalogue Syracuse, N. Y.; Mr. Edgar H. Nichols, CamMammalium, Supplement.
Up to the next meeting this committee is to SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
act as council of the society and a report of its ORGANIZATION OF A NATIONAL SOCIETY OF TEACH proceedings is to be published in School SciERS OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE.
ence and Mathematics. A CONFERENCE was held at Asbury Park on In the following list of associations repreJuly 5, 1905, for the purpose of discussing the sented at the conference the names of regularly advisability of organizing a national society of appointed delegates are distinguished by the teachers of mathematics and natural science. letter (D). The conference was attended by thirty-seven New England Mathematics Teachers Asso
ciation.—Chas. E. Bouton, Harvard University (D); Paul Capron (D); Mr. Nichols, Brown and Nichols School, Cambridge (D).
Association of Teachers of Mathematics in the Middle States and Maryland.—John C. Bechtel; Fletcher Durell, Lawrenceville, N. J.; A. Newton Ebaugh; Miss Susan C. Lodge; Donald C. MacLaren; Wm. H. Metzler, Syracuse University (D); J. T. Rorer, Central High School, Philadelphia (D); Arthur Schultze, High School of Commerce, N. Y. (D); H. C. Whitaker.
Central Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers.--Otis W. Caldwell; Jos. V. Collins (D); C. E. Comstock (D); G. W. Greenwood (D); Charles H. Smith; Charles M. Turton; J. W. Young, Charles W. Wright.
Missouri Society of Teachers of Mathematics.-F. T. Appleby; J. S. Bryan, Central High School, St. Louis (D); H. Clay Harvey (D); E. R. Hedrick (D); B. F. Johnston; John R. Kirk; J. W. Whiteye.
Chicago and Cook County High School Teachers' Association.—Edward E. Hill (D); Fred R. Nichols (D); Chas. M. Turton (D).
Mathematical Section of Michigan School Master's Club.—Miss Emma C. Ackermann (D).
New York State Science Association, Mathematical Department.-Glenn M. Lee.
North Eastern Ohio Center, G.A.S. and M.T. -Lemar T. Beman, Cleveland High School (D); Charles A. Marple (D).
Ohio Association of Teachers of Mathematics and Science.-Franklin T. Jones (D); Wm. MeLair (D).
St. Louis Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers.-Wm. Schuyler, McKinley High School, St. Louis (D).
their language; and more, the American was reproduced entire in Japan before even the original was reproduced in Ilungary.
An American, not a European, was the first from outside Hungary to make the journey to Máros-Vásarhely only for John Bolyai's sake and to see there the letter in Magyar which constitutes his preemption claim and title-deed to the new universe, and to publish for the first time that letter making the date 1823 ever memorable. On its publication thus in America Charles S. Peirce wrote in The Nation, March 17, 1892, p. 212 in a review of Halsted's Bolyai:
There is a winningly enthusiastic letter from Bolyai János to his father, telling him of the great step. He says: “I have discovered such magnificent things that I am myself astonished at them. It would be damage eternal if they were lost. When you see them, my father, you will yourself acknowledge it. At present I can not say more than that from nothing I have created a wholly new world.”
Ten years later this letter was published in Ilungary in Magyar and Latin, and now comes the establishment of the great Bolyai prize (Prix Bolyai) by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, of which the statutes are as follows: · 1. On the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of John Bolyai the Hungarian Academy of Sciences wishing to perpetuate the memory of this illustrious scientist, as likewise that of the profound thinker, Farkas Bolyai, his father and teacher, has decided to establish a prize to be called the Bolyai Prize. This prize, which is to consist of a commemorative medal—whose obverse will represent the academy with the view of Budapest, and whose reverse will bear an inscription--and of a sum of ten thousand crowns, shall be adjudged for the first time in 1905, then every five years, to the author of the best work in mathematics published during the five preceding years.
The prize may be given to any work deemed worthy of it, whatever the language in which it be written, and in whatever form it be published.
The announcement of the winner will take place during the general meeting of the academy in December.
2. In case the work of a deceased author be deemed worthy the prize, this shall be given to his beirs.
3. The third section of the academy, section of
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE.
THIE BOLYAI PRIZE. AMERICA will rejoice that at last Ilungary is honoring herself in honoring her wonderchild, John Bolyai. His marvel diamond, the most extraordinary two dozen pages in the history of human thought, appeared in America in English before it appeared in Hungary in Magyar, proud as they are of
sciences, is entrusted with constituting, at its March meeting, a committee composed of two home and two foreign members, whose duty it
members, whose duty it shall be to judge of the value of the works. The committee will meet at Budapest in the first fortnight of October, and name from their number a president and a reporter.
In case of a tie the president's vote is preponderant.
It shall be the duty of the reporter to present a detailed report on the committee's decision.
This report is to be read at the general meeting of the Academy of Sciences the day the prize is adjudged.
4. The works of authors on the committee are excluded from the competition, and they are not to be mentioned in the committee's report.
5. The foreign members designated as part of the committee and who, participating in the delib: erations, will spend some days at Budapest, shall receive a compensation of 1,000 crowns. The honorarium accorded to the reporter for his work is fixed at 300 crowns.
6. The report is to be published in the journal 'Akadémiai Értesito.' The Hungarian Academy of Sciences will publish this report abroad, and will make it known to all the associated academies.
In accordance with the above statutes, in the course of this present year the Hungarian Academy of Sciences will confer for the first time the Bolyai Prize, consisting of a medal and ten thousand crowns.
The commission constituted by the academy from its members and endowed with the powers of a jury consists of Gaston Darboux (Paris), Felix Klein (Göttingen), Julius König (Budapest), Gustav Rados (Budapest). The deliberations of this commission will be held this October in Budapest.
If I may be forgiven for a bit of prophecy, I venture to predict the prize goes to Poincaré.
GEORGE BRUCE HALSTED. KEXYOY COLLEGE,
to discuss in some detail their relationship and probable origin.
Appended to the “Check-list of North American Birds' published by the American Ornithologists' Union there is a ‘Hypothetical List' consisting of twenty-eight different birds which, for various reasons, have an uncertain status in the bird fauna of the region for which the list is given. Of these twentyeight birds I shall consider nine, as from the evidence at hand it would appear that together they throw much light on some hitherto obscure problems. The list includes Cooper's sandpiper, Tringa cooperi Baird; Brewster's linnet, Acanthis brewsterii Ridgway; Townsend's bunting, Spiza townsendii (Audubon); Lawrence's warbler, Helminthophila lawrencii (Herrick); Brewster's warbler, Helminthophila leucobronchialis (Brewster); Carbonated warbler, Dendroica carbonata (Audubon); Blue Mountain warbler, Dendroica montana (Wilson); Small-headed warbler, Wilsonia microcephala (Ridgway); Cuvier's kinglet, Regulus cuvierii Audubon.
Of these nine kinds of birds seven either are represented by single individuals or are known only from figures and descriptions in the works of Audubon and Wilson. On the other hand, the two remaining birds of this series are known by numerous specimens, and my reasons for including them will be presented as each is considered in detail.
It seems essential at this point to call attention to the fact that a number of these birds were discovered at a time when field naturalists were not nearly so numerous as at the present day, and that there may be no doubt as to the reality of at least some of these forms, a number of the types still exist, as will presently be shown.
SPECIAL ARTICLES. ON TIIE PROBABLE ORIGIN OF CERTAIN BIRDS.
It is my purpose to examine in this article the status of nine kinds of birds that have been recorded from North America, and one that has been taken in southern Europe, and
COOPER'S SANDPIPER, TRINGA COOPERI BAIRD.
Cooper's sandpiper is known from a single individual that was taken on Long Island in May, 1833. The type is still in the National Museum at Washington. The evident relationship of this bird to the knot, Tringa canutus Linnæus, is at once apparent to a student, and even an untrained eye might readily distinguish their similarity. For the
original account of the type of this species be found in the Ornithological Biography,' the reader is referred to “The Birds of North Vol. I., p. 308, pl. 60, 1831. America, Baird, 1858, page 716.
BLUE MOUNTAIN WARBLER, DENDROICA MONTANA BREWSTER'S LINNET, ACANTHIS BREWSTERII
The Blue Mountain warbler is only known The type specimen of Brewster's linnet was from the works of Wilson and Audubon. The taken by Mr. William Brewster at Waltham, specimens on which they based their descripMass., on November 1, 1870. The bird is a tions were taken in the Blue Ridge Mountains female. The type still exists in the collection of Virginia. The bird was figured, but no of Mr. Brewster at Cambridge, and no other specimens are at present known. (Cf. Wilindividual of this kind is known. In appear- son, ‘American Ornithology,' Vol. V., p. 113, ance the bird differs from other members of “pl. 44, fig. 2, 1812.) the genus in which it has been placed by Mr. Ridgway chiefly in lacking the red spot on
SMALL-HEADED WARBLER, WILSONIA MICROtop of the head and the dusky spot on the
CEPHALA (RIDGWAY). chin characteristic of the adults, especially
This again is one of the species described the males of the genus Acanthis. Therefore, by both Wilson and Audubon. It is said to the exact relationship of this bird is some- have been taken in points so widely separated what obscure, though its generic status has as New Jersey and Kentucky, but is only not been questioned. For the original de- known by the colored plates and the descripscription of this species the reader is referred tions made by the above naturalists. It does to the American Naturalist of July, 1872, not seem probable that with all the careful page 433.
detailed work that has been done in both
regions during the last fifty years the smallTOWNSEND'S BUNTING, SPIZA TOWNSENDII headed warbler is till extant. The bird (AUDUBON).
is so widely different from any of its conOn May 11, 1833, Mr. J. K. Townsend, ob geners as to make confusion with them impostained, while collecting, the type specimen on sible, nor has the theory of hybridity been adwhich this form is based. It is an adult male, vanced to account for this supposed species. and remains unique. The relationship of this There then remain the two hypotheses as to bird is obvious; it can only be regarded as the the status of Wilsonia microcephala; either close ally of the dickcissel, Spiza americana the individuals which came under the ob(Gmelin). (Cf. Audubon's "Ornithological servation of Wilson and Audubon were the Biography, Vol. II., p. 183, 1834.)
last survivors of this species which was dying Commenting on the status of this bird the out and has become extinct, or these birds Committee of the Ornithologists' Union say: were 'mutations' that occurred ephemerally "Its peculiarities can not be accounted for by and did not flourish, but died out almost imhybridism nor probably by individual varia- mediately. tion.? 1
CUVIER'S KINGLET, REGULUS CUVIERII AUDUBON. CARBONATED WARBLER, DENDROICA CARBONATA On June 8, 1812, Audubon obtained on the (AUDUBON).
banks of the Schuylkill River, at a place This bird is known only from Audubon's called Flatland Ford, in Pennsylvania, the colored plate and his description of two speci- only specimen of Cuvier's kinglet known. If mens killed near Henderson in Kentucky in
? Juscica pa minuta Wilson (cf. Am. Orn., Wil. May, 1811. The birds were probably both
son,, Vol. VI., p. 62, 1812, pl. 1, fig. 5, nec. Gmelin, males. Audubon's account of the event may
1788). 15A. (). U'. Check list N. A. Birds, 2d edition, Cf. Ridgway, Pro. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. VIII., p. 331, 1895.
p. 351, 1885.