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important articles relating to the smut-fungi, and a full index complete this important contribution to our knowledge of this group.



ICHTHYOLOGICAL NAMES. Much attention was given by the older ichthyologists, notably Conrad Gesner, Rondelet, Artedi, Linné and Cuvier, to classical names of fishes, and their identification with wellknown forms. In this country Louis Agassiz, upon the occasion of his rediscovery of Parasilurus aristotelis (Proc. Amer. Acad., III., p. 325), was one of the first to bring home the importance of comparing ancient and modern vernacular names of plants and animals, his remarks being ably seconded by a later communication from Professor Sophocles in the same volume.

Within recent years President Jordan and H. A. Hoffmann' have attempted a thoroughgoing revision of classic and modern designations of the Hellenic fish fauna, overlooking, however, some of the best work that has been done by their predecessors in this field. For instance, they seem to have taken no heed of the extremely valuable historical and bibliographical works of Artedi, nor of the indispensable commentaries of A. Koraes on the fishes mentioned by Galen and Xenocrates. À propos the last-named author, we owe to Koraes the correction of Artedi's error in confusing the physician Xenocrates with the illustrious philosopher of the same name who flourished, as the Swedish naturalist gravely tells us, ' anno mundi 3630, circiter.'

Amongst the numerous attempts that have been made to identify Aristotelian species, two or three are of superior merit. These are the • Index Aristotelicus,' published by the Berlin Academy, Aubert-Wimmer's · Aristoteles Tierkunde (Leipzig, 1868), and Sundevall's • Thierarten des Aristoteles' (Stockholm, 1863). A work that might serve as a model for a revised Synonymia Piscium Græca, apart from the author's peculiar ideas on animal

symbolism, is D'Arcy W. Thompson's "Glossary of Greek Birds' (Oxford, 1895). Writing in the same year, H. Lewy argues very plausibly for a Semitic origin of a great many Greek names of plants and animals, including fishes. Thus, when we say tunny, carp, chameleon, etc.,—though Mark Twain can not consistently allow this—we approach pretty closely to the speech of Adam. Other contributions of real value that deal with the etymology of the Greek fauna are the following: Nicolas C. Apostolides, ‘La pêche en Grèce' (Athens, 1883); T. de Heldreich, 'La faune de Grèce' (Part I., Athens, 1878); D. Bikélas,

Sur la nomenclature de la faune grecque' (1878), and Dr. Erhard's 'Fauna der Cycladen' (Leipzig, 1858). Finally attention may be called to the newly discovered Byzantine ‘Fish Book,' a work dating presumably from the thirteenth century, for the elucidation of which scholars are indebted to Professor Krumbacher, of Munich.

Before leaving this subject, there is one feature in Homeric zoology which deserves notice. Fish, the great delicacy of Attic days, never enters into the diet of the great chiefs, who partake of great meals of roast meat in contradiction of all that we know of any historical Greeks, as Professor Mahaffy has shown, from the earliest to the present day. Even the early athletes trained on cheese, and the people were probably never a meat-eating race. The Dublin professor is inclined to believe, with all its implied significance respecting authorship, that the exclusion of fish from Homeric banquet scenes is ' a piece of deliberate archaism.

PREHISTORIC DARWINIANS. ZELLER and Osborn have critically investigated the extent to which evolutionary ideas were developed among Ionian philosophers several centuries before our era, and it is doubtful if their main conclusions can be controverted. One must marvel, therefore, at the fertile ingenuity of a French writer, M. Henri Coupin,? who has out-Champollioned Cham

1 J. P. Mahaffy, Problems in Greek History,' p. 49 (London, 1892).

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, pp. 231-285.

May 20, 1905, p. 396.

only to bring to light a Coptic version of the nebular hypothesis, or a table of lunar distances from the ruins of Yucatan. Through abuses, even a good method may be brought into undeserved reproach; and this seems to be strikingly true of mythological interpretation.

pollion in deciphering for us records which purport to show the prevalence of evolutionary ideas amongst Pelasgian races upwards of 2,000 years before Christ.

Compared with this feat of modern philol. ogists, the reading of the handwriting on the wall, or of cuneiform inscriptions, is as mere child's play, for in the present case the records that have come down to us from protoMycenæan times are neither written nor inscribed. They are different from the papyrus rolls obtained at Herculaneum, although, like them, they have lain buried for ages in the spot aptly termed by Fouqué a prehistoric Pompeii' (Thera). In what form, then, are the records ? Vase-paintings, scenes and symbols represented on objets d'art,-in a word, pictographs! But we may read even picture-writing, provided only we have the key. This M. Coupin triumphantly declares he has found: “ Avec cette clef,” says he, “on peut lire sans difficulté une foule de petits

rébus' que personne ne comprendrait sans elle.” The key is furnished by a new interpretation of the swastika, a design which has been exhaustively discussed in this country by Thomas Wilson, in the Smithsonian Report for 1894, and more recently by Mrs. Zelia Nuttall. That it is capable of unlocking terrible and profound mysteries may be judged from the following specimens of M. Coupin's 'translation :

On this bronze fibula (Fig. 11) one reads from right to left: ‘From aquatic animals (fishes), through the generative force of the sacred octopus, birds are descended.' On another design: 'Birds have issued from the water by virtue of the sacred octopus, or by a virtue analogous to that of the sacred octopus. * * *'.

Already we have had to endure learned disputations tending to show that the far-famed Polyphemus was founded upon seamen's accounts of the gorilla, the present habitat of that animal affording no difficulties to the theorist; and within the last year or two, all semblance of discrimination has been abandoned by certain German writers in their interpretations of Homer's Scilla. Now that we have encountered Darwinism in full swing something like forty centuries ago, it remains


The discussion by Mr. Forbes in Nature (LXIX., p. 343) on the derivation and proper form of the word orang-outan, which in Malay means 'forest-man,' leads one to inquire why the specific name of the gorilla, first bestowed upon it by Savage in 1847, should have become almost universally superseded by the title subsequently proposed by Owen. Authors who agree with Owen in regarding this ape as generically distinct from the chimpanzee employ the designation Gorilla for the genus, but not for the species. Thus, Huxley in his 'Natural History of Man-like Apes,' and Flower and Lydekker in their treatise on ‘Mammals' refer to it as Gorilla savagei. On the other hand, the older views of Wyman and Savage are endorsed by such expert mammalogists as P. L. Sclater and Arthur Keith, who defend the appellation of Anthropopithecus gorilla (Savage).

It seems to be pretty clearly established that only one species of the gorilla is known, the scientific discoverer of which was Savage; and to this species only one name is applicable, which is that which has become everywhere familiar in popular usage. The story of the origin of the name is interesting, since it harks back to the voyage of Hanno, the famous Carthaginian navigator of the fifth century before our era. There is not the slightest reason for discrediting the narrative of the 'gorillas,' as related in the Periplus, Pliny confirming the fact that their skins were exhibited in Carthage, and nearly all authorities agreeing that the southernmost limit of the expedition, where these animals were taken, was only a few degrees above the equator. But the identification of Hanno's 'gorillas' with anthropoid species now inhabiting equatorial Africa is a more difficult matter, though it appears certain they were not the apes which we are accustomed to understand by this name, or to which Battell gave the name of Pongo, or

greater monster.' They are supposed by many to have been chimpanzees.




Office Work. I. Continuation of the study of the secular variation and compilation of data and preparation for publication on a comprehensive, uniform plan. [The investigations have already progressed far enough to have warranted beginning at once the observational work referred to below.]

II. Discussion and publication of the data on the magnetic perturbation observed during the eruption of Mont Pelée, Martinique, 1902. [It is hoped to have this work in published form by end of year.]

III. A general study of the laws of the diurnal variation to serve as the basis for determining corrections and their reliability for the reduction of field observations.

IV. Special investigation of magnetic storms with the view of determining a working method for the discussion and analysis of such fluctuations. [These studies are being conducted under the direction of Professor Adolf Schmidt, at Potsdam, with the aid of funds supplied by the department Professor Schmidt hopes to be able to contribute a paper on the subject towards the close of the year.]

V. Continuation of a card catalogue of publications and investigations in terrestrial magnetism and terrestrial electricity and allied subjects and collecting of information of work done and being done so as to avoid as far as possible needless duplication.

observational work is now in actual progress. In all likelihood, the requisite funds for this vast undertaking will be supplied chiefly by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and in fact it is the expectation that the operations under the auspices of this institution will probably cover about three fourths of the total area to be surveyed. However, the successful execution of the plan requires the harmonious cooperation and concerted action of all civilized countries; accordingly, definite steps in this direction will be formulated in conformity with the advice of leading investigators.

A. Magnetic Survey of the North Pacific Ocean.-A wooden sailing-vessel, the brig, Galilee, of San Francisco, built in 1891, length 132.5 feet, breadth 33.5 feet, depth 12.7 feet, displacement about 600 tons, carrying a crew of eight men and sailing-master, has been chartered and is now being fully adapted for the purposes of the expedition.

The scientific leader and commander of the vessel-Mr. J. F. Pratt-is one of the most efficient officers of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Commander Pratt has had thirty years' experience in astronomical, geodetic, hydrographic and magnetic work, and has had command both of sailing-vessels and of steamers engaged in coast-survey work. By the courtesy of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor and the Superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey he has been granted the necessary furlough and will enter the temporary employ of the Carnegie Institution for the purpose of assisting in the inauguration of the magnetic survey of oceanic areas. The other members of the scientific corps will be Dr. J. Hobart Egbert, magnetic observer, surgeon and naturalist, and Mr. J. P. Ault, magnetic observer.

The first cruise will be in a region where the various methods to be employed can fully be tested and controlled, viz.: San Francisco, San Diego, Honolulu, Umanak, Aleutian Islands, Sitka. The magnetic elements are to be determined as follows: Declination by two compasses (a liquid one and a dry one) using various azimuth devices, horizontal intensity by a new method being devised which,

Field Work. In pursuance of the plan for the completion of a general magnetic survey of the accessible regions of the globe within a period of fifteen to twenty years and of the general investigation of the secular variation, the following

by some trials already made, appears promis- [In connection with above work it has being, total intensity and dip with an L. C. dip come essential to make some experimental circle. The expedition expects to leave San investigations at Washington, with the special Francisco about the middle of July of this view of ascertaining the cause of outstanding year. [It is gratifying to report that the instrumental differences, and the reliability German government has assured the president in the application of corrections derived by of the Carnegie Institution that its Samoan comparison, and the changes in the correcmagnetic observatory will be maintained until tions for any particular set of instruments 1909, to assist in the magnetic survey of the when used in various magnetic latitudes. Pacific Ocean.]

These studies have an important bearing upon B. Land Work.-Mr. J. P. Ault, magnetic the inter-comparison and reduction of obobserver, while temporarily assigned on the servatory standards, as well as the standardcoast-survey steamer Bache, for securing the ization and testing of instruments designed necessary training in magnetic work on a for field use.] cruise from Baltimore to Panama, besides C. Eclipse Work.-Besides the cooperation taking part in the sea work, has determined already promised in the proposed magnetic the three magnetic elements at the following and electric work during the eclipse of August stations: Norfolk (Virgínia), Key West and 30, 1905, the department will have a station Miami (Florida), Kingston (Jamaica), Colon of its own at Palma, Majorca Island. The (Panama), Havana, Mantanzas, Batabano and atmospheric electricity observations will be Pinar del Rio (all in Cuba) and Valdosta made by Professors Elster and Geitel and Dr. (Georgia). At Havana comparisons were also Harms. It will also have one or two stations made with the instruments of the Colegio de in Canada, as may be necessary. Mr. J. E. Belen. Thus, most important secular varia Burbank, magnetician, will have charge of the tion and distribution data have been obtained. work in atmospheric electricity in this coun

Mr. D. C. Sowers, magnetic observer, ac- try, and with that purpose in view has spent companied the new coast-survey steamer three months in Germany with Professors Explorer from Baltimore to Porto Rico, de- Wiechert, Elster and Geitel familiarizing termined the magnetic elements on land at himself with methods and perfecting the inNorfolk (Virginia), San Juan and Vieques strumental outfit. (Porto Rico), and took part in the sea work. D. Magnetic Disturbances.—For studying He is now engaged in determining the mag- the correlation between solar phenomena and netic elements on various islands of the Lesser magnetic disturbances, cooperative work has Antilles. Mr. G. Heimbrod, surveyor, of been entered into between the Solar ObservaSuva, Figi Islands, enters the employ of the tory and the department of terrestrial magdepartment the coming August, as magnetic netism of the Carnegie Institution. Two diobserver. After assisting Dr. Franz Linke, rect recording variometers, giving a visible in charge of the German magnetic observatory record of the magnetic fluctuations and ringat Apia, Samoa, and securing the necessary ing an alarm for disturbances of a certain experience in magnetic and electric work, he magnitude, are now being constructed under will be engaged in determining the magnetic the direction of Dr. W. G. Cady, research elements on various islands in the South magnetician, in accordance with his design. Pacific.

Should the device prove successful, addiDefinite arrangements are furthermore be- tional instruments will be constructed by the ing perfected for securing in the near future department and supplied to institutions ready observations along the coasts in Canada, Mex- to cooperate. ico, Central American countries, South Amer- [This is the initial step towards the workica and China, while the oceanic survey is ing out of a general plan for enlisting in progressing. The precise details will be pub- magnetic work the cooperation of certain falished later.

vorably situated and well-established institu

tions, such as astronomical observatories, for example, in order to assist in bringing about a more uniform distribution than prevails at present, of stations contributing magnetic data.]

In the near future additional appointments are to be made in the department, the salaries ranging from $1,000 to $2,500 per annum, in accordance with qualifications and position.

The places to be filled call for a chief physicist, experienced magneticians capable of conducting investigations, magnetic observers for sea and land duty, and computers.

The appointments are not restricted to citizens of the United States.

Applications should contain full information regarding the applicant's life, education and experience. They may be sent in now and should be addressed to the Director, Department Terrestrial Magnetism, The Ontario, Washington, D. C., U. S. A.


Director. May 25, 1905.


OF SCHOLARSHIP.1 The general opinion of the community is bound to have a very great effect even upon its most vigorous and independent minds. If . in the public mind the career of the scholar is regarded as of insignificant value when compared with that of a glorified pawnbroker, then it will with difficulty be made attractive to the most vigorous and gifted of our American young men. Good teachers, excellent institutions and libraries are all demanded in a graduate school worthy of the name. But there is an even more urgent demand for the right sort of student. No first-class science, no first-class literature or art, can ever be built up with second-class men.

The scholarly career, the career of the man of letters, the man of arts, the man of science, must be made such as to attract those strong and virile youths who now feel that they can only turn to business, law or politics. There is no one thing which will bring about this

* From his address to the alumni of Harvard College.

desired change, but there is one thing which will materially help in bringing it about, and that is to secure to scholars the chance of getting one of a few brilliant positions as prizes if they rise to the first rank in their chosen career. Every such brilliant position should have as an accompaniment an added salary, which shall help indicate how high the position really is; and it must be the efforts of the alumni which can alone secure such salaries for such positions.

As a people I think we are waking up to the fact that there must be better pay for the average man and average woman engaged in the work of education. But I am not speaking of this now; I am not speaking of the desirability, great though that is, of giving better payment to the average educator; I am speaking of the desirability of giving to the exceptional man the chance of winning an exceptional prize, just as he has the chance to do in law and business.

In business at the present day nothing could be more healthy than an immense reduction in the money value of the exceptional prizes thus to be won; but in scholarship what is needed is the reverse. In this country we rightly go upon the theory that it is more important to care for the welfare of the average man than to put a premium upon the exertions of the exceptional. But we must not forget that the establishment of such a premium for the exceptional, though of less importance, is nevertheless of very great importance. It is important even to the development of the average man, for the average of all of us is raised by the work of the great masters.

It is, I trust, unnecessary to say that I appreciate to the full the fact that the highest work of all will never be affected one way or the other by any question of compensation. And much of the work which is really best for the nation must from the very nature of things be non-remunerative as compared with the work of the ordinary industries and vocations. Nor would it ever be possible or desirable that the rewards of transcendent success in scholarship should even approximate, from a monetary standpoint, the rewards in other vocations.

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