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(1904, Vol. II., Pt. II., 413-440), is based in (1766), for the reason that Simia satyrus of the main upon recent studies by Professor the tenth was based on the Satyrus indicus of Matschie, published in the Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Tulpe (1641), which Mr. Rothschild holds to Freunde.
be so unmistakably a chimpanzee that we can: A review of the systematic portion of Mr. even distinguish the exact race to which it Rothschild's paper could not be profitably un- belongs.' dertaken at present, at least by an American The whole question, therefore, hangs on the zoologist, for lack of material by which values certainty with which this animal can be identicould be estimated, and still more by reason fied. To me it appears doubtful, as it did to of the absence from his paper of almost all Hartmann, what animal Tulpe really meant. details in support of its conclusions except He calls it Satyrus indicus and gives the a few of dubious significance. The doubt habitat as "Africa, Asia. The 'crinibus may be expressed, however, whether even the nigris’ of his description is the one character German naturalist, though his material has to distinguish it from the red orang, but it much exceeded that ever before brought to does not serve to distinguish one species of gether, has had anything like a sufficient chimpanzee from another, or more than doubtamount to establish the nature and the taxo- fully from a young gorilla. Turning to nomic value of many of his characters. One Tulpe's figure the zoologist of experience with point which may be briefly noticed is Matschie's living anthropoids is likely to recognize much proposal, adopted by Rothschild (p. 413), that more resemblance to the orang than to the the gibbons should form a family, Hylobatidæ, chimpanzee in the head, the small ear, the quite apart from the other anthropoids. It protuberant paunch, the size of the great toe appears to me that nothing could be further and in the whole attitude of the animal. from sound principles of classification. By Linnæus had really never seen any of these reason of their somewhat intermediate anatom- apes and his names are based on statements of ical structure, the gibbons might, perhaps, be other authors who were not able to differenused to break down the separation of anthro- tiate the red ones of the Oriental region from poids and old-world monkeys into two families, the black ones of the Ethiopian, and his genus but they are far too closely allied to the first Simia of the tenth edition does not rest surely in all distinctive characters, to be added as a –to quote the American code-upon 'a desigthird group in the series.
nated recognizable species * * * or plate or Reference may also be made here to the figure. In the twelfth edition his Simia biological improbability of four subspecies of satyrus is, without question, the orang, the orang, each presenting the same dimorphic chief reference being to Edwards's plate 213 forms (p. 434).
(1758), which being colored leaves no doubt The changes in nomenclature, proposed as to which animal is figured. The fact is chiefly by Matschie, are so serious in their re- that Simia Linn. is merely a composite of all sults that they need examination. It is pro- the monkeys known to that author, and has posed to transfer the generic name Simia with others of his genera been imposed upon Linn. from its time-worn association with the literature more by reverence for his name than orang to the chimpanzees, and to apply to the through any exact application borne by them. former the name Pongo Lacép. Now a com- This being true in many cases, and Simia plete reversal in the relation of a generic and satyrus of the tenth edition not being cerspecific name a century and a half old, with tainly identifiable, rather than overturn the the upsetting of all depending nomenclature, whole nomenclature of two genera, or even should be shown to be unavoidable before it is worse to reverse it, it seems quite within proposed. Is it so here? The contention is legitimate practice to regard it as a nomen that it results from taking the tenth edition nudum as far as the tenth edition is concerned, of the ‘Systema Naturæ' (1758) as the start and let it take date from its first unquestioned ing point, instead of the twelfth edition use in the twelfth.
tinental and American zoologists in the campaign for a system of pure trinomials.
ARTHUR ERWIN BROWN. ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, PHILADELPHIA,
May 27, 1905.
SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS AND ARTICLES.
The American Naturalist for June contains the following articles :
E. W. Berry: “ Fossil Grasses and Sedges.
H. W. Rand and J. L. ULRICH: ‘Posterior Connections of the Lateral Vein of the Skate.'
H. W. RAND: The Skate as a Subject for Classes in Comparative Anatomy; Injection Methods.
T. H. ROMEISER: 'A Case of Abnormal Venous System in lecturus maculatus.'
R. H. Howe, JR.: ‘Sir Charles Blagden, earliest of Rhode Island Ornithologists.'
C. R. EASTMAN: ‘The Literature of Edestus.'
An unfortunate result of the contrary view held by the two authors is that Pongo Lacép. (1799) takes the place of Simia for the orang. L’nfortunate, for however much the proper use of this word has been confused by later authors, old Andrew Battell, in ‘Purchas' made it clear that the native name pongo belongs to the gorilla, and while it is true that some of the codes now in use do not consider that grievous misapplication in meaning is cause for removal, it may be doubted if any rule which serves to perpetuate error in fact stands on a lasting base where scientific exactness is the object.
Simia satyrus being transferred to a species of chimpanzee, the proper name for the orang, according to Mr. Rothschild (0.421). is Pongo pygmæus (Linn.). The paper of Linnæus's understudy, Hoppius, in the · Amanitates Academica' (1763), which is the reliance for this, is not really binominal and should not be considered. The first available use of pygmæus is in Schreber (1796), where it is based on Tyson's excellent figure of a chimpanzee. This is adopted by Rothschild for one of the chimpanzees, as Simia pygmæa (Schr.); the orang being Pongo pygmæus (Linn.)--an ill-judged and indefensible confusion.
All these lamentable changes may be avoided by the manner of treatment I have suggested, which appears to me to be quite within the rules. Present synonymy will be undisturbed and an appalling amount of confusion will be escaped. How great this is will be seen on attempting to correlate Mr. Rothchild's nomenclature with some known species. The only change required is that Pan Oken (1816) seems necessary for the chimpanzee, but this does not entail any alteration in specific names.
If it is to be regretted that Mr. Rothschild (p. 421) has followed Matschie so closely as to continue the erroneous date of 'Satyrus Lesson, 1799 '-—which should be 1840—it is, at least, unalloyed gratification to be assured (p. 440) that the distinguished author and patron of zoological science is prepared to lead con
SOCIETIES AND ACADEJIES. THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. The twenty-ninth regular meeting of the Botanical Society of Washington was held at the Portner Hotel, May 27, 1905. The following papers were presented: . Evolutionary Status of the Laminariaceæ :
WALTER T. SWINGLE.
Mr. Swingle's paper was illustrated by specimens from the algal herbarium of Mrs. W. T. Swingle. It was pointed out that of the twenty-two genera belonging to the true Laminariaceæ (Corda and Adenocystis being excluded) twelve (or over one half) are limited to the Pacific coast of the United States, from Lower California to British Columbia. In all, sixteen genera occur within these limits, while two more occur in Alaska and one more in New England, making nineteen genera in all from the United States territory in North America, or over four fifths of the known genera. In this territory there are fifty-one species, or almost exactly half of the one hundred and five species now known from the hole world.
The Laminariaceæ were shown to be coldwater algæ and are limited in their distribution chiefly by the summer temperatures of the sea water. The family originated in the northern Pacific Ocean, or at least here was where their greatest evolutionary progress occurred. Sixty-four species occur here and fifty-five are found nowhere else. All the twenty-two genera occur in the northern Pacific. In the southern hemisphere, where the temperature conditions are favorable to the growth of these algæ, as is shown by the prodigious size attained there by Macrocystis, and by its extreme abundance, only three genera occur containing but fourteen species, all but two restricted to the southern hemisphere. These species are probably descendants of forms that crossed the equator during the glacial period when the ocean had a much lower temperature in the tropical zone. That period has occurred in the southern hemisphere; at least it is shown by the failure of Macrocystis to cross into the northern Atlantic Ocean, where it would find a larger region admirably adapted for its growth.
These algæ attain the greatest length of any plant, Macrocystis reaching a length of 400 to 700 feet or over. Some of the forms, such as Palagophycus and Nereocystis, are annuals and must grow much faster than any other organisms in order to attain in the course of a few months their enormous length (100 to 200 feet or over).
The large size and high differentiation of tissues attained in this group, and especially the occurrence of well-marked species and very distinct genera, render it highly probable that sexuality occurs in spite of the prevailing opinion of algologists to the contrary.
racenia purpurea, Drosera rotundifolia, D. intermedia, Eriocaulon decangulare, Utricularia sp., Castalia odorata (in three or four inches of water), Lycopodium adpressum and Blephariglottis cristata have been found. Just below the bog is a shallow pond in which occur Brasenia peltata, Potamogeton sp., Nymphæa advena, Castalia odorata, and a rapidly increasing colony of Marsilea quadrifolia introduced six or eight years ago. Around its margin Blethia and several heaths are found. No Isoetes has ever been discovered, in spite of apparently ideal conditions. In the wet woods are very large colonies of Woodwardia areolata, Nephrodium simulatum and Osmunda cinnamonea, together with the form glandulosa, for which this is the type locality. N. cristatum, N. boothi and N. spinulosum, Woodwardia virginica, Smilax walteri, Magnolia virginiana, Blephariglottis blephariglottis, Perularia flava, and many other plants are found. In the rather swift stream with gravelly bottom Vallisneria spiralis is plentiful. Practically none of the common spring flowers usually found in low rich woods are known to occur there. Many other common plants are also missing, one of the most notable being Equisetum arvense, which is abundant along railroads, etc., in Baltimore County, but has not been seen in the region under discussion. The absence of Typha in the bog was especially noted, and in the discussion which followed the paper the fact was brought out that it is rarely if ever found growing with Sphagnum.
The Flora of a Sphagnum Bog: C. E. WATERS.
An account was given of a sphagnum bog in Ann Arundel County, Maryland. The characteristic plants of the bog proper, of the low wet woods along the stream flowing through it, and of the surrounding dry woods, were shown to be of unusual botanical interest. In the dry woods Quercus prinoides, Q. nana and Castanea pumila, together with Kalmia angustifolia, Vaccinia and other heaths, are abundant. Iris verna, Chrosperma muscætoricum, Gaultheria, Rhus toxicodendron and R. radicans, etc., are common. In the more open parts of the bog are found Sar
The twenty-eighth regular meeting of the Botanical Society of Washington was held at the Portner Hotel, April 29, 1905. The following papers were presented: Recent Results with the Use of Copper in City Water Supplies : KARL S. KELLERMAN.
The use of copper for eradicating algal pollution is now generally recognized as the most practical successful method of dealing with this troublesome phase of water engineering.
Copper has been proposed, also, as an agent for disinfecting water supplies contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, and considerable discussion has been aroused as to the advisability
of this application of the copper method, ex- zontal component of the earth's magnetic field cept in cases of extreme necessity. There are and this can hardly be determined more actwo ways of using copper as a water supply curately than to 1 in 2,000, except by the disinfectant. One plan is to treat the supply most refined methods. The different forms of directly, in the reservoir if there be one, or current balance make use of the absolute at the intake gallery if the water be drawn value of gravity. In the electrodynamometer from a lake or stream. In the latter case the methods the preliminary measurements intreatment necessarily must be continuous. clude the determination of the elastic properThe second plan is to treat water before filtra- ties of the suspension. The electrodynamomtion. By the use of suitable chemicals, all the eter which is being constructed at the Bucopper is precipitated and removed from the reau of Standards was described more fully. water by the subsequent filtration.
Finally the results obtained for the electroAlbuquerque, N. M., and Columbus, O., are chemical equivalent of silver were compared examples of the first plan of treatment. These and the need for new determinations with two cities greatly reduced the number of reliable coulometers pointed out. typhoid cases during epidemic seasons, and the Professor E. B. Rosa presented 'The Methchemical examinations that were made failed ods and Apparatus Employed in the Deterto show copper in the water drawn from faucets mination of v. the Ratio of the Electromag. of consumers.
netic to the Electrostatic Unit of Electrical Anderson, Ind., is an example of the second Measurement. After a discussion of the plan of treatment, and even with the filters
older work the apparatus now in use by the laboring under structural defects' it seemed speaker and Dr. Dorsey was described. A possible to remove all bacteria usually sup
rapidly charged and discharged spherical conposed to indicate sewage contamination.
denser is inserted in one arm of a WheatDisease Resistance in Plants: W. A. ORTON. stone bridge and the galvanometer deflection The Occurrence of Extractives in Apple Skin: brought to zero; the quantity which is reguHERBERT C. GORE.
lated by hand is the number of charges per HERBERT J. WEBBER, second. The resulting value of v seems to
Secretary. lie between 2.9964 and 2.9968 X 100 cm.-sec. THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON. —a range of 1/5000. The 603d regular meeting was held May
In the discussion that followed Dr. Bauer 27, 1905. The evening was devoted to papers
put the precision of the determination of H,
the earth's horizontal magnetic force, at description of the experiments now in prog- 1/4000; an instrument may be sensi ress at the Bureau of Standards.
1/20000, yet differ from another by 1/500; Dr. K. E. Guthe spoke on the ‘Methods and
and Mr. Wead spoke of the disregard of the Apparatus Employed in the Absolute Meas- masterly research of Cornu on the velocity of urement of Electric Current. After a short light, in comparison with the results under introduction regarding the purpose of absolute less widely varied conditions of the brilliant electrical measurements, the speaker described American experiments. and discussed the different methods and appa
CHARLES K. WEAD, ratus which have been employed for the abso
Secretary. lute measurement of an electric current and -by the use of a known resistance of the THE NEW YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. SECTION electromotive force of standard cells. The OF ASTRONOMY, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. tangent galvanometer and similar, methods The regular monthly meeting of the section are based upon the knowledge of the hori- was held at the American Museum of Natural
I am informed that these defects are now History, on Monday evening, May 15. The remedied.
papers presented were as follows:
Relation between Ionization and Combustion chloride spread over the surfaces of two large in Flames: F. L. TUFTS.
parallel metal plates. By this means a very This paper was a preliminary communica large ionization was obtained compared with tion concerning work that is still in progress. that obtained by previous observers using the The method employed in determining the elec- Röntgen rays. The results showed that as the trical conductivity of a flame has been de- pressure decreases the coefficient of recombinascribed in a previous paper (Physikalische tion decreases with an increasing rate from a Zeitschrift, 5 Jahrgang, No. 3, pp. 76-80), value of 5,500 at atmospheric pressure to 1,000 and some results of applying it to a study of at 10 mm. pressure. combustion have been given in an extract Radiation Pressure and Differential Tones : published in the Physical Review (Vol. XX., G. B. PEGRAM. No. 3, p. 186). The present paper gave the It was pointed out that the differential results of investigations carried on for the tones heard on sounding loudly two tones of purpose of determining the influence, on the different pitch may be considered as arising electrical conductivity of a gas flame, of mix- from the radiation pressure of the sound ing Co, or air with the illuminating gas be
waves acting on the ear-drum. While the fore supplying it to the burner.
question of radiation pressure, or the pressure The results showed that for small flames,
on any surface that is reflecting or absorbing showing little carbon luminosity, the admix- . energy coming up to it, has not admitted of a ture of either CO, or air caused no marked general treatment, such a pressure, proporincrease in the electrical conductivity, the
tional to the energy per unit volume of the amount of gas consumed per second being
medium transmitting the energy has been kept constant. For very small flames the
shown theoretically to exist in many cases, admixture of either caused a decrease in the
and proven experimentally in some. In the conductivity. For large flames, however, the
case of sound waves the theoretical treatment admixture of either Co, or air caused an in
of the pressure on a reflecting surface is not crease in the conductivity, which continued
at present satisfactory (see Poynting, Phil. until enough CO, or air had been added to
Mag., April, 1905), but experimentally it has destroy the carbon luminosity, when the con
been measured by Altberg and shown by Wood ductivity was as much as twenty-five per cent.
in a striking manner by an experiment delarger than for a flame consuming the same
scribed in the Physical Review. quantity of undiluted gas. Continuing the
Now if two tones of different pitch are addition of Co, beyond this point caused a
sounded together, beats ensue, so the amount decrease in the conductivity until the flame
of energy coming up to the ear varies periodwas extinguished. Continuing the addition
ically with the rise and fall in loudness of the of air caused at first a slight decrease, until
resultant sound. But when the most energy the inner blue cone became well developed,
is coming up to the ear, or when the sound is when the further addition of air caused an
loudest, the radiation pressure on the earincrease in the conductivity, the conductivity
drum is greatest; when the energy coming up reaching a larger value than it had on the
to the ear is least, or when the sound is faintdisappearance of the carbon luminosity.
est, the radiation pressure is least. The effect The Rate of Recombination of the Ions in of this variation of pressure on the ear-drum Air: L. L. HENDREN.
will be to set it into vibration with a period The experiments described were undertaken equal to that of the beats, and so, if the beats to determine by a somewhat new method the are of proper frequency, cause the sensation absolute value of the coefficient of recombina- of a tone of that frequency, that is, the differtion of ions in air and more especially its ential tone of Helmholtz. variation with the pressure. The ionizing While this explanation of differential tones agent was a very active solution of radium from the standpoint of radiation pressure has,