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unpublished data from experiments which he ments which showed an increase in favor of has recently performed. He finds from an the stronger of these two concentrations (exaverage of six different tests in which ferric periments I., II., III. and VI.), this average hydrate was added to the nutrient solution is, of course, much higher, being 27 per cent., described above, the latter having a concentra- or very nearly the same as the increase obtion of 75 parts per million, that growth is tained by treating the weaker solution with accelerated by this treatment to an extent ferric hydrate, and considerably less than that equivalent to 26.2 per cent., the growth ob- obtained with carbon. Thus we are contained in the untreated solution being consid- fronted with a case where two entirely difered as unity for the comparison. The same
ferent treatments bring about the same effect nutrient solution with carbon black gave 35
upon the plant. It is practically proved that per cent. increase in growth on the same basis.
the insoluble bodies have their effect here by The last figure is an average of the results of
removing from solution the deleterious excretwo experiments.
tions of the plant roots. The effect of inTABLE III.
crease in concentration may be explained by Data for Experiment XI.
one or more of the three following hypotheses:
The higher concentration may make the plant Transpiration for 2 Days.
more resistant to the poisons; it may actually Solution Used on Sand.
prevent the excretion of such poisons from the In Grs.
roots; or with higher concentration of salts Nutrient solution, 15 p. p. m.
the poisons themselves may be altered so as to Do. 75 p. p. m.
lose their toxic properties. Which of these Do. 155 p. p. m.
65 147.7 Do. 750 p. p. m.
explanations is correct can not be decided Do. 1,550 p. p. m.
150 340 9 now, but it is at any rate very clear that the Do. 75 p. p. m. + 305 p. p. m. NaCl.
acceleration observed has no direct connection Do. 75 p p m. + 305 p. p. m. CaCl,.! 60 136.4
with the nutrient value of the medium. TABLE IV.
In soil or sand cultures the effect of conData for Experiment XII.
centration is known to be very different from
that in water cultures; for instance, the conTranspiration
centration best suited to wheat in water culSolution Used on Sand.
ture is about 300 parts per million of nutrient | Rela
solution, while in sand it lies in the vicinity Nutrient solution, 75 p. p. m.
of 2,500 parts per million. To investigate Do. 750 p. p. m.
50 208.3 the question whether the effect of strength of Do. 75 p. p. m. + 675 p. p. m. NaCl.
solution in sand is due to physical concentraDo. 75 p. p. m. + 675 p. p. m. CaSO. 31 129.2 Do. 75 p. p. m. +- 675 p. p. m. Na, HPO. 35 145.8 tion or to chemical conditions of nutriment,
several series of sand cultures were carried The data of experiments I. to VI. of the out. present paper (Table I.) show that the average Pure quartz sand was placed in paraffined growth in the nutrient solution of 75 parts wire baskets of the form described in Bulletin per million is 161.6, and for the same solution No. 23 of this bureau, and the hardened parof a concentration of 155 parts per million affin at the bottom was punctured with pin the average growth is 188.7. On the average, holes to allow free drainage. In experiment the latter concentration is the optimum for X. six wheat plants were grown in these wheat growth as nearly as this can be approxi- baskets for sixteen days, the sand being mated from the series, so that the acceleration flooded daily with nutrient solutions of conwhich it is possible to obtain by increase in centrations of 15, 75, 750 and 1,550 parts per concentration is 188.7 — 161.6/161.6, or 16.8 million of total salts, respectively, while the per cent. Considering only the four experi- excess of solution was allowed to drain out
for 2 Days.
soils, as well, although of course the problem here is complicated by the presence of undissolved nutrient materials in the soil. Ferric hydrate and carbon black have the same beneficial effect when mixed into many infertile soils as has been described for nutrient solutions, so that it appears that the above-mentioned hypotheses regarding toxic materials may be applied here also.
for many years experiment station workers have been studying the problem of the replacement of potassium by sodium compounds in commercial fertilizers. Marked increases in crop yields have been obtained by the addition of sodium chloride to soils receiving only a small amount of potassium. From the experiments here described it appears that this increase in yield may not at all be directly connected with any change in the nutritive content of the soil.
J. F. BREAZEALE. BUREAU OF SOILS, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
through the bottom. In this way the plants were kept abundantly supplied with fresh solution. At the end of this period the differences in growth were very marked, there being a gradual increase in growth from those flooded with the weakest to those flooded with the strongest solution, the latter culture being by far the best of the series. This experiment was repeated as experiment XI., and in addition the solution of 75 parts per million was increased in concentration by the addition of 305 parts per million of sodium chloride and also of an equal amount of calcium chloride. The baskets were flooded with the solution daily for 18 days, at the end of which time they were sealed over the top with paper and paraffin to prevent evaporation from the surface of the sand, a small opening being left for the stems. The transpirations were then taken for two days and are given in Table III., together with the relative figures obtained by considering the transpiration of the first culture as 100. The figures are relatively proportional to the size of the plants at this time.
Here the same gradation of growth is apparent in the series of different concentrations of nutrient solution as was observed in experiment XI. Furthermore addition of either sodium chloride or calcium chloride produces a marked increase in growth. This test was repeated as experiment XII., this time taking as controls the nutrient solution in concentrations of 75 and 750 parts per million and increasing the concentration of separate portions of the weaker of these by addition of 675 parts per million of sodium chloride, of calcium sulphate and of sodium phosphate, respectively. The cultures were treated in the same manner as in experiment XI. until the twentyseventh day, after which they were sealed and weighed. The transpiration for two days is given in Table IV., together with relative figures obtained in the usual manner.
From the last three experiments it appears that in quartz sand as well as in a free solution the concentration of dissolved salts is a factor in determining plant growth, independently of any changes in the nutrient value of the medium. This may be so in ordinary
THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE ORDOVICIAN ROCKS
OF OHIO AND INDIANA. A MORE detailed study of the great mass of strata included in the Cincinnatian series of the Ordovician rocks of Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky makes necessary the classification of these strata into divisions and subdivisions of the series. This service was rendered by Mr. John M. Nickles in his papers on the Geology of Cincinnati' and on the Richmond group in Ohio and Indiana.
In the twenty-eighth annual report of the Indiana Geological Survey, published in 1903, the classification proposed by Nickles was adopted without change. Since the publication of this report, however, several changes in the nomenclature have seemed advisable. Some of these are due to the practise, which recently has become more general, of adopting distinct names for formations which formerly were considered approximately identical, whenever a study of their fossil faunas indicates that these formations were deposited in zoolog
Journal Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 1902. : Am. Geol., 1903.
ical provinces essentially distinct. Now, a half a mile southeast of New Richmond, Ky.; study of the fossil lists given by Nickles in and at Point Pleasant, 0. his ‘Geology of Cincinnati’indicates that the Several changes in nomenclature appear rocks at Cincinnati identified as Lorraine and advisable on account of a second practise, ['tica contain faunas so different from the which has become more imperative since the typical Lorraine and Utica faunas of New publication by Weeks, in 1902, of the 'North York as to warrant the application of the American Geologic Formation Names.' This principle above stated. For this reason the pract
practise opposes the use of the same name for
different formations, even if widely separated name Maysville is here suggested for the strata
geographically and belonging to widely differat Cincinnati hitherto identified as Lorraine.
ent geological ages. In consequence the name Along the railroad south of Maysville, Ken
Saluda was suggested in a paper on the Cintucky, from the first cut a little over a mile
cinnati geanticline in southern Kentucky' in from town to the overhead bridge a mile north
place of Madison, and now the name Arnheim of Summit a magnificent series of exposures
is proposed in place of Warren. This has the gives a complete section of all the subdivisions
additional advantage of leading the investiof the Maysville division, from the Mount
gator to a type locality where the characterHope bed to the top of the bed formerly known
istics of the formation can be well studied. as Warren. The name Eden, well defined by Arnheim is a little village seven miles northOrton in the first volume of the ‘Geology of east of Georgetown in Brown County, 0.. Ohio, published in 1873, is revived for the and several miles east of the railroad from strata which in the 'Geology of Cincinnati' Georgetown to Sardinia, but is easily reached are identified as Utica. Whether the clay' by good pikes. It makes up by the excellency bed, four or five feet thick, containing Triar- of the exposures for its somewhat inconvenient thrus becki, at the base of the Eden division location. The section begins a short distance should be included in the Eden or not, is a south of town, at the Blue Banks, the first question which requires further study. On steep exposure along Straight Creek. Here the supposition that Triarthrus becki proves the base of the Waynesville bed is twenty-five this clay layer to be of the same age as the feet above the level of the creek, and the top Utica of New York, and that the Eden beds of the Arnheim bed consists of the nodular represent a later stage of deposition than the clay layer so characteristic of the exposures I'tica of New York, the clay bed containing of this bed in Warren County, 0. The base Triarthrus becki should be excluded from the of the Arnheim bed is a considerable distance Eden division. The writer, however, is not down the stream, where it rests upon the top prepared to assert that the clay bed in ques- of the Mount Auburn bed, which contains an tion is the only representative at Cincinnati abundance of Platystrophia lynx at the top. of the considerable thickness of black shales The thickness of the Arnheim bed is estimated struck in the gas and oil wells of northern approximately at sixty-three feet. Ohio, and there identified as Utica. Never- In attempting to trace the Liberty and theless, it may be convenient to have a name Whitewater beds in Indiana, the writer found for the Triarthrus horizon, and the name Ful- great difficulty in separating these beds at any ton layer is here adopted, not because Fulton considerable distance from the type localities; presents the best exposures, but because the for instance, at Madison, Indiana, and thenoe names of the other localities at which this southward. For this reason it has seemed horizon occurs are already in use. Fulton convenient to have a name for this part of the was formerly a suburb of Cincinnati, and now Richmond section, the Middle Richmond, forms part of the First Ward. The other when it is not found practicable readily to localities are in Taylors Creek, east of New- distinguish the smaller divisions. The name port; at the quarry along the railroad, about Versailles bed is here proposed. Along the 3. Geology of Cincinnati,' p. 55.
* Am. Geol., 1902.
road at the northern edge of Versailles, Ind., both the Hebertella insculpta horizon, at the base of the Versailles bed, and the Colum, naria layer, immediately below the massive Tetradium layer, at the base of the Madison bed, are well exposed.
The name Garrard, introduced by Campbell, in Folio No. 46, of the 'Geological Atlas of the United States,' 1898, may be used not only for the comparatively unfossiliferous ['pper Eden beds of central Kentucky, but also for the equivalent, often richly fossiliferous, beds farther north.
Finally, the reference of the beds underlying the Eden opposite Warsaw, Ky., on the Indiana side of the Ohio River, to the Point Pleasant beds of Orton may be asserted with greater confidence, since these lower beds have been studied along the Ohio River as far east as Stony Point, a mile and a half east of Higginsport. At Point Pleasant, O., a short distance west of the town, the base of the clay layer with Triarthrus becki occurs 113 feet above the level of the river. From this level downward almost 50 feet of rock are quarried. Between the level of the river road and the river, a vertical distance of fifty-five feet, the exposures are very poor, and no quarrying operations are carried on here. It is very evident that Professor Orton referred to the quarried rocks, when proposing the name Point Pleasant beds. As late as 1893, in volume VII. of the Geological Survey of Ohio,' p. 4, he states distinctly that the Trenton limestone is seen only in the Point Pleasant quarries, if at all in the state. Professor Orton did not regard the quarried rocks at Point Pleasant as equivalent to the Lower or River quarry beds opposite Cincinnati, although both lie directly below the Triarthrus becki layer, and in this he has been followed by other investigators. The present writer, on the contrary, after an examination of all the exposures along the Ohio River, has come to the opposite conclusion. The observations which lead to this result are chiefly the follow ing: The most characteristic and unbiquitous fossil in these beds all along the Ohio River
is Eridotrypa briareus. Even if this fossil eventually should be found in the Lexington limestone, it can not be common there, since so far it has not been detected at all. In the next place, Trinucleus concentricus is found in the upper part of these beds at many localities. It is present opposite Warsaw; opposite Cincinnati it was detected as low as eighteen feet below the top of the heavy limestone beneath the Eden section. At Point Pleasant it occurs in the upper part of the section. Whatever its range may be elsewhere, along the Ohio River it does not extend below the upper part of the rocks here identified as Point Pleasant beds. It certainly never has been found in rocks known to be of Lexington age. Again, the rocks are very much alike lithologically. This usually does not appear where the rocks have been quarried, but where much weathered along the hillsides, the similarity of the rocks at Point Pleasant and at Cincinnati often is very striking. For instance, on the hillside southwest of the railroad trestle at Foster, Ky., near railroad level, the dense, fine-grained limestones with numerous cross-sections of gastropods, and the coarse-grained, more crinoidal limestones, often wave-marked along the top, have an appearance very much like the long-exposed rocks in the Mohawkian section opposite Cincinnati. These features are not presented by the Lexington rocks in central Kentucky.
The total thickness of rocks to be included in the Point Pleasant beds, if this name is to
Am. Journ. of Sci., 1904, p. 329.
be retained, probably should be approximately one hundred feet. Below this level at Moscow, Carnestown, Foster and elsewhere, rocks appear which contain Callopora multitabulata, a characteristic Lexington fossil, identified by Bassler.
With the modifications suggested in the preceding lines, the Ordovician sections in Ohio and Indiana, and in the adjacent parts of Kentucky, may be classified as on p. 151.
Aug. F. FOERSTE. DAYTON, Ohio.
RECENT WORK OF THE WISCONSIN
ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The recent work of the Wisconsin Archeological Society shows that it is steadily increasing in strength. It has succeeded in having passed by the state legislature bill No. 195 A, which was introduced early in February of this year and approved June 10.
The passage of this bill is notable, since it is the first archeological measure of the state government, being the only one to receive the unanimous support of the legislature. Many such bills have been introduced during the past twenty-five years, but most of them never left the committee in which they were introduced. Every member of the society has given this legislation his hearty support. The officers profited by the fate of the several archeological bills introduced in the legislature of their sister state, Michigan, and sought advice from those interested in archeological work in that state. Profiting from the plans for work in Michigan, they have not only developed the plans, but have actually put many of them in force. They have also adopted some entirely new methods of securing information and of popularizing and disseminating it.
The officers of the society are confident that the bill is only a beginning with the popular government. By this state aid their work will be facilitated, for under the provisions of the bill all the bulletins of the society will be printed by the state. Its results, being thus brought before the citizens, will no doubt prove the right of the society to further aid from the state in the near future.
The bill, which is an amendment to section 341, of the statutes of 1898, provides that “There shall be printed by the state printer bimonthly, in pamphlet form, 1,500 copies of the transactions of the Wisconsin Archeological Society, on good quality book paper, uniform in style with the volumes heretofore published by said society, including necessary illustrations, not to exceed 25 pages for each copy. ... This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage and publication.” One hundred and thirty-three free copies of each issue are to be presented to the Wisconsin Free Library Commission for distribution among its traveling libraries.
One of the first publications to be printed under the provisions of the state printing grant will be a monograph' on ‘The Aboriginal Pipes of Wisconsin,' by the president of the society, Mr. George A. West. Mr. West has devoted time and money for years in securing the material upon which this monograph is based.
The society also contemplates the publication of catalogues of all the archeological specimens found in Wisconsin, including especially those now kept in institutions outside the state, in order that students of the archeology of Wisconsin may know what material is available and where it is.
The standing committee on landmarks of the Wisconsin Federation of Women's Clubs is cooperating with the Wisconsin Archeological Society. Miss Julia A. Lapham, daughter of the late Dr. Lapham, one of the greatest authorities on the archeology of Wisconsin, is chairman of this committee, which has sent circulars to the Women's Clubs of the state. These circulars ask for a report on the work done by each club in response to a general order urging the study of local history and archeology and that local action be taken to preserve ancient landmarks, including Indian mounds, and also that a Landmarks Day be arranged in each year's program. Records are sought of Indian trails, old military and territorial roads, trading posts, first buildings and their purposes, portages, ferries, ancient village sites, mounds, ancient 'garden-beds'