« PreviousContinue »
The main building is constructed of massive wood on a solid stone foundation and is covered with zinc plates for protection from moisture. The building contains an instrument room, a workshop, an office and rooms for the staff. The observatory is perfectly equipped with meteorological and seismological apparatus of the latest designs. A few yards north of the building there stands a high tower of iron construction (11.6 meters in height), on the top of which an anemometer rests. Prince Yamashina's self-registering anemoscope, Robinson's anemometer, Jordan's sunshine recorder and Richards's anemograph for the registration of the vertical component of the wind, are all placed on the upper plat form of this tower. To the west of the main building stands a thermometer shelter, in which thermometers, psychrometers with Assmann's ventilation arrangement, a hair-hygrograph and a thermograph of largest model are kept. Under this shelter, ten earth-thermometers are buried at different depths below the earth's surface, with perfect arrangements for the measurement of the surface and underground temperatures.
On the roof of the main building there may be found a lightning rod, wind vane, selfregistering and ordinary rain gauges and an anemometer. The instrument room is elegantly equipped with the best meteorological instruments, the more noteworthy of which are Richards's barograph of largest model, self-registering pluviometers, anemometers, mountain barometers, etc. These are placed on stone piers.
It is worthy of special mention that macroand micro-seismographs have been installed on a granite pier which rests on a gigantic rock. One of the seismographs is the famous horizontal pendulum seismograph devised by Professor F. Omori, the illustrious seismologist of Japan. All seismographs, including Gray's conical pendulum instrument and Ewing's horizontal pendulum seismograph, Fecord ordinary or strong earthquake motion
but fail to give reliable records of the very small or slow motions accompanying earthquakes and of pulsatory oscillations. Professor Omori has adopted the conical pendulum and has constructed a seismograph which can be made to give records not only of earthquakes, both ordinary and strong, but of very small or slow movements of the earth, accompanying earthquakes or due to distant earthquakes, of pulsatory oscillations and of slow changes of level.
In the International Seismological Congress, which was held at Strassburg in 1901, Professor Omori pointed out the importance of seismological observations on mountains and high elevations. No country had as vet undertaken seismological observations on mountains as high as Mt. Tsukuba, until Prince Yamashina equipped his observatory perfectly with seismological instruments. Since this establishment, many seismic phenomena have been observed, the most extraordinary of which were the horizontal movements of the earth's crust in January, 1902. The horizontal motion of microseismic nature which was east-westwise began at 11:09 P.M. on the fourth of January and lasted until the sixth. Again a movement of the same nature began on the twelfth of that month and lasted for a few days. The seismogram given by Omori's instrument shows that these movements began almost at the same hour on each day and ceased in the same way, and that the curves of oscillations are of the same nature. Horizontal movements of such intense character had never been observed before; the most remarkable fact is that nothing was recorded on the lower level.
In connection with this observatory, two base stations were established by Prince Yamashina. The first one is situated at the foot of the mountain, at the height of 36 meters above sea level. The second was built on the east side of the mountain at the height of 240 meters. All the important meteorological elements are here observed three times daily, besides being self-registered.
The personnel of the observatory consists of several observers and computers. As the positions of the director and meteorologists are
not yet filled, the observatory is under the the heading, 'Recent Additions to the Weather temporary charge of Dr. T. Okada, an assist- Bureau Library. These, it is to be noted, ant meteorologist in the Central Meteorolog- are arranged alphabetically, but the year is ical Observatory of Tokio, and who is one of not in all cases given. the ablest and most active among the young The following papers have appeared in rescientists of Japan.
cent numbers of the Review: The establishment of the Mt. Tsukuba No. 1, 1905, “Escape of Gases from the AtMeteorological Observatory by Prince Yama- mosphere,' by Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S., shina is certainly the initiative of a perma- reprinted from the London, Edinburgh and nent meteorological survey of the upper at- Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal mosphere in Japan, and there can be no doubt of Science, Vol. 7, June, 1904, 6th series, p. but that this generosity of His Imperial High- 620. A subject of theoretical interest in ness will prove eventually to be a great con- meteorology, but of great uncertainty. tribution to cosmical physics. As above men- Meteorological Charts of the Indian Ocean,' tioned, the topography of the mountain is by C. F. Talman. For some years the peculiarly favorable to the study of meteor- Meteorological Service of India issued daily ology and its allied sciences. Moreover, the synoptic weather maps of the Indian monsoon mountain lies on the route taken by many area, for the region between 36° N. Lat, and cyclones, so that the observations at this ob- 12° S. Lat. It has now been decided to exservatory will contribute as much to the study tend the field of observation over the greater of atmospheric motions, as they will to the part of the South Indian Ocean, and also to physics of the atmosphere in general.
include broad areas of the surrounding contiS. Tetsu TAMURA. nents and islands. This new enterprise is an Washington, D. C.
important step towards 'world meteorology,'
with successful long-range forecasting as the CURRENT NOTES ON METEOROLOGY.
ultimate end in view. MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW.
* Apparatus for Instruction in Physics and THERE is much of general scientific interest Meteorology,' by Professor C. Abbe. A few in recent numbers of the 1905 volume of the well-considered suggestions as to the inadMonthly Weather Review of the United States visability of using expensive and complicated Weather Bureau. This publication is becom- instruments in schools. Those who have seen ing more and more indispensable to students teachers and scholars trying to understand of meteorology, and is now well recognized as fully the workings of some of the more comone of the important meteorological journals plex instruments will cordially agree with of the world. One feature of the Review is Professor Abbe. the monthly list of ‘Recent Papers Bearing on No. 2, 1905, 'A Relation between Autumnal Meteorology. This bibliography of current Rainfall and the Yield of Wheat of the Folliterature would be far more useful if some lowing Year,' by W. N. Shaw, secretary of system of listing titles were adopted other than the Meteorological Council. Read before the that now used. At present the articles are Royal Society, February 2, 1905. The author listed under the names of the different journals finds that the dryness of the autumn is the and other publications. These names are not dominant element in the determination of the given alphabetically, and while the number of yield of wheat of the following year in Great the volume is given, the year is not included. Britain. This is one of the few investigaWhere so much space is allotted to these tions which lead to a fairly definite and direct bibliographical lists, it is much to be regretted relation between crop yield and the variation that some more systematic, and hence more of some meteorological element. useful, scheme of listing is not adopted. With 'High Water in the Great Lakes,' by Prothe first number of the 1905 volume a new fessor A. J. Henry. The outlook for the preslist of recent publications is started, under ent season of navigation is not favorable to a
continuation of the high water of 1904, al. though this will probably rank as a season of relatively high water, especially on the upper lakes.
'The Diurnal Periods of the Temperature,' by Professor F. H. Bigelow. One of Professor Bigelow's studies on the. diurnal periods in the lower strata of the atmosphere, in which he undertakes a critical discussion of the results obtained from balloon and kite ascensions during the past ten years.
Mathematical Theory of Ice Formation,' by S. T. Tamura. A highly mathematical paper, summarizing what has been done along
done along this line by mathematical physicists and also suggesting new lines of investigation.
* The Fourth International Conference on Aerial Research, being an account of the meeting in St. Petersburg in September, 1904.
The Jeteorologia Generale of Luigi de Marchi.? A review of de Marchi's recent book, which is really a short treatise on physical meteorology.
In the Meteorologische Zeitschrift, No. 4, 1905, 0. V. Johansson has a paper entitled “Ceber den Zusammenhang der meteorologischen Erscheinungen mit Sonnenfleckenperioden.
Ciel et Terre, Vol. 26, 1905, No. 5, publishes a useful tabular summary of the temperatures (mean monthly) observed during recent Antarctic expeditions. This is the first summary of the kind which we have seen. It is accompanied by some notes on meteorological phenomena observed during these different expeditions.
The preparation of an index of weather maps illustrating typical conditions, as an aid in forecasting, is discussed by Captain W. Kesslitz in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift,
The actinometrical observations made by A. Hansky, on Mont Blanc, during 1900, are p. 422. Crova apparatus was employed. The value of 3.29 for the solar constant is given as probably the most accurate, on the basis of these observations.
R. DEC. WARD.
It is interesting to note the receipt of the First Report of the Transvaal Meteorological Department, containing the observations for July, 1903, to June, 1904, inclusive.
HARROW, as reported in the London Standard of June 8. has been alone among the public schools in the non-registration and in the non-publication of an annual series of weather observations. Recently a full equipment of meteorological apparatus, as well as a
s as well as a meteorological library, have been presented to the school. This should serve as an incentive to persons in the United States, where, in spite of much that is encouraging in the situation as regard meteorological instruction, there is still a great deal that needs attention.
Dr. W. J. S. LOCKYER, who has been paying special attention to the relation between solar changes and weather, has recently said (Nature, June 8, 1905), in a summary of recent work along these lines: " There is * * * no reason why we should take a pessimistic view of the attempts made to solve this fascinating riddle of the relationship between changes of solar activity and the vagaries of the weather.'
SCIENTIFIC VOTES AND NEWS. Dr. Nicholas MURRAY BUTLER, president of Columbia University, has received the doctorate of letters from Oxford University and the doctorate of laws from the University of Manchester. While in London Dr. Butler has been entertained by the chairman of the London County Council, the principal of London University, and at a banquet presided over by the minister of education.
The University of Edinburgh has conferred its honorary doctorate of laws on Professor W. S. Halsted, surgeon in chief of the Johns Hopkins University of Baltimore; Professor I. H. Cameron, of Toronto; Professor Francis J. Shepherd, of Montreal, and Professor W. W. Keen, the Philadelphia surgeon, all of whom are attending the celebration of the quarter-centenary of the Royal College of Surgeons.
LORD KELVIN and Sir William Christie have been elected honorary members of the Optical Society.
The Society of Chemical Industry held its The commencement address of the Case annual dinner in London on July 12, Dr. School of Applied Science, at Cleveland, was William H. Nichols, of New York City, pre- delivered by Dr. George T. Moore, of the Desiding. Speeches were made by Lord Alver partment of Agriculture, upon 'The Creation stone, Professor C. F. Chandler, of Columbia and Development of Plant Industries by the University, Sir William Huggins and others. Government.” Among the Americans present were Dr. H.
It is proposed to collect a fund in memory W. Wiley, of the U. S. Department of Agri
of the late Professor G. B. Howes, F.R.S., culture, and Professor Charles Baskerville, of
professor of zoology in the Royal College of the College of the City of New York.
Science, London, the fund to be used to purMR. JOHN HYDE, chief of the Bureau of chase an annuity for his widow and daughter. Statistics of the Department of Agriculture, Americans who wish to join in this memorial has resigned. In his letter accepting the may send subscriptions to Mr. Frank Crist. resignation, Secretary Wilson said: “I am
17 Throgmorton Avenue, London, E. C. familiar with your devotion to your work and
A CORRESPONDENT writes to The Nation: “I with the untiring efforts you have made to
have been watching for some notice in the render the bureau of the highest service to
Nation of the death of Dr. Washington Matgrowers, manufacturers and consumers of
thews. Among American ethnologists he farm products in our country, and I regret
ranked not lower than second. Without the that failing health should compel you to bring
horizon of genius to put him on a par with your work to an end.”
Bandelier, he had a distinction all his own. The Baly gold medal of the London College
In all American history, no other one man of Physicians, which is awarded every second
has known so intimately much about any year for the most distinguished work in
aboriginal tribe as Matthews did. His studies physiology, has been conferred on Professor
of the Navajo are the most exhaustive thing Pavlov, of St. Petersburg.
of their sort in all our anthropology. He was The Mary Kingsley medal of the Liverpool
an extremely modest man, without the gift of School of Tropical Medicine has been awarded
popularity, either in his writings or in his into Dr. Laveran, of the Pasteur Institute, Sir
tercourse. Of an extremely sweet and unselfish Patrick Manson, F.R.S., and Sir D. Bruce, disposition, and much beloved by those who F.R.S.
knew him, there was not a bit in him of selfLONDON UNIVERSITY has awarded the Rogers seeking or pushing to the front. He accepted, prize of £100 to Mr. B. J. Collingwood, M.B., with a whimsical patience, but with his eyes B.C., for his essay on "Anesthetics, their open, his latter-day function as the original Physiological and Clinical Action. The essay source from which a hundred popularizers' submitted by Dr. A. G. Levy, M.D., was highly built up notoriety for themselves, without commended, and the senate awarded him an credit to him. Ile was a real martyr-using honorarium of £50.
that abused word without abuse—both to his DR. Fred NEUFELD, assistant in the Berlin duty as an army surgeon and his duty as a Institute for Contagious Diseases, has been scientist; and the great mass of accurate and given the title of professor.
intimate research that he has left to us will Dr. BARTON W. EVER MANN, chief of the
always remain among the chiefs of the corner Division of Scientific Inquiry and ichthyol
in our scientific edifice.” ogist of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, has Sir William Muir, principal of the Univerbeen appointed curator of the Division of sity of Edinburgh from 1885 to 1903, died on Fisheries, U. S. National Museum. He still July 11, at the age of eighty-six years. retains his connection with the Bureau of DR. THEODOR CLEVE, professor of chemistry Fisheries.
at Upsala, died on June 18.
DR. JOHANN HIERMENEK, professor of hydromechanics at the Vienna School of Technolopy, died on June 15, at the age of forty-one years.
Tue '. S. cruiser Minneapolis, conveying Rear-Admiral Chester. superintendent of the Varal Observatory, and the other members of the American expedition which will observe the eclipse of the sun at Bona, Algeria, and Valencia, Spain, on August 29, which sailed from New York on July 3, ar
on July 3. ar rived at Gibraltar on July 15. The auxiliary cruiser Dixie and the supply steamer Cæsar, having on board the instruments and materials for the observation stations, have also reached Gibraltar.
The French Association for the Advancement of Science will meet during next week at Cherbourg.
The Royal Institute of Public Health announces that a congress on that subject will be held in London from July 19 to 23, and that papers will be read on discussion held under the various sections of (A) preventive medicine, (B) municipal administration of the Education Acts, (C) child study and school hygiene, (D) engineering and building construction, (E) bacteriology and chemistry, (F) veterinary hygiene, (G) tropical hygiene, and (H) naval and military hygiene.
The American Medical Association, at its recent Portland meeting, adopted a resolution drawn up by Dr. Liston H. Montgomery, of Chicago, advocating the creation of a new cabinet position to be known as the Department of Public Health, the secretary of which is to rank with other cabinet officers.
The French minister of public instruction has proposed a grant of 35,000 francs to enlarge the meteorological observatory on Puy
has also been made for the study of terrestrial physics and meteorology. The Royal Society has the permanent nomination to two posts, each of which includes a living room in the hostel, a bench in the laboratory and the use of apparatus; but the expenses of living and of special researches must be borne by the investigators. The laboratory is especially connected with the University of Turin, but is under the immediate direction of a committee.
In connection with the International Exposition to be held this year at Liège, Belgium, under the patronage of the Belgian government, there will be a second session of the International Congress of Agricultural Education on July 28 and 29.
A Reuter telegram from Paris says: The International Congress on Colonial Agriculture was opened on June 22, Great Britain, Holland, Germany, Italy, Portugal, the United States, Mexico and Brazil being represented. Various papers were read, including one by Mr. Webster, one of the British delegates, on the cultivation of tea in Ceylon. The members of the congress decided to form an international committee for the study of all questions relating to agricultural science and colonial industries. An organizing committee, with headquarters in Paris, under the chairmanship of M. de Lanessan, has been formed. In the afternoon the foreign delegates were received by the municipality at the Hotel de Ville, where a luncheon was given in their honor.
The Journal of the American Medical Association says: At a banquet in aid of the funds of the London School of Tropical Medicine, at which $50,000 was subscribed, Sir Patrick Manson gave a lucid account of the work of the school and sketched a plan for systematic and coordinated research in tropical disease centers. This consists in the establishment of colonial research laboratories in places where they are likely to achieve profitable results. Already three such laboratories have been established-in Ceylon, at Kuala Lumpur, in the federated Malay states, and in Hongkong. Sir Patrick Manson suggested