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investigators in Oregon, who, by reason of their great distance from the scientific centers, are unable to attend the annual scientific convocations and congresses. Many other persons, also, who are not engaged professionally in scientific work have realized the need of organized effort in the interest of the development of the scientific resources of the state. In response to this spirit a call was issued by Mr. Edmund P. Sheldon, upon consultation with others, for a meeting to be held February 4, 1905, in the rooms of the John Burroughs Club, Portland.
At this meeting about thirty persons were present. Mr. Edmund P. Sheldon was elected temporary chairman: Dr. Drake. secretary. Plans of organization were discussed and a committee was appointed to draw up constitution and by-laws for an academy of science. Upon this committee were appointed Professor G. E. Coghill, Pacific University, chairman; Professor A. R. Sweetser, State University; Messrs. M. W. Gorman, Schmidt and Ross Nicholas, of Portland. A committee was appointed, also, to confer with the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition Commission with regard to arranging for a scientific congress in connection with the Lewis and Clark Centennial Esposition.
Following the business session a paper upon 'The Bacteriology of Water' was presented by Professor A. R.'Sweetser. The paper in cluded an account of the author's investigation of the water supply of certain cities and towns of the Willamette Valley. Special attention was given to the water supply of Portland, which was found to be exceptionally free from liability to bacterial contamination. A device for conveying specimens of water long distances at low temperature for bacteriological examination was exhibited and discussed.
The second meeting for organization was held February 18, Mr. Sheldon presiding; Professor C. E. Bradley, secretary. Constitution and by-laws were adopted, and the organization was formally completed under the name of 'The Oregon State Academy of Sciences. The following officers were elected:
President-Edmund P. Sheldon, superintendent of forestry, fish and game, Lewis and Clark Exposition Commission.
Vice-Presidents—A. R. Sweetser, professor of biology, University of Oregon; A. B. Cordley, biologist of the Oregon Agricultural College; Catherine McConnell, teacher of chemistry and physiology, Portland High School.
Recording Secretary-J. A. Lyman, professor of chemistry, Portland Academy.
Corresponding Secretary-G. E. Coghill, professor of biology, Pacific University.
Treasurer—M. W. Gorman, botanist, Portland.
Librarian and Director of Museum-L. L. Hawkins, capitalist, Portland.
Trustees--L. L. Hawkins; Dr. James Withycombe, director of the experiment station of the Oregon Agricultural College; Edward A. Beals, U. S. Weather Bureau, Portland.
The constitution provides for monthly meetings, and for special meetings which will no doubt be held annually with a view to calling together the scientists of the northwest.
Two of the regular meetings have already been held. On March 18 a paper was presented by G. E. Coghill on “The Taste Organs of Vertebrates. On April 18 Mr. Edmund P. Sheldon read a paper on 'Forestry in the United States. The paper considered the methods and aims of the forester, the significance of forestry to the nation, and to the state of Oregon especially. Mr. Sheldon's excellent treatment of the subject called forth a spirited discussion of our local and national methods of dealing with the forestry problem.
GEORGE E. Coquill,
THE TORREY BOTANICAL CLUB. The meeting of May 31 was held at the American Museum of Natural History, President Rusby in the chair and eleven persons present.
The first paper on the scientific program was by Dr. C. Stuart Gager, and was entitled
Preliminary Notes on the Effect of Radioactivity on Plants. Plants grown in the presence of radium are subject to four different influences: (1) The a-rays, composed of a stream of material particles bearing a charge of positive electricity; (2) the B-rays, made up of a stream of particles 1/2000 the size of those of the a-rays and carrying a charge of negative electricity; (3) the y-rays, analogous to X-rays, but much more penetrating; (4) the emanation, which in a process of 'decay,' gives off a-rays as described, and eventually the ß- and y-rays mentioned above. The emanation behaves as a very heavy gas and may be condensed on a solid surface at a temperature of —150° C. The influence of radium upon plants, therefore, is of the nature of radiant energy.
The radium was employed in the form of the salt, radium bromide, of three strengths of activity, 1,500,000, 10,000 and 7,000 enclosed in sealed glass tubes, and also in the form of celluloid rods and cylinders covered with Lieber's radium coating of 10,000 and 25,000 activity. The glass shuts off practically all the a-rays, the B-rays penetrate through the glass more easily, while the y. rays pass through glass very readily. By the use of the coated rods and tubes all three kinds of rays are available as well as the emanation.
The experiments indicate that the rays act as a stimulus, which varies in intensity with the strength and amount of radium used, the thickness of the seed-coats, distance of exposure and the intervention of moist soil between the radium and the plant. If the stimulus ranges between a minimum and an optimum germination and subsequent growth are accelerated. Within these limits the rate of alcoholic fermentation is at first increased, but continued exposure may result in overstimulation and consequent decrease in rate.
By over-stimulation germination and growth of seeds, gemmæ of Hepaticæ, and pollen grains are retarded and may be completely inhibited. Under the influence of the rays chloroplasts change their position in the cell. as under too intense illumination, and they are eventually destroyed, as is embryonic tissue in stems and roots.
Results similar in kind to the above are obtained by the use of radio-tellurium in a sealed glass tube. The influence here is confined chiefly to the a-rays. Experiments with
a rod coated with pollonium, which gives off a-rays exclusively, have thus far given negative results.
Growth is retarded and may be inhibited by growing plants in an atmosphere containing the radium emanation, such as may be drawn from a cylinder lined with Lieber's coating.
Photographs of the experiments and specimens of the various radio-active preparations were exhibited.
The second paper, entitled “Some Interesting Plants from Colombia,' was by Dr. H. H. Rusby. .
In view of the lateness of the hour Dr. Rusby stated that he desired to reserve his paper as planned for some future meeting, when he could take the time to treat it more adequately, and for the present he would show some of the more interesting specimens and briefly comment on the same.
The collections were made by Herbert H. Smith, who spent four years collecting in the United States of Colombia near the town of Santa Marta, which is about fifty miles from the coast in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Although this territory was collected over quite extensively by Karsten, whose collections are at St. Petersburg and consequently not readily accessible, and by Wm. Purdy, and various orchid collectors, Mr. Smith's efforts disclosed many novelties.
The total collection studied contained about 3,000 numbers, embracing between 2,300 and 2,400 species, of which number about fifteen per cent. are likely to prove new to science.
The specimens exhibited were most interesting, embracing arborescent Viola some twining Senecios, showy Vacciniaceæ, numerous anomalous Compositæ, and many other things undreamt of by collectors in temperate climes. EDWARD W. BERRY,
DISCUSSION AND CORRESPONDENCE. EXOGLOSSUM EAST OF THE DELAWARE BASIN.
TO THE EDITOR OF SCIENCE: In the issue of June 30, last, Mr. H. W. Fowler, of Philadelphia, writes on the occurrence of Exoglossum maxillingua (Le Sueur), in the Delaware basin. It may be of interest to know that Exoglossum also occurs east of the Delaware basin. I caught one in 1899, in Peckman's Brook where the Morris Canal crosses the brook near Little Falls, Passaic Co., N. J. If Exoglossum is not indigenous to the Passaic basin it may have reached there from the Delaware River viâ Musconetcong River and Lake Hopatcong. This lake is the summit feeder of the Morris Canal. The fish lived for many months in an aquarium. It has the feeding habits of the suckers and remains mostly near the bottom.
EUGENE Smith. HOBOKEN, N. J.
SPECIAL ARTICLES. DISCOVERY OF THE COMANCHE FORMATION IN
SOUTHEASTERN COLORADO." During a visit to the Two Butte in Prowers County, Colo., some time ago, I found that a small local uplift east of the butte reveals the
als the Comanche formation filled with characteristic Gryphæa corrugata. The locality is on the main, or South Butte Creek, four miles westnorthwest of the old town of Albany, or five miles east-northeast of the Two Butte. To the east and west the low bluffs in the valley consist of Dakota sandstone rising gently towards the Two Butte laccolith and the general anticline extending north and south in the southeastern portion of Prowers County. The Comanche beds are exposed just southwest of Mechling's Ranch in a small local anticline and they extend for some distance along the south side of the creek, in low bluffs capped by Tertiary deposits. The lowermost member annearing is a dark shale more or loss sandy, grading upward into a friable, brown sandstone, in part calcareous. The fossils occur in great abundance in the sandstone and sparingly in the dark shale. Owing to overlap of Tertiary sands and gravels, the precise relation to the Dakota sandstone is not clearly revealed, but it is apparent that the Comanche
the Comanche beds lie a very short distance below the main Dakota ledges appearing to the eastward, al
though probably separated by some dark, nonfossiliferous, sandy shales which lie at the base of the Dakota cliffs in a gorge extending eastward. Probably the Red beds lie at no great distance below, but they do not appear in the immediate vicinity. A few miles west, about Two Butte, the Red beds, with their capping of Exeter sandstone, and included limestone, are extensively exposed. Down stream a short distance, east of Two Butte, the Exeter sandstone is seen to be overlain by shales and limestone of typical Morrison formation, in turn capped by Dakota sandstone. No traces of Comanche beds were found in this vicinity. It was hoped that the relations of the Morrison and the Comanche formations could be ascertained in this general region, but, owing to the apparent failure of the former to reappear in the uplift near Mechling's Ranch, no evidence was obtained on this point.
In December, 1902, Mr. Willis T. Lee gave the Geological Society of America an account of the extension of the Morrison formation down the Cimarron Valley to Exeter, Oklahoma, and the discovery of a low anticline ten miles farther east, in which the Dakota sandstone is underlain by fossiliferous Comanche beds.
Another item of interest which I observed in the vicinity of Two Butte uplift was the occurrence of oyster shells in considerable numbers in the Dakota sandstone on Butte Creek just below the Downing Ranch, three and a half miles due east of Two Butte and constituting a ten-foot bed a half mile southeast of Pilleau's Ranch on the headwaters of the North Fork of North Butte Creek, five miles north by east of Two Butte.
N. H. Dartox. C. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.
SOME OF THE RESULTS OF THREE YEARS' EXPERI
MENTS WITH CROWN GALL. The diseases ordinarily classed as crown gall are found on the following plants: almond, a almond, apple, apricot, ash, blackberry, chestnut, cherry, grape, hop, oak, peach, pear, plum,
Summary of a lecture given at the annual meeting of the American Association of Nursery. men at West Baden Springs, Ind., June 15, 1905. prune, poplar, quince, raspberry, rose, walnut and willow. Of a number of these, little is known of their nature. Those of the apple, pear and quince are similar in nature, and are not yet proven to be contagious. Those of the almond, apricot, blackberry, cherry, peach, plum, prune and possibly chestnut and walnut, are similar in nature and origin, and are often very contagious. Those of the grape and rose appear to be slightly contagious, but can not be classed with either of the preceding groups with our present knowledge. The crown gall or root galls of the hop contain a slime mold, a Plasmodiophora resembling Plasmodiophora brassicæ. No study has been made at the laboratory of the disease on the other plants mentioned in the list, but these will be taken up at once in connection with the others.
* Published by permission of the director of the U. S. Geological Survey.
Careful experiments with apple, quince and pear seedlings raised from sterilized seed in sterilized soil, watered with sterilized water, indicate strongly that both the apple and pear crown gall of the ordinary hard type, the one deroid of numerous side roots or 'hairy roots, is not contagious. These seedlings of apple, pear and quince inoculated with insertions of live apple and pear galls beneath the bark and wood of the roots, and also with minced galls in the soil, remained free from disease in both the control and inoculated portions of two years' experiments. Carefully selected apple seedlings grown in the nursery were inoculated both in the greenhouse and in field plots. In the experiments for two years the average result from such inoculations was ten per cent. of diseased plants in the inoculated portion and fifteen per cent. in the control portions of the plot. All galls were counted, whether located on the plant at the place of inoculation or not. Extensive inoculation of apple root grafts in the field for two years gives an average of 27 per cent. of plants with galls both in inoculated and control portions of the plots. About 10,000 apple trees were used in the above sets of experiments.
The ordinary apple crown gall is of two types, the one a more or less woody gall with no roots growing from it, the other with few to numerous roots present. The former type has been used in the experiments just described. There is in addition a diseased form called “hairy root' in which numerous side roots branch from a stunted root. Galls may or may not occur in connection with this form, which is now considered a distinct disease, and which is at present under investigation.
The crown galls of the peach, plum, cherry, raspberry, almond and apricot have been proved by careful inoculation experiments with seedlings of each grown from sterilized seed in sterilized soil, watered with sterilized water, to be one and the same disease on each . of these plants. Peach and raspberry are most susceptible to wound inoculation, but also become diseased in infected soil without artificial wounds being made. This disease has not been contagious on the apple, pear and quince.
The results from an experiment with 300 two-year-old apple trees, 175 of which were diseased and 125 healthy, all trees being selected with care to have a uniformity of size and root system, indicate that the disease has no immediate effect on the duration of the life of the tree where other diseases do not enter. At the end of one year, five of the healthy trees and seven of the diseased had died, and no difference in the growth and appearance of the two classes of trees could be noted. This experiment will be continued for a number of years. Field observations bear out the conclusion that the disease does not often kill young trees, as has been asserted.
There is present on the roots of some apple seedlings, and more rarely on grafted apple trees a gall growth of a softer nature, more like that on the stone fruits, and which may prove to be of a slightly contagious nature. A study is being made of this type and the 'hairy root’ disease, which also occurs on the cherry and peach. Grafted apple trees often have as high as 50 per cent. of diseased trees, budded trees, on the other hand, usually have
embodying a portion of the results of an investigation at the Mississippi Valley Laboratory of the L'. S. Department of Agriculture (Dr. Hermann ron Schrenk in charge).
only a small per cent. affected. Most of the we owe thanks to the illustrious Prince Yamagalls on grafted trees occur at the lower end shina. His Imperial Highness has selected of the scion at the point of union of the root for his observatory Mt. Tsukuba, a remarkand scion. Much of the work of the previous able mountain, which stands lonely on a most two years is being repeated this year, field extensive plain, isolated from all mountain plots in eight different localities having been ranges, and which is, moreover, on that part planted with 120,000 apple seedlings and root of the Island Empire where cyclones of a very grafts.
intense character frequently pass by. GEORGE GRANT HEDGCOCK. Mt. Tsukuba is situated on the eastern coast
of Japan, forty miles north-northeast of MT. TSUKUBA METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATORY,
Tokio. The shape of the mountain is quite FOUNDED BY H. 1. H. PRINCE YAMASHINA.
conical and its summit splits into two peaks, Since the time of Pascal it appears to have
the western and the eastern. These peaks are been recognized that the exploration of the
one half mile distant from each other, the upper atmosphere is one of the most impor
west peak being the higher of the two. tant for the advancement of cosmical physics.
Though only 2,925 feet, or 870 meters, in So long as this ocean remains unexplored,
height, Mount Tsukuba has a commanding modern meteorology will remain at a stand
view over Musashino, the most extensive plain still, since the thermal, electrical, and dy
in Japan. Still grander is the view southnamic conditions of this ocean are in great measure responsible for the meteorological
westward from the top of the mountain. The conditions at the earth's surface. Many bal
city of Tokio and innumerable towns are loon ascents and kite experiments have, there
dimly visible on the plain. Many miles before, been undertaken from time to time, and
yond, the snow-capped summit of Mt. Fuji, many mountain observatories have been estab
the volcanic peak of the Asama, and the holy lished in Europe and elsewhere by men who
mountains of Nikko form a magnificent panodetermined to capture the secrets of the upper
rama. Toward the south there is nothing
visible but the vast Pacific Ocean fading away In Japan, too, the importance of the ex into infinite space. The whole mountain is ploration of the upper atmosphere has been covered with pines and cryptomerias, a recognized ever since the organization of the summits are dotted with legendary curiosities meteorological service in 1875. Many meteor- and shrines, the largest of which latter are ological expeditions to high mountains have sacred to Izanagi and Izanami, the first god been undertaken by the officials of the Central and goddess of the mythological Japan. The Meteorological Observatory at Tokio, and by legend is that Izanagi and Izanami conthose of the provincial stations, to investigate structed this mountain as a bulwark against the phenomena and processes in the high the waves of the Pacific, which they had strata of the atmospheric ocean. For instance, forced to retire to the other side of Kashima, to Mt. Fuji (3,720 meters above sea level) formerly an island in the sea. This tradition during every summer since 1889; to Mt. is in accordance with the fact, recently veriGosaishodaké (1,200 meters) in 1888; to Mt. fied by Japanese geologists, that the east coast Ontaké (3,060 meters) in 1891; to Mt. Ishi- of Japan has been gradually rising during zuchi (1,980 meters) in 1894; and to several many centuries past. In the midst of this other mountains whose heights range from region of poetry and legend our prince-scien3,000 meters to 740 meters. But all these tist has established his meteorological observaexpeditions have been undertaken only in the tory on the top of the west peak, which, with warmest season of the year, on account of the its two base stations, has been in active operaimpracticability of long residence on the sum- tion since the first of January, 1902. The mits in winter time. For the establishment geographical coordinates of the observatory of a first permanent mountain observatory, are: