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that, instead of diminishing general liberty, shall augment it; which is, by restoring to the people a species of liberty of which they have been deprived by our laws, I mean the liberty of the cudgel! In the rude state of society prior to the existence of laws, if one man gave another ill language, the affronted person might return it by a box on the ear; and if repeated, by a good drubbing : and this without offending against any law; but now the right of making such returns is denied, and they are punished as breaches of the peace, while the right of abusing seems 10 remain in full force; the laws made against it being rendered ineffectual by the liberty of the press.
My proposal then is, to leave the liberty of the press untouched, to be exercised in its full extent, force, and vigour, but to permit the liberty of the cudgel to go with it, pari passu. Thus, my fellow.citizens, if an impudent writer at. tacks your reputation-dearer perhaps to you than your life, and puts his name to the charge, you may go to him as openly and break his head. If he conceals himself behind the printer, and you can nevertheless discover who he is, you may in like manner waylay him in the night, attack him behind, and give him a good drubbing. If your adversary hires better writers than him. self, to abuse you more effectually, you may
hire brawny porters, stronger than yourself, to assist you in giving him a more effectual drubbing. Thus far goes my project, as to private resenta ment and retribution. But if the public should
ever happen to be affronted, as it ought to be with the conduct of such writers, I would not advise proceeding immediately to these extremities, but that we should in moderation content ourselves with tarring and feathering, and tossing them in a blanket.
If, however, it should be thought that this proposal of mine may disturb the public peace, I would then humbly recommend to our legislators, to take up the consideration of both liberties, that of the press, and that of the cudgel; and by an explicit law mark their extent and limits : and at the same time that they secure the person of a citizen from assaults, they would likewise provide for the security of his reputation.
PAPER: A POEM.
The thought was happy, pertinent, and true;
Various the papers various wants produce;
Pray note the fop-half powder and half lacemat
Mechanics, servants, farmers, and so forth,
Less priz'd, more useful, for your desk decreed,
The wretch whom av'rice bids to pinch and spare,
Take next the miser's contrast, who destroys
The retail politician's anxious thought
The hasty gentleman, whose blood runs high,
What are our poets, take them as they fall,
Observe the maiden, innocently sweet,
One instance more, and only one I 'll bring ;
ON THE ART OF SWIMMING. In answer to some enquiries of M. Dubourg* on
the subject. I AM apprehensive that I shall not be able to find leisure for making all the disquisitions and experiments which would be desirable on this subject. I must, therefore, content myself with a few remarks.
* Translator of Dr. Franklin's works into French.
The specific gravity of some human bodies, in comparison to that of water, has been examined by M. Robinson, in our Philosophical Transactions, volume 50, page 30, for the year 1757. He asserts, that fat persons with small bones float most easily upon water.
The diving bell is accurately described in our transactions
When I was a boy, I made two oval pallets, each about ten inches long, and six broad, with a hole for the thumb, in order to retain it fast in the palm of my hand. They much resemble a painter's pallets. In swimming I pushed the edges of these forward, and I struck the water with their flat surfaces as I drew them back. I remember I swam faster by means of these pallets, but they fatigued my wrists.--I also fitted to the soles of my feet a kind of sandals ; but I was not satisfied with them, because I observed that the stroke is partly given with the inside of the feet and the ancles, and not entirely with the soles of the feet.
We have here waistcoats for swimming, which are made of double sail-cloth, with small pieces. of cork quilted between them.
I know nothing of the scaphandre of M. de la Chapelle.
I know by experience that it is a great comfort to a swimmer, who has a considerable distance to go, to turn himself sometimes on his back,
and to vary in other respects
the means of procuring a progressive motion,
When he is seized with the cramp in the leg, the method of driving it away is to give to the parts affected a sudden, vigorous, and violent shock; which he may do in the air as he swims on his back.
During the great heats of summer there is no danger in bathing, however warm we may be, in rivers which have been thoroughly warmed by
But to throw oneself into cold spring , water, when the body has been heated by exercise in the sun, is an imprudence which may prove fatal. I once knew an instance of four young men, who having worked at harvest in the heat of the day, with a view of refreshing themselves plunged into a spring of cold water: two died upon the spot, a third the next morning, and the fourth recovered with great difficulty. A copious draught of cold water, in similar circum. stances, is frequently attended with the same effect in North America.
The exercise of swimming is one of the most healthy and agreeable in the world. After hay. ing swam for an hour or two in the evening, one sleeps coolly the whole night, even during the most ardent heat of summer. Perhaps the pores being cleansed, the insensible perspiration increases and occasions this coolness. It is certain that much swimming is the means of stopping a diarrhoea, and even of producing a constipation, With respect to those who do not know how to swim, or who are affected with a diarrhæa at a