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inhabitants of the conquered states were naturalized.

It was a powerful state in a narrow territory. What may you call the Second Period ?

2. The vigorous Youth of Rome. Describe it as to its employment, and as to time. The subjugation of lower Italy. B.C 509–267 242

years. Give a general idea of this period.

Domestic confusion, and war with the Italian States. Mention some of these wars.

Etrurian, Sabine, Volscian, Veii, Samnite, and Tarentine. What was the state of the Romans at its close ?

They were masters of lower Italy.
Who were the Tribunes of the people ? B.C. 492.

1. Magistrates created to preserve the rights of the people. What remarkable law was made, B.C. 471 ?

The law of Publilius Volero. What was that law ? That the Tribunes, the legal defenders of the commons,

should be solely elected by them, (i.e. by the commons themselves), entirely apart from all patrician influence, and be competent to pass resolutions upon

all affairs of state. What was its effect ? The Roman constitution was now in a great measure a

democracy; for the supreme authority passed very Whence were they derived or obtained ?

much into the hands of the commonalty. Give a general idea of the Tribunes. They possessed great power, which they soon grossly

abused. Who were the Decemvirs ?

2. Ten men appointed to digest a code of laws; B.C. 451. What were these laws called ?

The laws of the Twelve Tables.

From Athens and other Grecian states.
What was the leading feature at Rome in this period ?
The commons struggled for office and


&c. Mention a few leading events of this period.

War against Veii, 406: Veii taken by Camillus, 396.
The Gauls under Brennus take Rome: Allia: Camillus.
Three Samnite wars, 343, 326, 298; ended 290.
Tarentine war: Pyrrhus: 280—272: S. Italy subju-

gated, 266. What do you call the Third Period of Rome? 3. Its Vigorous Manhood; Republican, not convulsed ;

267-133 134. Mention the principal wars (only foreign) in this period. 1. First Carthaginian war; 264–241: Regulus, Duilius;

Hanno, Hamilcar. 2. First Illyrian war; 229, 8: the queen Teuta subdued. 3. War with the Gauls, trans- and cis-alpine; 225—222. 4. Second Illyrian war; 219: Upper Italy a Roman

province. 5. Second Carthaginian war; 218 -- 201 : Hannibal,

Scipio. Zama. 6. First Macedonian war; 199—196. Philip. 7. Syrian war; 191, 190: Antiochus: battle of Magnesia;

the foundation of the Roman power in the East. 8. Second Macedonian war; 171–168: battle of Pydna. Rome is now in the eye of prophecy the

IV. (ROMAN) EMPIRE. 9. War with the Celtiberians in Spain, 153, &c. 10. Third Carthaginian war; 149–146. Carthage razed :

(Corinth, Greece, &c., see page 280.) 11. Third Macedonian war; 148 ; against Andriscus. 12. Numantine war; 143--133; Numantia taken and

destroyed by Scipio.

Notice the dawn of Roman literature. 2. Fabius Pictor, historian, fl. B.C. 225. Plautus, writer

of comedies, fl. 224. First Library at Rome, 168; the books were from Macedonia. Polybius, historian, f. 167. Terence, comedies, died 159. Pacuvius,

painter and poet, died 131. What was Rome now?

The chief nation in the world. What do


call the Fourth Period of Rome? 4. The time of Civil Discord: corruption and strife: B.C.

133430 103. Mention some foreign and domestic events, 1. Legislation and fate of Tiberius and Caius Gracchus;

129_121. 2. War in Transalpine Gaul; 125–116. 3. Jugurthine war; 111-106: Metellus, Marius, Sylla. 4. War against the Cymbri and Teutones; 113-101:

Carbo, Marius. 5. Servile war in Sicily; 102–99: a million of slaves

are said to have been destroyed. 6. Marsic or Social war; 90–88: Marius, Sylla. 7. First Mithridatic war; 88–84: Marius, Sylla. 8. Second Mithridatic war ; 83: Muræna. 9. First Civil war; 88—82: Sylla, Marius. Marius died

86. Sylla dictator, 82; Abdicated 79; died 78.

“The Robespierre of Roman history." 10. Second Civil war; 77, 76: Lepidus and Pompey. 11. War against Sertorius in Spain ; 78—72: Metellus

and Pompey. 12. Servile war; Italy: Spartacus : 73–71: Crassus. 13. Third Mithridatic war; 74-63: Tigranes; Lucullus,

Pompey. 14. War against the Pirates ; 67: Pompey. 15. Pompey subdues Palestine, and takes Jerusalem; 63.


16. Catiline's conspiracy; 63, 62. .
17. First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, Julius Cæsar, 60.
18. Cicero banished; 58: recalled, 57.—Crassus defeated

and killed by the Parthians, 53.
19. Cæsar's nine campaigns in Gaul; 58–51: invaded

Britain, 55, 54. 20. Third Civil war began; 49: Cæsar and Pompey. 21. Battle of Pharsalia, in Thessaly ; 48: Pompey was

defeated. 22. Alexandrine war, 48, 47. Battle of Thapsus, 46.

Battle of Munda, 45. 23. Cæsar consul for 10 years; Dictator and Censor for

life; 45. 24. Cæsar slain in the Senate House by Brutus and

others; 44. 25. Second Triumvirate; 43. Octavianus, Antony, Lepi

dus. 26. Two battles of Philippi; 42. Cassius, Brutus, fell. 27. Antony defeated at the battle of Actium ; 31.

28. Octavianus sole ruler of the Roman world. What is the Fifth Period of Roman History.

5. Imperial: era of Emperors: B.C. 30—A.D. 476. Divide this period. 1. From Augustus to Constantine, B.C. 30—A.D. 312.

-2. In the West to A.D. 476, when Ancient History ends.—3. In the East to 1453; Constanti

nople taken by the Turks. What great event took place in the 27th year of Augustus,

(A.M. 4000) 4 years before A.D.?
What countries did the Roman Empire now embrace ?
1. In Europe; Italy, Gaul, Spain, part of Germany,

Britain, Illyria, Greece.
2. In Asia; Asia minor, Syria, Media, Armenia.

3. In Africa; Egypt, Libya, Numidia, Mauritania. What do you say of Roman literature ?

It was for the most part of Grecian origin. Mention a few of their best authors. 1. Historians. Livy, Sallust, Tacitus.—2. Poets. Lucre

tius, Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Juvenal, Persius.—3. Philosophers. Cicero, Seneca.-4. Orators. Cicero, Hortensius, Julius Cæsar, Cato.--5. Natural History. The

elder Pliny.—6. Letters. Cicero, the younger Pliny. What may you account the classic or literary period ?

From Terence, B.C. 166, to Juvenal, A.D. 128. What do you call the brightest part of this period ?

The Augustan age.

Between Augustus and Augustulus we have 74 emperors; of whom we only take a cursory notice, dividing them thus: 1. Twelve Cæsars ; to A.D. 96: many of them were

monsters. 2. Then five good emperors; to A.D. 180: security,

peace, good government. What were the names of these five better men ?

Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. Who followed these? 3. Commodus; A.D. 180–192. Then military despotism

prevailed; the Prætorian guards disposed of the empire; A.D. 193–284. to the time of Diocletian:.

about 28 emperors in 96 years. What followed this? 4. The Period of Partitions ; A.D. 284-476. Decline

of the empire more and more rapid: 28 emperors. How was Christianity treated ? It was seldom favoured; generally opposed; repeatedly

persecuted: but still it was diffused, and powerful in all quarters.

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